Russian legislative election, 1995

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Russian legislative election, 1995
Russia
1993 ←
December 17, 1995
→ 1999

All 450 seats to the State Duma
226 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Gennady Zyuganov Crooped.png Zhirinovsky Vladimir.jpg
Leader Gennady Zyuganov Vladimir Zhirinovsky
Party Communist Party LDPR
Last election 42 64
Seats won 157 51
Seat change Increase 115 Decrease 13
Popular vote 15,432,963 7,737,431
Percentage 22.30% 11.18%
Swing Increase 9.9pp Decrease 11.74pp

  Third party Fourth party
  Viktor Chernomyrdin.jpg GAYavlinskiy.jpg
Leader Viktor Chernomyrdin Grigory Yavlinsky
Party Our Home – Russia Yabloko
Last election - 27
Seats won 55 45
Seat change Increase 55 Increase 18
Popular vote 7,009,291 4,767,384
Percentage 10.13% 6.89%
Swing - Decrease 0.97pp
Election results

Parliamentary elections were held in Russia on 17 December 1995.[1] At stake were the 450 seats in the State Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia.

Rules[edit]

The election law adopted for the 1995 election was similar to that adopted for the 1993 election, with some minor modifications. First, to secure a place on the proportional representation ballot, parties had to have registered with the Ministry of Justice no later than six months before the election, and the number of signatures they had to gather rose from 100,000 to 200,000. Second, invalid votes were now included in the calculation of the 5.0 percent threshold. Third, on the single-member district ballot, party endorsements of candidates were indicated.

Campaign[edit]

Out of the forty three parties and coalitions contesting the elections, only four cleared the 5% threshold to qualify for the proportional seats.

Pro-Government parties[edit]

Our Home – Russia had weightier resources and soon acquired the nickname of “party of power” for its reliance on elite political and economic office holders. It was also referred to as “Our Home Is Gazprom” for its close ties to Gazprom’s substantial financial resources. Most of the cabinet ministers joined the bloc, and a number of business leaders and regional political elites affiliated with it. However, almost no other parties entered it, and many SMD candidates who had initially affiliated with the party soon left it. One of the early parties to enter the bloc, Sergei Shakhrai’s Party of Russian Unity and Accord, also deserted it in August.[2] In the election, the Our Home Is Russia bloc took 10.1% of the vote, enough to form a faction in the Duma but not enough to serve as a dominant or pivotal force in parliament or in the regions. At its peak, the party claimed the membership of around one third of Russia’s governors. However, both the center and regional elites made only ephemeral commitments to Our Home is Russia.[3]

Opposition parties[edit]

As a result of these elections, the Communists and their satellites, the Agrarians and other left-wing deputies, controlled a little less than the half of the seats. The populist LDPR occasionally sided with the left majority, but often supported the government. As in the previous Duma, the parliamentary groups of independent deputies had a significant influence on the balance of power in the parliament.

On January 17, 1996 a Communist, Gennady Seleznyov, was elected the Speaker of the Duma.

Results[edit]

