Communist Party of the Russian Federation
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia. (February 2013)|
|Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации
|Deputy Leader||Ivan Melnikov|
|Slogan||"Russia! Labour! People’s Power! Socialism!"|
|Founded||February 14, 1993|
|Newspaper||Pravda, more than 30 regional editions|
|Youth wing||Leninist Young Communist League|
|Political position||Left-wing to Far-left|
|International affiliation||International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties|
|Continental affiliation||Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
|Seats in the State Duma|
|Seats in the Regional Parliaments|
|Politics of Russia
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF/KPRF) (Russian: Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is a communist party in Russia. The party is often viewed as the immediate successor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which was banned in 1991 by then-President Boris Yeltsin. It is the second largest political party in the Russian Federation, after United Russia. The youth organisation of the party is the Leninist Young Communist League. The party is administered by the Central Committee.
The CPRF was founded at the Second Extraordinary Congress of Russian Communists on 14 February 1993, as the successor organisation of the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. As of 1 January 2012, the party has 81 regional divisions and 156,528 members. The areas where the party has a high concentration of supporters are called "the Red Belt".
The party's stated goal is to establish a new, modernised form of socialism in Russia. Immediate goals of the party include the nationalisation of natural resources, agriculture, and large industries within the framework of a mixed economy that allows for the growth of small and medium enterprises in the private sector.
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology
- 3 Party structure
- 4 Popular support and electoral results
- 5 Criticism
- 6 Gallery
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation was founded on 14 February 1993 at the Second Extraordinary Congress of Russian Communists, where it declared itself to be the successor of the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (CPSU). It formed through the merger of a variety of successor groups to the CPSU, including Roy Medvedev's Socialist Party of the Working People, Alexei Prigarin's Union of Communists, and much of the membership of the Russian Communist Workers Party (although party leader Viktor Anpilov rejected the new party.) The CPRF quickly became the largest party in Russia, with 500,000 members soon after its founding, more than double all the other parties membership combined.
Gennady Zyuganov, a co-founder of the party along with senior former Soviet politicians Yegor Ligachev and Anatoly Lukyanov among others, was elected to be party leader at the Second Extraordinary Congress. Zyuganov had been a harsh critic of Alexander Yakovlev, the so-called "godfather of glasnost", on the CPSU Central Committee. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 he became active in the Russian "national-patriotic" movement, being the chairman of the National Salvation Front (some authors call him a nationalist.)
Following the CPRF's success in the 1995 legislative election, it emerged as the primary opposition to incumbent President Boris Yeltsin for the 1996 presidential election, whose approval rating was in single digits. In order to oppose Yeltsin, Zyguanov organized a "popular-patriotic bloc" of nationalist organizations to support his candidacy. After the election, on 7 August 1996, the coalition supporting him was transformed into a official organization, the People's Patriotic Union of Russia (NPSR), consisting of more than 30 left-wing and right-wing nationalist organizations, including the Russian All-People's Union, led by Sergey Baburin. Zyuganov was its chairman. It went on to support Zyuganov in the 2000 presidential election. The NPSR was meant to form the basis of a two-party system, with the NPSR opposing the ruling "party of power."
The party suffered a sharp decline in the 2003 legislative election, going from 113 seats to 52. Zyuganov called the 2003 elections a "revolting spectacle", and accused the Kremlin of setting up a "Potemkin party", Rodina, to steal its votes.
In the 2012 Presidential election Zyuganov denounced election irregularities in the 2011 legislative election, but also expressed his opposition to the organizers of the mass demonstrations of December 2011, which he views as orchestrated by ultra liberals who are exploiting unrest. The party played only a minor role in the protests. Party rallies on December 18, 2011 in protest of election irregularities in Moscow and Saint Petersberg were attended by only a few thousand, mostly elderly, party supporters.
The party's current program was adopted in 2008, where the CPRF declared that it is the only political organization that consistently upholds the rights of the workers and national interests. According to the program, the strategic goal of the party is to build in Russia a "renewed socialism, socialism of the 21st century". The program of the Communist Party declared that the party is guided by Marxism–Leninism, based on the experience and achievements of domestic and world science and culture. According to the party there comes a "confrontation between the New World Order and the Russian people with its thousand-year history, and with its qualities", "communality and great power, deep faith, undying altruism and decisive rejection of lures mercantile bourgeois liberal-democratic paradise".
According to its program, the CPRF considers it necessary to reform the country in three phases. In the first phase, it is needed to achieve workers' power through representation by a coalition led by the CPRF. Achieving this goal will help eliminate the devastation from the standpoint of the party, the consequences conducted in the past decade of reforms, in particular, by the nationalization of property privatized in the 1990s. In this case, however, small producers will remain, and, moreover, will be organized to protect them from robbery by "big business, bureaucrats, and mafia groups". It is planned to reform the management of enterprises through the creation of councils at various levels. The party also plans to transform Russia into a Soviet republic.
In the second stage the role of councils and trade unions will increase even more. The economy will be made a gradual transition to a socialist form of economic activity, however, a small private equity is still retained. Finally, the third phase is to build socialism.
Under the present conditions in the Russian Federation, the Communist Party believes it is necessary to:
- Stop the extinction of the country, restore benefits for large families, reconstruct the network of public kindergartens and provide housing for young families.
- Nationalize natural resources in Russia and the strategic sectors of the economy; revenues in these industries are to be used in the interests of all citizens.
- Return to Russia from foreign banks the state financial reserves and use them for economic and social development.
- Break the system of total fraud in the elections.
- Create a truly independent judiciary.
- Carry out an immediate package of measures to combat poverty and introduce price controls on essential goods.
- Not raise the retirement age.
- Restore government responsibility for housing and utilities, establish fees for municipal services in an amount not more than 10% of family income, stop the eviction of people to the streets, expand public housing.
- Increase funding for science and scientists to provide decent wages and all the necessary research.
- Restore the highest standards of universal and free secondary and higher education that existed during the Soviet era.
- Ensure the availability and quality of health care.
- Vigorously develop high-tech manufacturing.
- Ensure the food and environmental security of the country and support the large collective farms for the production and processing of agricultural products.
- Prioritize domestic debt over of foreign (to compensate for household deposits, burnt in the disastrous years of "reform").
- Introduce progressive taxation; low-income citizens will be exempt from paying taxes.
- Create conditions for development of small and medium enterprises.
- Ensure the accessibility of cultural goods, stop the commercialization of culture, defend Russian culture as the foundation of the spiritual unity of multinational Russia, the national culture of all citizens of the country.
- Stop the slandering of the Russian and Soviet history.
- Take drastic measures to suppress corruption and crime.
- Strengthen national defense and expand social guarantees to servicemen and law enforcement officials.
- Ensure the territorial integrity of Russia and the protection of compatriots abroad.
- Institute a foreign policy based on mutual respect of countries and peoples to facilitate the voluntary restoration of the Union of States.
The party is in favour of cooperation with the Russian Orthodox Church. Unlike the Communist Party of the Soviet Union after 1956, the CPRF celebrates the rule of Joseph Stalin. The party supported a ban on the "promotion of non-traditional sexual relations to minors", mostly named a ban on "homosexual propaganda to minors" in Western media.
Since its founding the CPRF has had several distinct internal factions:
- Left-wing nationalists. CPRF leader Gennady Zyuganov is from this tendency. The left-wing nationalists in the party identify Socialism historically with Russia, and Russia culturally with Socialism. They are influenced by the writings of historian Lev Gumilev, and see class struggle as having evolved into struggle between civilizations.
- Marxist-Leninists. The Marxist-Leninist faction of the party has a traditional understanding of class struggle and Marxism. They are against both nationalism and social democracy. This tendency is heavily reflected in the party's rank-and-file membership. Richard Kosolapov is a prominent member of this group.
- Reformers. The party's reformers are social democratic or reform-communists, who have a generally critical view of the Soviet Union. This faction had a majority at the Second Extraordinary Congress but has declined since then.
The CPRF is legally registered by the Russian state. In organizational terms, it largely mirrors the CPSU, with the party being led by a Central Committee with a commitment to democratic centralism. It has regional offices in 81 federal subjects. Each regional office is controlled by the regional (oblast, city, etc.) Committee, headed by the First Secretary. The headquarters of the party is in Moscow. The Leninist Komsomol of the Russian Federation is the youth organisation of the party.
The party is controlled by the Central Committee. The Central Committee prepares papers on key issues on the basis of the programmes of the party and decisions of the congresses.
The current composition of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, as elected on 24 February 2013:
- Gennady Zyuganov
- Ivan Melnikov
- Vladimir Kashin
- Rashkin Valery
- Novikov Dmitry
- Yury Afonin
- Nikolai Vasilev
- Leonid Kalashnikov
- Klychkov Andrey
- Nikolai Kolomeytsev
- Boris Komotsky
- Sergei Levchenko
- Vladimir Nikitin
- Sergei Obukhov
- Valery Rashkin
- Sergey Reshulsky
- Valentin Romanov
- Nikolay Kharitonov
- Valentin Shurchanov
In 1993 the party founded the Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Since 2001, the organisation has been led by Gennady Zyuganov and it became part of the Central Committee.
Pravda is the newspaper of the Communist Party, it has more than 30 regional editions. The party has also a newspaper named Sovetskaya Rossiya (Soviet Russia). Sovetskaya Rossiya is a newspaper that is friendly to the party, and until 2004 the newspaper Tomorrow.
According to the financial report of the CPRF, in 2006 the party received 127,453,237 rubles (3,998,835 U.S. dollars):
- 29% - membership fees
- 30% - the federal budget
- 6% - donations
- 35% - other incomes
In 2006, the party spent 116,823,489 rubles (3,665,328 U.S. dollars):
- 5% - for the maintenance of regional offices
- 21% - on promotion (information, advertising, publishing, printing)
- 10% - the content of the governing bodies
- 7% - the preparation and conduct of elections and referenda
- 36% - content publishers, media and educational institutions
In 2008 the CPRF received 70% of its finance from the state budget of the Russian Federation. According to a report at the XIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, for 10 months of 2008, total income amounted to 148 million rubles, including 8 million rubles from charges membership fees, 36 million rubles from donations and 106 million rubles from government funding.
Popular support and electoral results
The CPRF is strong in large cities and major industrial and scientific centers ("naukograds"), as well as in the small towns and cities around Moscow. For example, one of the few polling stations that gave a success to the CPRF during the Russian legislative election of 2007 was at Moscow State University. The CPRF is also strong in the far east of Russia, in Siberia and the Urals.
In all presidential elections that have been held in the Russian Federation, the Communist Party's candidate has finished second. The party had allegedly won the presidential elections in 1996, but there was reports of widespread fraud committed for Yeltsin, Dmitry Medvedev has admitted that Zyuganov had actually won the election. Zyuganov received, according to the official results, 17.18% of the votes in the presidential election of 2012. According to independent observers, there was large-scale fraud in favor of Putin. He called the election "one of thieves, and absolutely dishonest and unworthy".
|Presidency of Russia|
|Election year||Candidate||First Round||Second Round|
| % of
| % of
|Election year||# of
| % of
overall seats won
Parliamentary election results by oblast
In the Moscow Duma election held on 4 December 2005, the Party won 16.75% and 4 seats. This was the best ever result for the CPRF in Moscow. In some observers opinion, the absence of the Rodina party contributed to the Communists' success.
On 11 March 2007, elections took place for 14 regional and local legislatures. The CPRF performed very well and increased its votes in most of the territories; it came second in Oryol Oblast (23.78%), Omsk Oblast (22.58%), Pskov Oblast (19.21%) and Samara Oblast (18.87%), Moscow Oblast (18.80%), Murmansk Oblast (17.51%) and Tomsk Oblast (13.37%). These results testify that the CPRF is the most significant opposition party in Russia.
On 21 May 2007, the CPRF obtained an important success in the Volgograd's mayoral election. Communist candidate Roman Grebennikov was elected as mayor with 32.47% of the vote. Grebennikov is the youngest mayor of a regional capital. But since Roman Grebennikov has switched allegiances to United Russia, angering many communists who accuse him of using the CPRF as a tool to become elected.
|Nenets Autonomous Okrug||25.86||20.51|
Marxist theoretician Boris Kagarlitsky writes: “It is enough to recall that within the Communist movement itself, Zyuganov's party was at first neither the sole organisation, nor the largest. Bit by bit, however, all other Communist organisations were forced out of political life. This occurred not because the organisations in question were weak, but because it was the CPRF that had received the Kremlin's official approval as the sole recognised opposition.” Andrei Brezhnev, grandson of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, has criticised the CPRF's Zyuganov's rapprochement with the Russian Orthodox Church.
Zyuganov with members of the Leninist Komsomol of the Russian Federation.
Demonstration of communists on the Red Square.
The Communist Party holds a demonstration on Triumfalnaya Square in Moscow.
The party lays down flowers at the tomb of Joseph Stalin.
- Bozóki, A & Ishiyama, J (2002) The Communist Successor Parties of Central and Eastern Europe, p241
- "Can Russia's Communist Party Make A Comeback?". 6 December 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- "Socialism may be waning, but not for young Russians". 22 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- American University (Washington, D.C.), and Moskovskiĭ gosudarstvennyĭ universitet im. M. V. Lomonosova. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, volume 4. Washington, D.C.: Quality Press of the Southern Tier, 1996. p. 174
- Richard Sakwa, Russian Politics and Society, Routledge, 1996, p. 85
- Bozóki & Ishiyama, p242
- Bozóki & Ishiyama, p245
- Who Are You, Comrade Zyuganov?
- The Communist Party in Post-Soviet Russia, by ''Luke March''. books.google.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- Russian politics and society - Google Books. books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- Bozóki & Ishiyama, p249
- Andrey Shabaev. "Партинформ. Материал последнего номера". www.partinform.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- David M. Herszenhorn (December 20, 2011). "Where Communists See an Opening, Many Russians See a Closed Door". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2011. "He, [Gennadi A. Zyuganov], has joined in popular protests against Mr. Putin’s government, while seeking to block the rise of the liberal reformers leading those rallies by denouncing them as a subversive threat to Russia’s future."
- Зюганов Г. А. Кадры партии в действии. — М.: ИТРК, 2001. — с. 11. — ISBN 5-88010-083-9
- "Thousands pay respects to Stalin". BBC News. 2003-03-06. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
- Bozóki & Ishiyama, p244
- Andrey Shabaev. "Российская многопартийность. Глава 5". www.partinform.ru. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- Bozóki & Ishiyama, p243
- "Оренбургский Областной Комитет КПРФ" (in Russian). Retrieved 2009-02-05. Unknown parameter
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- "Агентство Политических Новостей" (in Russian). Retrieved 2007-12-14. Unknown parameter
- Bozóki & Ishiyama, p253
- "Официальный сайт КПРФ". Cprf.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- Name: * (2001-01-17). "RUSSIA: Is there life for KPRF after Yeltsin? 17 January 2001 BY BORIS KAGARLITSKY". www.greenleft.org.au. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "THE SATURDAY PROFILE; A Different Kind of Brezhnev in the Making". The New York Times. 2002-08-10. Retrieved 2010-03-28.
- Lisa Horner "Communism and the CPRF in Modern Russia" • The School of Russian and Asian Studies (23.01.2009)
- Miriam Elder, "Communism: a love affair? The tyranny of daily bribes has many Russians nostalgic for Soviet social services" • The Global Post (14 October 2009) (updated 30 May 2010)
- KPRF ideology and its implications for democratization in Russia by Syed Mohsin Hashim. In: Communist and Post-Communist Studies volume 32, issue 1, March 1999, pp. 77–89.
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