A self-induced abortion (or self-induced miscarriage) is an abortion performed by the pregnant woman herself outside the recognized medical system. Although the term can include abortions induced through legal, over-the-counter medication, it also refers to efforts to terminate a pregnancy through alternative, often more dangerous means. Such practices are illegal in most jurisdictions—even where abortion itself is legal—and may present a grave threat to the life of a woman. An unsuccessful attempt to induce such an abortion can also cause lasting damage to the fetus. Currently, this is fairly common where abortion is illegal or unavailable, but it does occur in developed countries as well. Self-induced abortion is easier to accomplish in the earliest stages of pregnancy (the first eight weeks from the last menstrual period).
- Lifting of heavy weights;
- Consumption of mutton marrow;
- Consumption of dried henna powder;
- Consumption of carrot seed soup;
There are a number of anecdotally recorded and disseminated methods of performing a self-induced abortion. Many of the following methods present significant danger (see below) to the life or health of the woman:
- physical exertion designed to bring about a miscarriage
- abdominal massage
- receiving punches, kicks, or other blows to the abdominal area
- bellyflopping onto a hard surface
- attempted removal of the fetus with a coat-hanger or similar device inserted into the uterus through the cervix (the historical use of this method has led to instances of its use as a symbol against the pro-life movement, illustrating dangers of barring state-condoned abortion)
- attempted piercing of the fetus with a knitting needle or similar device inserted into the uterus through the cervix
- suction through the insertion of a rubber tube into the uterus via the cervix
- ingesting abortifacients, Vitamin C megadosage, Pennyroyal or other substances believed to induce miscarriage
- douching with substances believed to induce miscarriage (beginning in the 1960s, many women used Coca Cola for this purpose, although its utility is at best dubious)
- vaginal pessaries
- acupuncture at points linked to miscarriage
In a letter to the New York Times, gynecologist Waldo L. Fielding wrote:
The familiar symbol of illegal abortion is the infamous “coat hanger” — which may be the symbol, but is in no way a myth. In my years in New York, several women arrived with a hanger still in place. Whoever put it in — perhaps the patient herself — found it trapped in the cervix and could not remove it.
However, not simply coat hangers were used.
Almost any implement you can imagine had been and was used to start an abortion — darning needles, crochet hooks, cut-glass salt shakers, soda bottles, sometimes intact, sometimes with the top broken off.
Dr. David Reuben's book Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid to Ask) mentions that many African women use a carved wooden abortion stick to induce, which has often been handed down.
Attempts to insert hazardous objects into the uterus are particularly dangerous, as they can cause punctures leading to septicemia. Ingesting or douching with harmful substances can have poisonous results. Receiving blows to the abdomen, whether self-inflicted or at the hands of another, can damage organs. Furthermore, the less dangerous methods - physical exertion, abdominal massage, and ingestion of relatively harmless substances thought to induce miscarriage - are less effective, and may result in the fetus developing birth defects. However, abdominal massage abortion is traditionally practised in Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia 
The cheap prescription synthetic prostaglandin drug Misoprostol - used in the U.S. to treat gastric ulcers - is often used as an abortifacient in self-induced abortion in Latin American countries where legal abortions are unavailable, and its use has also been observed in immigrant populations in New York. Although proponents of this method deem it to be safer than those using insertion of objects or chemicals into the uterus, they also note that failure to effect an abortion by this method can lead to the child being born with serious birth defects. Furthermore, the drug causes a drastic drop in blood pressure, and women may hemorrhage as a result of misusing the drug for the purpose of abortion.
In the United States
The practice of self-induced abortion by various means has long been recorded in the United States. Turn-of-the-20th-century birth control advocate Margaret Sanger wrote in her autobiography of a 1912 incident in which she was summoned to treat a woman who had nearly died from such an attempt.
A study concluded in 1968 determined that over 500,000 illegal abortions were performed every year in the United States, a portion of which were performed by women acting alone. The study suggested that the number of women dying as a result of self-induced abortions exceeded those resulting from abortions performed by another person. A 1979 study noted that many women who required hospitalization following self-induced abortion attempts were admitted under the pretext of having had a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion.
Although Roe v. Wade made abortion more readily available throughout the U.S., it remains a crime in most jurisdictions for a woman to attempt to perform an abortion on herself. In May 2005, Gabriela Flores - a Mexican immigrant living in South Carolina - was charged under such a statute, which carried a maximum penalty of two years in prison. She had induced abortion by ingesting misoprostol, an ulcer medication with abortifacient potential. Mississippi classifies self-induced abortions as deaths which affect the public interest, requiring that physicians report them to the local medical examiner. By contrast, New Mexico's "Unborn Victims of Violence Act" exempts self-induced abortion from the criminal liability the act creates.
- Thapa SR, Rimal D, Preston J (Sep 2006). "Self induction of abortion with instrumentation". Aust Fam 35 (9): 697–8. PMID 16969439.
- Sage-Femme Collective, Natural Liberty: Rediscovering Self-Induced Abortion Methods (2008).
- Khokhar, A.; Gulati, N. (2000). "Profile of Induced Abortions in Women from an Urban Slum of Delhi". Indian Journal of Community Medicine (Chandigarh, Republic of India: Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine) 25 (4): 177–80. ISSN 1998-3581. OCLC 60622662. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- Waldo L. Fielding, M.D., Tony Cenicola, ed., "Repairing the Damage, Before Roe", The New York Times (June 3, 2008).
- Tom Strode, "Berkeley sends coat hangers to Congress", LIFE DIGEST (December 15, 2009).
- Natural Ways to Induce a Miscarriage.
- Reuben, David (c. 1971). "Abortion". Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid to Ask) (17th ed.). Bantam. pp. 323–324. ISBN 055305570 Check
- Malcolm Potts, Martha Campbell, History of Contraception, Vol. 6, Chp. 8, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2002.
- Population Policy Data Bank maintained by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, Thailand: Abortion Policy.
- John Leland: "Abortion Might Outgrow Its Need for Roe v. Wade", The New York Times, 2 October 2005.
- Kathy Simmonds, Susan Yanow, Use of Misoprostol for Self-induced Abortion Around the World.
- Grimes DA, Benson J, Singh S et al. (2006). "Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic" (PDF). Lancet 368 (9550): 1908–19. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6. PMID 17126724.
- Margaret Sanger. An Autobiography. (New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1938).
- Richard Schwarz, Septic Abortion (Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Co., 1968).
- Bose C., A comparative study of spontaneous and self-induced abortion cases in married women. J Indian Med Assoc. 1979 Aug; 73 (3-4): 56-9.
- Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
- Mother Jones: Mail-Order Abortions. November/December 2006
- Sage-Femme Collective, Natural Liberty: Rediscovering Self-Induced Abortion Methods
- Mexican Immigrant May Face Two Years in Prison for Self-Induced Abortion Under South Carolina Law
- Abortion's Silenced Legacy
- Incidence of Induced Abortion in Southern Ghana
- Profile of Induced Abortions in Women from an Urban Slum of Delhi
- History and Efficacy of Emergency Contraception: Beyond Coca-Cola