Shangri-La

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This article is about the legendary fictional location. For other uses, see Shangri-La (disambiguation).
Shangri-La
Lost Horizon location
Creator James Hilton
Genre Novel
Type Valley

Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the 1933 novel Lost Horizon by British author James Hilton. Hilton describes Shangri-La as a mystical, harmonious valley, gently guided from a lamasery, enclosed in the western end of the Kunlun Mountains. Shangri-La has become synonymous with any earthly paradise, and particularly a mythical Himalayan utopia — a permanently happy land, isolated from the outside world. In the novel Lost Horizon, the people who live at Shangri-La are almost immortal, living years beyond the normal lifespan and only very slowly aging in appearance. The word also evokes the imagery of exoticism of the Orient. In the ancient Tibetan scriptures, existence of seven such places is mentioned as Nghe-Beyul Khembalung.[1] Khembalung is one of several beyuls ("hidden lands" similar to Shangri-La) believed to have been created by Padmasambhava in the 8th century as idyllic, sacred places of refuge for Buddhists during times of strife (Reinhard 1978).

Some scholars believe that the Shangri-La story owes a literary debt to Shambhala, a mythical kingdom in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which was sought by Eastern and Western explorers.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The phrase "Shangri-La" most probably comes from the Tibetan ཞང་,"Shang" - a district of Ü-Tsang, north of Tashilhunpo[3]" + རི, pronounced "ri", "Mountain" = "Shang Mountain" + , Mountain Pass, which suggests that the area is accessed to, or is named by, "Shang Mountain Pass".

Location[edit]

In China, the poet Tao Yuanming (陶淵明) of the Jin Dynasty (265–420) described a kind of Shangri-La in his work The Tale of the Peach Blossom Spring (simplified Chinese: 桃花源记; traditional Chinese: 桃花源記; pinyin: Táohuā Yuán Jì). The story goes that there was a fisherman from Wuling, who came across a beautiful peach grove, and he discovered happy and content people who lived completely cut off from the troubles in the outside world since the Qin Dynasty (221–207 BCE).[4] In modern China, the Zhongdian county was renamed to Xiānggélǐlā (香格里拉, Shangri-La in Chinese) in 2001, to attract tourists. The legendary Kun Lun Mountains (崑崙山) offer another possible place for the Shangri-La valleys.

A popularly believed physical inspiration for Hilton's Shangri-La is the Hunza Valley in northern Pakistan, close to the Chinese border, which Hilton visited a few years before Lost Horizon was published.[5] Being an isolated green valley surrounded by mountains, enclosed on the western end of the Himalayas, it closely matches the physical description in the novel. The Hunza Valley, however, lacks Tibetan culture and the Buddhist religion, so could not have been Hilton's cultural inspiration for Lost Horizon.

The cultural representation of Shangri-La is most often cited to be northwestern Yunnan Province, China, where National Geographic explorer Joseph Rock lived and traveled during the 1920s and early 1930s and wrote several articles in National Geographic magazine that are richly illustrated with superb photography. This coincides with the time when James Hilton would have been writing Lost Horizon, but there is no direct evidence to support this claim. The evidence points to another set of explorers. In a New York Times interview in 1936, Hilton states that he used "Tibetan material" from the British Museum, particularly the travelogue of two French priests, Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet, to provide the Tibetan cultural and Buddhist spiritual inspiration for Shangri-La.[6][7] Huc and Gabet travelled a roundtrip between Beijing and Lhasa in 1844–46 on a route more than 250 kilometres (160 mi) north of Yunnan. Their famous travelogue, first published in French in 1850,[8] went through many editions in many languages.[9] A popular "condensed translation" was published in England in 1928,[10] at the time that Hilton would have been getting inspired for — or even writing — Lost Horizon.

Today, various places claim the title, such as parts of southern Kham in northwestern Yunnan province, including the tourist destinations of Lijiang[citation needed] and Zhongdian. Places like Sichuan and Tibet also claim the real Shangri-La was in its[where?] territory. In 2001, Tibet Autonomous Region put forward a proposal that the three regions optimise all Shangri-La tourism resources and promote them as one. After failed attempts to establish a China Shangri-la Ecological Tourism Zone in 2002 and 2003, government representatives of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces and Tibet Autonomous Region signed a declaration of cooperation in 2004. Also in 2001, Zhongdian County in northwestern Yunnan officially renamed itself Shangri-La County.

Another place that has been thought[by whom?] to have inspired the concept of Shangri-La is the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon.

Television presenter and historian Michael Wood, in the "Shangri-La" episode of the BBC documentary series In Search of Myths and Heroes, suggests that the legendary Shangri-La is the abandoned city of Tsaparang in upper Satluj valley, and that its two great temples were once home to the kings of Guge in modern Tibet. It is speculated that Sang-la, Chitkul in Sangla valley near Indo-Tibet Border is Shangri-la. La in spiti/Kinnauri like in Tibetan Language is word for Mountain pass. Kamru Village in Sangla was the ancient capital of Bushahr which was a Buddhist state until conquered by Gurkhas.

American explorers Ted Vaill and Peter Klika visited the Muli area of southern Sichuan Province in 1999, and claimed that the Muli monastery in this remote region was the model for James Hilton's Shangri-La, which they thought Hilton learned about from articles on this area in several National Geographic magazine articles in the late 1920s and early 1930s written by Austrian-American explorer Joseph Rock.[11] Michael McRae unearthed an obscure James Hilton interview from a New York Times gossip column where he reveals his cultural inspiration for Shangri-La and, if it is any place, it is more than 250 km north of Muli on the route travelled by Huc and Gabet.[6][7] Vaill completed a film based on their research, "Finding Shangri-La", which debuted at the Cannes Film Festival in 2007.

On December 2, 2010, OPB televised one of Martin Yan's Hidden China episodes "Life in Shangri-La", in which Yan said that "Shangri-La" is the actual name of a real town in the hilly and mountainous region in northwestern Yunnan Province, frequented by both Han and Tibetan locals. Martin Yan visited arts and craft shops, local farmers as they harvest crops, and sampled their cuisine.

Cultural usages[edit]

There are a number of cultural usages of the Shangri-La idea that have developed since 1933 in the wake of the novel and the film made from it.

California's Ojai Valley was the location for the 1937 Frank Capra film Lost Horizon. The outdoor scenes of the villagers of Shangri-La and a cavorting Ronald Colman and Jane Wyatt were in fact filmed in nearby Sherwood Forest (Westlake Village) and Palm Springs. The exterior of the grand lamasery was built and later dismantled on the Columbia Ranch in Burbank, California.[12] However, according to film historian Kendall Miller in the photodocumentary bonus feature on the "Lost Horizon" DVD, an aerial shot of Ojai Valley taken from an outlook on Highway 150 was used to represent the Shangri-La valley.

In 1937, Lutcher Stark, a Texas philanthropist, started building his own Shangri-La in Orange, Texas. His Shangri-La was an azalea garden situated alongside a cypress-tupelo swamp. By 1950, thousands of people were traveling to Orange to visit Shangri La, and many magazines published photographs of it. In 1958, a major snowstorm struck east Texas,[13] destroying thousands of azaleas and closing the garden for 40 years. The garden has recently been renovated and is now open to the public once again.[14][15][16]

The Nazis, particularly Himmler, had an enthusiasm for things Asian, and hoped to find evidence in Tibet of an ancient "master race" similar to the Nordic race, unspoiled by Buddhism.[citation needed] They sent an expedition to Tibet, led by Ernst Schäfer in 1938.[clarification needed]

United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, being considerably fond of Hilton's novel, named the presidential retreat, now known as Camp David, "Shangri-La" in 1942. After the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo in April 1942, when asked where the bombers came from, he quipped "Shangri-La". Later in the war, the United States Navy would launch an Essex-class aircraft carrier named Shangri-La (CV-38), as a result of this reference.

The businessman Harold Nixon Porter established a nature reserve called Shangri-La in Betty's Bay in South Africa in 1955. The name was changed to Harold Porter National Botanical Garden when the reserve was bequeathed to the National Botanic Gardens of South Africa in 1959.[17]

There was a feature on Shangrila [sic] in the September 1952 issue of the EC comic Tomb of Terror

A 1960's rock girl group was called The Shangri-Las.