Party PR Constituency Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Communist Party 15,432,963 22.30 99 8,636,392 12.78 58 157 +92
Liberal Democratic Party 7,737,431 11.18 50 3,801,971 5.63 1 51 –19
Our Home – Russia 7,009,291 10.13 45 3,808,745 5.64 10 55 New
Yabloko 4,767,384 6.89 31 2,209,945 3.27 14 45 +12
Women of Russia 3,188,813 4.61 0 712,072 1.05 3 3 –22
Communists and Working Russia - for the Soviet Union 3,137,406 4.53 0 1,276,655 1.89 1 1 New
Congress of Russian Communities 2,980,137 4.31 0 1,987,665 2.94 5 5 New
Party of Workers' Self-Government 2,756,954 3.98 0 475,007 0.7 1 1 New
Democratic Choice of Russia–United Democrats 2,674,084 3.86 0 1,819,330 2.69 9 9 –85
Agrarian Party 2,613,127 3.78 0 4,066,214 6.02 20 20 –27
Derzhava 1,781,233 2.57 0 420,860 0.62 0 0 New
Forward, Russia! 1,343,428 1.94 0 1,054,577 1.56 3 3 New
Power to the People! 1,112,873 1.61 0 1,345,905 1.99 9 9 New
Pamfilova-Gurov-V. Lysenko 1,106,812 1.6 0 476,721 0.71 2 2 New
Trade Unions and Industrialists – Union of Labour 1,076,072 1.55 0 584,063 0.86 1 1 New
Environmental Party of Russia "Kedr" 962,195 1.39 0 304,896 0.45 0 0 0
Ivan Rybkin Bloc 769,259 1.11 0 1,073,580 1.59 3 3 New
Stanislav Govorukhin Bloc 688496 0.99 0 483281 0.72 1 1 New
My Fatherland 496,276 0.72 0 351,911 0.52 1 1 New
Common Cause 472,615 0.68 0 1 1 New
Beer Lovers' Party 428,727 0.62 0 57,946 0.09 0 0
All Russian Muslim Public Movement "Nur" 393513 0.57 0 49689 0.07 0 0
Transformation of the Fatherland 339,654 0.49 0 227,822 0.34 1 1 New
National Republican Party of Russia 331,700 0.48 0 0
30 Words Bloc 323,232 0.47 0 0
Party of Russian Unity and Accord 245977 0.36 0 285654 0.42 1 1 –26
Russian Lawyers' Association 242,966 0.35 0 96,046 0.14 0 0
For the Motherland! 194,254 0.28 0 213,723 0.32 0 0
Christian-Democratic Union - Christians of Russia 191,446 0.28 0 0
38 Word Bloc 145704 0.21 0 0
People's Union 130,728 0.19 0 70,685 0.1 0 0
"Tikhonov-Tupolev-Tikhonov" Bloc 102,039 0.15 0 65,458 0.1 0 0
Russian Union of Workers of Residential-Communal Management 97,274 0.14 0 115,386 0.17 0 0
Social Democrats 88,642 0.13 0 233,269 0.35 0 0
Party of Economic Freedom 88,416 0.13 0 199,150 0.29 1 1 New
Russian All-People's Movement 86,422 0.12 0 224,779 0.33 0 0
Bloc of Independents 83,742 0.12 0 375,287 0.56 1 1 New
Federal Democratic Movement 82,948 0.12 0 86,519 0.13 0 0
Sociopolitical Movement "Stable Russia" 81,285 0.12 0 159,226 0.24 0 0
Duma-96 55,897 0.08 0 108,672 0.16 0 0
Frontier Generations 44,202 0.06 0 13,429 0.02 0 0
Bloc '89 40,840 0.06 0 175,459 0.26 1 1 New
Interethnic Union 39,592 0.06 0 169,746 0.25 0 0
All-Russian Sociopolitical Movement of Transport Workers 162,263 0.24 0 0
Democratic Russia and Free Trade-Unions 158,040 0.23 0 0
Non-Party-Based Voters' Political Movement "Common Cause" 148,584 0.22 0 0
Sociopolitical Movement "Education is Russia's Future" 129,399 0.19 0 0
Union of Patriots 118,441 0.18 0 0
Christian Democratic Union - Christians of Russia 102,335 0.15 0 0
Union of Russian Muslims 65,688 0.1 0 0
Union of Communists 62,181 0.09 0 0
Party of Supporters of Tax Reduction 61,519 0.09 0 0
Democratic Alternative 61,252 0.09 0 0
Conservative Party 57,351 0.08 0 0
Bloc of leaders of 8 parties 51,928 0.08 0 0
Russian Party 43,221 0.06 0 0
Union of Patriotic Orthodox Organisations 42,269 0.06 0 0
Economic Alternative 37,622 0.06 0 0
We are Serving for Russia! 35,535 0.05 0 0
League of Independent Scientists 28,666 0.04 0 0
National-Republican Party of Russia 27,197 0.04 0 0
Social Alliance "Revival" 27,032 0.04 0 0
Russian Union of Local Self-Government 21,427 0.03 0 0
Our Future 18,488 0.03 0 0
Faith, Labour, Conscience 14,639 0.02 0 0
Russian Party of Car Owners 8,088 0.01 0 0
People's Salvation Front 1,881 0.00 0 0
Workers' Collectives and Greens for the Union of Co-Owners 1,442 0.00 0 0
European Liberal Democratic Party 154 0.00 0 0
Independents 21,620,835 31.99 77 77 +47
Against all 1,918,151 2.77 6,660,495 9.85
Invalid/blank votes 1,320,619 1,582,227
Total 69,204,819 100 225 69,167,934 100 225 450 0
Registered voters/turnout 107,496,856 64.4 107,496,856 64.3
Source: University of Essex, Nohlen & Stöver

Parliamentary Groups[edit]

Parliamentary group Leader Seats (Jan.'96)[1]
Communist Party of the Russian Federation Gennady Zyuganov 139
Our Home - Russia Sergei Belyaev 65
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia Vladimir Zhirinovsky 49
Yabloko Grigory Yavlinsky 45
"Regions of Russia (Independent Deputies)" Oleg Morozov 44
People's Power Nikolai Ryzhkov 41
Agrarian Group Nikolay Kharitonov 35
Democratic Choice of Russia (unregistered) Sergey Yushenkov 6
Independents 19
Total 450

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1642 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Belin&Orttung 1997, pp. 34-36
  3. ^ Hale, 2006, pp. 208-209; McFaul, 2001, p. 205