Streetcars in Atlanta

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A view of a horsecar on Peachtree Street in 1882
Atlanta streetcar, 1910. Pay-as-you-enter cars were being introduced at the time

Streetcars originally operated in Atlanta downtown and into the surrounding areas from 1871 until the final line's closure in 1949.

The first such transportation began with horsecars in 1871, and electric streetcar service started in the 1880s.[1] In addition to streetcars in Atlanta proper, there were also interurban railways from Atlanta to outlying towns. The last streetcar service on the old network ended in 1949; the streetcar system was quickly replaced by a trolleybus system and with buses.

After decades of planning, construction of a new streetcar system, the Atlanta Streetcar, began in early 2012.[2] Consisting initially of a single route, this new streetcar line is scheduled to open in Fall 2014. Planning for a larger network, including on an abandoned loop of intown rail tracks now known as the BeltLine is underway.

Streetcars 1871-1949[edit]

Map of Atlanta's streetcar system in 1924
Map of Atlanta's streetcar system and other transit in 1946

Timeline and streetcar operators[edit]

Routes[edit]

From 1889-1901, the famed Nine-Mile Circle line ran from Downtown Atlanta to Ponce de Leon Springs and what is now Virginia Highland.

In 1924, Georgia Power operated the following streetcar lines (see map above):

  • 1 Decatur St.-Marietta St.
  • 2 Ponce de Leon-West View (east terminus: Ponce at East Lake Rd.)
  • 3 Boulevard-West Hunter
  • 4 Inman Park-Georgia Ave. (alternative eastern termini: McLendon at Clifton and Emory)
  • 5 Highland-South Pryor (north terminus: Virginia Ave. at N. Highland Ave.)
  • 6 Forrest-Capitol (Forrest Ave. is now Ralph McGill Blvd.) (north terminus: Boulevard at Orme Cir.)
  • 7 West Peachtree-East Hunter
  • 8 Howell Mill Road-East Fair
  • 10 Peachtree-Whitehall
  • 11 Luckie-Woodward
  • 12 Copper-Pine
  • 13 Irwin-West Fair St.
  • 14 Orme St.-Magnolia St.
  • 15 Piedmont-Washington
  • 16 Pine Street (see route 12) (eastern terminus: Ponce de Leon Park)
  • 17 Main Decatur
  • 18 South Decatur-East Lake
  • 19 River Line
  • 20 College Park & Hapeville
  • 21 Stewart Ave. (see route 1)
  • 22 English Ave.-Soldiers' Home
  • 23 Buckhead & Oglethorpe
  • 24 McDaniel St.

Source:Georgia Power timetable, 1924

Former interurban lines[edit]

Georgia Railway and Power Company ran lines[7] on private rights-of-way from Atlanta to:

Proposed streetcar lines (21st century)[edit]

Peachtree[edit]

A much longer route along Peachtree Street, the city's main street. Originally, the line was to run from the Oakland City neighborhood through Downtown Atlanta, Midtown and Buckhead. However a more recent (2010) pared-down proposal would run between the Arts Center MARTA station in Midtown and the Five Points MARTA station downtown.[8]

BeltLine routes[edit]

Streetcar routes that would have been funded by 1-cent sales tax, which was voted down in July 2012

In July 2012, there was a referendum on a 1-cent sales tax (SPLOST) to fund traffic and road improvements. If it had been approved, the tax would have funded several streetcar routes along portions of the BeltLine trail and connections onto MARTA stations and with the Downtown Loop streetcar. The final list of projects to have been funded included 2 routes (maps, p.56-57):

  • Midtown to Northeast: from North Ave. MARTA station (1) east along North Ave. to the BeltLine, then north along BeltLine to 10th and Monroe (southeast corner of Piedmont Park) (2) and south to Edgewood St. (3) and connection to the Downtown streetcar at its eastern terminus (which would be extended from it current proposed terminus at Jackson St.)
  • Downtown/Midtown to Southwest:

The earlier proposal in March 2011 included two lines that did not make the final list for the July 2012 vote:

  • Bankhead MARTA to Midtown: From Bankhead MARTA station north along the BeltLine, then east along 17th St. past Atlantic Station to Arts Center MARTA station
  • Armour Yard to Midtown: From Armour Yard (proposed new transit station near I-85/Monroe exit), south along the BeltLine, then west along North Ave.