In 1969, The Kinks released their album Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire), which included the Ray Davies song "Shangri-La". The song went on to be released as a single in the UK.

In 1975, Led Zeppelin released the song Kashmir, which makes numerous references to the mythical city of Shangri-La.

The final track on the 1976 Electric Light Orchestra album, A New World Record, is called Shangri-La and refers to 'My Shangri-La' as a state of bliss.

Neil Innes' 1977 album Taking Off includes the track "Shangri-La".

In 1987, the 48th episode of Jem (TV series) was called "Journey to Shangri-La", in it the characters traveled to the Himalaya to search for the valley.

In Marilyn Mansons' 1994 album 'Portrait of an American family' a reference to Shangri-La is made in the song 'Snake Eyes And Sissies'

On The Rutles' 1996 album, "Archaeology" track 14 is named "Shangri-la" and there is reference to the place in the song.

Mark Knopfler's fourth solo album, released in 2004, is named "Shangri-La". It also contains the track "Our Shangri-La".

A vocalised piece of music from Final Fantasy 2, The Promised Land, also references Shangri-La during the course of the song.

Trouble in Shangri-La (2001) is the title of the sixth studio album by American singer-songwriter and Fleetwood Mac vocalist Stevie Nicks.

Stone Temple Pilots' fifth studio album, released in 2001, is named Shangri-La Dee Da.

Escape from Shangri-La is the title of a 1998 novel for children by British author, Michael Morpurgo.

Apu references Shangri-La in The Simpsons episode "Lisa's Date with Density".

A B-side to the 2002 Oasis single "The Hindu Times", "Idler's Dream" contains the lyrics "You're an Idler's dream and you're singing out Shangri-La".

A-Teens released a single entitled "Shangri la" from their 2003 album New_Arrival

The Arctic Monkeys song "Suck It and See" from the album of the same title contains the lyrics "Blue moon girls from once upon a Shangri-La".

Eiichi Ikegami wrote a novel titled Shangri-La published in 2005. An anime adaptation of the novel was released in 2008.

Glastonbury Festival created an after-hours area within the site called Shangri-La in 2009. It has evolved over the past three years each with a slightly different theme: In 2009 the socialist utopia became a dystopian pleasure city run by a corrupt regime. In 2010 the ruling administration was overthrown and the city was opened up to rebels and chancers to carve out their own little piece of paradise. The 2011 storyline was pre-apocalyptic — the population of Shangri–La prepared to flee a viral infection before the end of the world. During the festival's fallow year, 2012, the end of the world took place and in the 2013 theme became the afterlife. Shangri-La was divided between Shangri-Heaven and Shangri-Hell, combined to form the Shafterlife. In 2014, the two areas, Heaven and Hell, were themed - based around the perils of the traditional office workplace. 'Shangri- Hell' comprised a collection of self contained buildings all based on the departments of a corporations head-office. Some were in fact bars and other were display installations for amusement purposes. [18]

In 2006, the International Astronomical Union named the equatorial, dark, low-lying area of Saturn's moon Titan Shangri-la.[19]

In the 2007 video game Unreal Tournament 3, a deathmatch map is entitled Shangri-La.

In the 2008 film Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor, a "Shangri-La Stone" is used by the Dragon Emperor in order to find the location of Shangri-La and drink from the Pool of Eternal Life so he can raise his army from the dead.

The rap group Insane Clown Posse use Shangri-La as a concept of positive afterlife frequently.

Mother Love Bone, a pre-grunge band in Seattle, used Shangri-La as a metaphor in the song "This Is Shangrila" to describe the effects of heroin.

Shangri-La is referenced in the video games Uncharted 2: Among Thieves (2009), Journeyman Project 3: Legacy of Time, and Call of Duty: Black Ops (2011) as the name of a Call of Duty: Black Ops Zombies map as part of the game's DLC.

The Danish rock band Jupid Oak released their debut album in March 2013 entitled "Live in Shangri-La" referring to the house in which the band members lived together.

The American band Paramore reference Shangri-La in the song Be Alone from their self-titled album (2013).

The British band Tribes have a song named Looking For Shangri-la on their 2013 album Wish to Scream.

Jake Bugg released an album called 'Shangri-La' on 18th November 2013.

