|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Chinese Wikipedia. (March 2013)|
Xīróng (Chinese: 西戎; literally "Western Rong") or Rong (Chinese: 戎; pinyin: Róng; Wade–Giles: Jung) was the collective name of various ancient nomadic tribal people who inhabited primarily in and around the extremities of ancient Huaxia, typically to the west of the Zhou state (such as Gansu and Ningxia, etc.) from the Zhou Dynasty (1046 – 221 BCE) onwards. They were mentioned in some ancient Chinese texts as perhaps related to the people of the Chinese civilization.
About a thousand years after the Zhou Dynasty, the 7th century commentary to the Hanshu by Yan Shigu says: "Among the various Rong in the Western Regions, the Wusun's shape was the strangest; and the present barbarians who have green eyes and red hair, and are like a macaque, belonged to the same race as the Wusun."
After the Zhou Dynasty, the term usually referred to various peoples in the west during early and late medieval times. Prusek suggests relations between the Rong of Zhou and the Ren (人) tribes known in Shang.
The western Rong together with the eastern Dongyi, northern Beidi, and southern Nanman were collectively called the "Four Barbarian Tribes". Spade-foot three-legged pottery vessels as well as one and two handled pots were primary cultural characteristics of the Xirong.
According to Nicola Di Cosmo, 'Rong' was a vague term for warlike foreigner. He places them from the upper Wei River valley and along the Fen River to the Taiyuan basin as far as the Taihang Mountains. This would be the northwestern edge of what was then China and also the transition zone between agricultural and steppe ways of life.
- c. 964 BCE: King Mu of Zhou defeated the Quanrong and the following year attacked the Western Rong and Xurong.
- 859 BCE: King Yi of Zhou (Ji Xie): Zhou capital attacked by the Rong of Taiyuan.
- 877-841 BCE: King Li of Zhou: Western Rong and Xianyun raid deep into Zhou territory
- 827-782 BCE: King Xuan of Zhou sends the State of Qin to attack Western Rong who submit and cede territory, sends the State of Jin against the Northern Rong (probably 788); following year destroys the RongJiang clan.
- 781-771 BCE: King You of Zhou is killed by the Quanrong, ending the Western Zhou.
- During the Western Zhou various Rong groups are interspersed among the cities of the North China Plain. It seems that the Beidi were pressing the Rong from the north.
- 714 BCE: Northern (Bei) or Mountain (Shan) Rong attack the State of Zheng.
- 706 BCE: The same group attacks Qi.
- 693-662 BCE: Duke Zhuang of Lu (魯莊公), ruler of the State of Lu has many wars with the Rong.
- 664 BCE: Shan Rong attack the State of Yan.
- 662 BCE: Beidi drive the Rong out of Taiyuan.
- 650 BCE: Beirong attacked by the States of Qi and Xu.
- after 650 the Rong are rarely mentioned. They seem to have been mostly absorbed by the States of Qi and Jin.
- 314 BCE: Qin defeated the last hostile Rong tribe. Threats from unified nomadic incursions would eventually reappear under the Xiongnu identity during the subsequent Qin and Han Dynasties.
It is believed that the Quanrong during the Western Zhou-Warring States period(1122-476B.C.) spoke a Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages, and united with the Jiang clan to rebel against the Zhou.
The 7th century commentary to the Hanshu by Yan Shigu says: "Among the various Rong tribes in the Western Regions, the Wusun's shape was the strangest; and the present barbarians who have green eyes and red hair, and are like a macaque, belonged to the same race as the Wusun."
See also 
- Nicola Di Cosmo, Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History ,Cambridge University Press, 2004 pp.108-112.
- Yu, Taishan. (1998). A Study of Saka History,. Sino-Platonic Papers, Number 80. University of Pennsylvania. pp. 141–142.
- Book of Han, with commentary by Yan Shigu Original text 師古曰：「烏孫於西域諸戎其形最異。今之胡人青眼、赤須，狀類彌猴者，本其種也。」
- Prusek, Jaroslav. Chinese Statelets and the Northern Barbarians in the period 1400-300 BC. New York, 1971. p.38
- Cambridge History of Ancient China (1999) Chapter 13
- Nicola Di Cosmo in Cambridge History of Ancient China, page 924
- Mark Edward Lewis in Cambridge History of Ancient China, page 635
- Chapter 14 of Keightley,'The Origins of Chinese Civilization',1983
- Yu, Taishan. A Study of Saka History, (1998) pp. 141-142. Sino-Platonic Papers, Number 80. University of Pennsylvania.
- Book of Han, vol. 96b
- (in Chinese) "Exploring the roots of the Qin".
- (in Chinese) Ming Dynasty Record of 1574. Zhonghua Publishing. ISBN 7-101-00607-8.
- Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise. 7 volumes. Instituts Ricci (Paris – Taipei). Desclée de Brouwer. 2001. Vol. III, p. 555.
- A Hypothesis about the Source of the Sai Tribes. Taishan Yu. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 106. September, 2000. Dept. of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania.