Second United States Army

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Second Army
US Second Army.svg
Second Army shoulder sleeve insignia
Active October 1918 – April 1919;
October 1933 – January 1966;
July 1983 - July 1995;
March 2014 – present
Allegiance  United States
Branch  United States Army
Type Regular Army
Role Field army
Motto "Tout Préparé"
Engagements World War I
Commanders
Notable
commanders

William Simpson
Leonard T. Gerow
Edward H. Brooks

George Windle Read, Jr.
Insignia
Distinctive Unit Insignia 2nd Army DUI.jpg

Second Army is currently a Direct Reporting Unit to Headquarters U.S. Army, Chief Information Officer (CIO)/G-6. Under the CIO/G-6, Second Army serves as the single point of contact for Army missions and functions related to reporting on, assessing, planning, coordinating, integrating, synchronizing, directing and conducting Army network operations.

Second Army, American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), was first established in October 1918 during World War I. Second Army was re-activated in March 2014 as the numerical command for U.S. Army Cyber Command. Second Army is currently located at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, though it is moving to Fort Gordon, in Augusta, Georgia.[1]

History[edit]

Second Army, American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), was established in October 1918 during World War I and demobilized in April 1919. A new Second Army operated from 1933 to 1966, and 1983 to 1995, as a training army in the continental United States.

On October 1, 2010, U.S. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) was formed as the Army service component command supporting U.S. Cyber Command, commanded by Lt. Gen. Rhett A. Hernandez.[2] On 6 March 2014, Army headquarters activated Second Army as a direct reporting unit of Army CIO/G-6 with Commander, ARCYBER, dual-hatted as the Second Army Commander.[3]

World War I[edit]

The history of the Second Army began as a fighting army on the battlefields of France in the waning days of World War I. Eager to maintain a hard-fought momentum to drive the Germans out of France, on 10 October 1918, General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing, Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), selected Lieutenant General Robert L. Bullard to command the newly activated Second Army, AEF. Bullard, a Spanish–American War veteran, earned Pershing’s confidence and reputation as an aggressive commander, after leading the 1st Infantry Division during the battle of Cantigny. At Cantigny, Bullard delivered the first American victory of the war. Bullard’s orders for Second Army were to hold the line on a portion of the St. Mihiel sector along the Lorraine front. In November, General Pershing ordered Second Army to advance toward Metz. Bullard subsequently launched rigorous attacks against the Germans on 10 November. The 7th, 28th, 33d and 92d divisions, then on the Second Army front, began the attacks. Encountering stubborn resistance, Second Army made a considerable advance, recovering a total of approximately 25 square miles of French territory before the armistice terminated hostilities on 11 November. During its first month of combat operations, 102 soldiers serving under Second Army earned the Distinguished Service Cross. After the armistice, Second Army occupied an area in Belgium and Luxembourg, remaining there until the end of March 1919, and demobilized in France on 15 April 1919.

World War II[edit]

Second Army earned distinction as a training army during World War II, preparing nearly one million men to fight. The U.S. Army activated a new Second Army in October 1933, with headquarters at Chicago, Illinois, as one of four field armies that would help mobilize forces in event of a national emergency. In December 1940, the Army moved Second Army’s headquarters to Memphis, Tennessee, and designated it as a training army, which conducted training in 24 states. In June 1944, the Army reconstituted the World War I Second Army, AEF, and consolidated it with the existing Second Army in order to perpetuate the lineage and honors of the World War I unit. During World War II, Second Army trained 11 corps, 55 divisions, and 2,000 smaller units of all arms and services, composed of almost a million men, for employment in all theaters of operation.

Post-World War II[edit]

Second Army continued its training role after the war. In June 1946, Second Army moved its headquarters to Baltimore, Maryland, as one of six Continental Armies under the Army Ground Forces. Second Army encompassed the seven states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. In June 1947, Second Army Headquarters moved to Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. On 1 January 1957, the Army redesignated Second Army as Second United States Army, as one of the six Zone of Interior Armies of the United States. Second U. S. Army supported multi-purpose missions of command, operations, training and provisions of administrative and logistical services to ensure the continued operational readiness of its assigned combat and support units in the active Army, Army Reserves and National Guard.

At the height of the Cold War, Second U.S. Army helped mobilize forces for potential conflict. During the September 1961 Berlin Crisis, Second U.S. Army mobilized 39 National Guard and Army Reserve units in the seven state area and eight Army Reserve units from other Army areas. During the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, Second U.S. Army deployed 41 units, which comprised more than 5,700 military personnel.

Reorganizations within the U.S. Army led to Second U.S. Army being inactivated twice from 1966 to 1995. On 1 January 1966, First and Second U.S. Armies merged, resulting in the inactivation of Second U.S. Army. In July 1983, Second U.S. Army reactivated at Fort Gillem, Georgia, and assumed responsibility for Reserve Component matters in seven states and two territories formerly belonging to First Army. In July 1995, First Army left Fort Meade, Maryland, and reorganized at Fort Gillem, upon the inactivation of Second U.S. Army.

Army Cyber Command[edit]

The establishment of U.S. Army Cyber Command in 2010 earmarked the Army’s entry into the new operational domain of cyberspace and perpetuated the lineage and honors of Second Army. The 1 October 2010, Headquarters Department of the Army (HQDA) General Orders No. 2010-26, which established Army Cyber Command, stated that it would "perpetuate the lineage and honors of the Second Army as specified by the United States Army Center of Military History." The Army Center of Military History agreed to use the naming convention established for geographic Army Service Component Commands, which would not have numbered Army designations; that is, the designation would be U.S. Army Cyber Command and not "Second Army"; only the lineage and honors of Second Army would be assigned to Army Cyber Command. General Orders No. 2010-26 redesignated the inactive Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Second U. S. Army, as U.S. Army Cyber Command, with its headquarters at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.

On 6 March 2014, HQDA General Orders No. 2014-02, activated a new unit designated Second Army as a Direct Reporting Unit of the Army Chief Information Officer/G-6, HQDA, with the Commander, U.S. Army Cyber Command as the Commander, Second Army. The General Orders also resulted in the Second Army lineage and honors being withdrawn from Army Cyber Command and assigned to the new unit. The U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command (NETCOM), formerly a Direct Reporting Unit of the Chief Information Officer/G-6, HQDA, which supported Army Cyber Command’s mission, was assigned to Second Army in accordance with Title 10, United States Code, Section 162 (a) (2) to carry out the functions assigned to the Secretary of the Army in Titles 10, 40 and 44 United States Code. The resulting command and control arrangement, designating the Commander, U.S. Army Cyber Command, also as the Commander, Second Army, optimized the Army’s force structure to better support Army Cyber Command’s mission. The commander of NETCOM is dual-hatted as deputy commanding general (DCG), Second Army.[3]

Second Army serves as the single point of contact for Army missions and functions related to reporting on, assessing, planning, coordinating, integrating, synchronizing, directing and conducting Army network operations. Subject to coordination with Army Cyber Command, Second Army plans, coordinates, integrates, synchronizes, directs and conducts network defense measures within all Army networks, and as directed, within the Department of Information Networks. Mindful of the Secretary of the Army’s commitment to unity of effort, Army Cyber Command, Second Army and the CIO/G-6 maximize communication, coordination, and information sharing in the execution of these missions and functions. Unless otherwise directed by the Secretary of Defense, Second Army and its units are not available for assignment to a combatant command, or to execute missions assigned to a combatant command.[3]

Past Commanders[edit]

Date Began Date Ended Commanding General
October 1918 April 1919 Robert L. Bullard
August 1932 November 1933 Frank Parker
November 1933 February 1935 Preston Brown
February 1935 May 1936 Frank R. McCoy
May 1936 May 1936 Johnson Hagood
May 1936 September 1936 Dana T. Merrill (Acting)
September 1936 December 1936 Charles E. Kilbourne
December 1936 September 1937 William E. Cole (Acting)
September 1937 November 1938 Hugh A. Drum
November 1938 October 1940 Stanley H. Ford
October 1940 June 1943 Ben Lear
June 1943 March 1946 Lloyd R. Fredendall
March 1946 September 1946 William H. Simpson (Acting-October 1945)
September 1946 November 1947 Albert C. Wedemeyer
November 1947 January 1948 John T Lewis (Acting)
January 1948 August 1950 Leonard T. Gerow
August 1950 June 1951 James A. Van Fleet
June 1951 September 1953 Edward H. Brooks
September 1953 April 1956 Floyd L. Parks
April 1956 October 1957 Charles E. Hart
October 1957 August 1960 George W. Read, Jr.
August 1960 May 1962 Ridgely Gaither
May 1962 July 1964 John S. Upham, Jr.
July 1964 January 1966 William F. Train
July 1983 July 1985 Charles P. Graham
July 1985 December 1987 Johnny J. Johnston
December 1987 February 1990 Orren R. Whiddon
February 1990 July 1992 James W. Crysel
July 1992 December 1994 Samuel E. Ebbesen
December 1994 May 1995 Robert F. Foley (Acting)
May 1995 July 1995 Guy A. J. LaBoa
March 2014 present Edward C. Cardon

References[edit]

  1. ^ "On the Frontlines of Cyber War". 
  2. ^ "Army Cyber Command hosts first change of command". Belvoir Eagle. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "HQDA General Orders No. 2014-02" (PDF). 

External links[edit]