The rock band Grandaddy have a song on their album, Just Like The Fambly Cat named "Shangri-La".

The children's program Cyberchase includes Shangri-La as a setting for one of their episodes.

The last book of Peter Doherty is named "From Albion to Shangri-La"

British band Nightmares in Wax (changed band name to Dead or Alive) released a song called "Shangri-La" on their EP 'Birth of a Nation'.[20]

Grammatical usage[edit]

Shangri-La is often used in a similar context to "Garden of Eden", to represent a paradise hidden from modern man. It is sometimes used as an analogy for a lifelong quest or something elusive that is much sought. For a man who spends his life obsessively looking for a cure to a disease, such a cure could be said to be that man's "Shangri-La". It also might be used to represent perfection that is sought by man in the form of love, happiness, or Utopian ideals. It may be used in this context alongside other mythical and famous examples of somewhat similar metaphors such as The Holy Grail, El Dorado and The Fountain of Youth.

Various states, geographically and politically isolated from the West, have been termed Shangri-Las. These include Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Tuva, Mongolia, the Tocharian Tushara Kingdom of the Mahābhārata, and the Han Dynasty outpost Dunhuang.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Shrestha, Dr. Tirtha Bahadur; Joshi, Rabindra Man and Sangam, Khagendra (July 2009). The Makalu-Barun National Park & Buffer Zone Brochure. Makalu-Barun National Park. 
  2. ^ LePage, Victoria (1996). Shambhala: The Fascinating Truth Behind The Myth Of Shangri-La. 
  3. ^ Chandra Das - Tibetan English Dictionary
  4. ^ Yutang, Lin (translator). "The Peach Colony by Tao Yuanming". Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  5. ^ "Shangri-la Valley". Adventure Tours Pakistan. June 20, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  6. ^ a b Michael McRae. 2002. The Siege of Shangri-La: The Quest for Tibet's Sacred Hidden Paradise. New York: Broadway Books.
  7. ^ a b B.R. Crisler. 1936. Film gossip of the week. The New York Times, July 26, section 9, page 3.
  8. ^ Evariste Regis Huc. 1850. Souvenirs d'un voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet et la Chine pendant les annees 1844, 1845, et 1846. Paris.
  9. ^ Beatrice Mille. 1953. A selective survey of literature on Tibet. American Political Science Review 47(4): 1135–1151.
  10. ^ Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet. 1928. Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China, 1844–46. Edited and translated by William Hazlitt. London: Routledge.
  11. ^ "Could This Be the Way to Shangri-La?" by Timothy Carroll, Electronic Telegraph, London, July 29, 2002.
  12. ^ http://maroon.uchicago.edu/voices/articles/2002/04/23/doc_spotlight.php[dead link]
  13. ^ "About LCM, Orange, Texas". Little Cypress - Mauriceville CISD. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  14. ^ "Shangri La Botanical Gardens & Nature Centre, Orange Texas". Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  15. ^ "Beauty, Peace and Enlightenment at Shangri La Gardens in Orange, Texas (Part 1)". Blue Eyes and Bluebonnets. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  16. ^ "MESA /Jeffrey Carbo Landscape Architects, Joint Venture Announce Opening of Shangri La" (PDF). MESA Design Group. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  17. ^ Donal P. McCracken and Eileen M. McCracken, The Way to Kirstenbosch, National Botanic Gardens: Cape Town, 1988, p. 108.
  18. ^ "Glastonbury Festivals - Areas - Shangri-La". Glastonbury Festival. 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  19. ^ "Planetary Names: Albedo Feature: Shangri-La on Titan". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  20. ^ [1]

References[edit]

  • Allen, Charles. (1999). The Search for Shangri-La: A Journey into Tibetan History. Little, Brown and Company (UK). ISBN 0-316-64810-8. Reprinted by Abacus, London. 2000. ISBN 0-349-11142-1.
  • Reinhard, Johan (1978) Khembalung: The Hidden Valley. Kailash, A Journal of Himalayan Studies 6(1): 5-35, Kathmandu.
  • Wood, Michael (2005) "Michael Wood: In search of Myths and Heroes: Shangri-La" PBS Educational Broadcasting Company
  • Mother Love Bone single "This is Shangri-La" of debut album "Apple" (1990)

External links[edit]