Source:[9][10][11][12]

The proposal was defeated in the 10-county Metro Atlanta region, as a region 63% against and 37% for.[13] In Fulton and DeKalb Counties the results were 52% against and 48% for.

C-Loop (abandoned concept)[edit]

In 2005, MARTA analyzed - in addition to the BeltLine - the "C-Loop" ("C"-shaped rail line) linking Emory University, Lindbergh Center, Atlantic Station, Georgia Tech, the Georgia Dome, the AUC, Turner Field, Grant Park, and proceeding eastward along I-20 to South DeKalb Mall. The route originated from the efforts of Reps. John Lewis, Denise Majette and Cynthia McKinney, who obtained funding from the Dept. of Transportation for a $2 million feasibility study.[14] The concept no longer appears in proposals from the various Georgia transportation authorities, however the part of the route is now part of the Clifton Corridor initiative to build either MARTA rail, light rail, and/or bus rapid transit between Lindbergh and Emory and on to Avondale MARTA station.

Northern Crescent[edit]

In June 2011 the Gwinnett, Cobb, and North Fulton Chambers of Commerce held a summit to promote light rail transit in the northern metropolitan area. It was especially remarkable in light of decades-long opposition to rapid transit in the area.[15][16] Proposed routes (see map) would form a "W" and connect:

Modern streetcar lines under construction[edit]

Main article: Atlanta Streetcar

The Downtown Loop, or simply the Atlanta Streetcar, is an under construction streetcar route that will run 2.7 miles (4.3 km) east-west from Centennial Olympic Park to the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site, with tracks that converge at Woodruff Park. The line will serve 12 stops. It is expected to be open for public service in Fall 2014.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See generally Carson, O. E. "The Trolley Titans: A Mobile History of Atlanta" (Interurban Special No. 76)(Glendale, 1981)(0916374467).
  2. ^ Jeremiah McWilliams (February 1, 2012). "Atlanta kicks off streetcar construction". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 
  3. ^ Carson, O.E., The Trolley Titans, Interurban Press, Glendale, CA, 1981, p.xi
  4. ^ a b Carson, O.E., The Trolley Titans, Interurban Press, Glendale, CA, 1981, p.xi
  5. ^ "Black Boycotts", Ebony, October 1969
  6. ^ "Segregation", The New Georgia Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Hilton, George W.; Due, John (1960). The Electric Interurban Railways in America. Stanford University Press. 
  8. ^ Environmental Assessment for the Atlanta Streetcar, prepared by the City of Atlanta and MARTA for the US DOT
  9. ^ Thomas Wheatley, "Where do you want Beltline transit to go? Here are planners' ideas.", Creative Loafing, February 28, 2011
  10. ^ Thomas Wheatley, "Streetcar, Beltline, MARTA improvements top Atlanta's transportation-tax wishlist", Creative Loafing, March 30, 2011
  11. ^ Atlanta BeltLine, Inc., "Citywide Briefing on Transit Implementation Strategy & Transportation Investment Act Projects", Feb 17, 2011
  12. ^ http://www.beltline.org/Portals/26/Funding/images/City%20of%20Atlanta%20TIA%20Transit%20Project.pdf
  13. ^ http://results.enr.clarityelections.com/GA/40378/95366/en/vts.html?cid=91500
  14. ^ "Inner Core Feasibility Wrap-Up Report", MARTA, March 2005
  15. ^ "Transit summit of Atlanta's northern suburbs seen as 'breakthrough moment'", Sapota Report, June 8, 2011
  16. ^ Sydney Busby, "Leaders Discuss Proposed Light Rail System", Acworth Patch, June 11, 2011

External links[edit]