Demographics of Atlanta

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Map of race and ethnicity in Atlanta
  white
  black
  hispanic
  asian

Atlanta is the largest city in the state of Georgia. Atlanta ranks as the 40th-largest in the United States, and the sixth-largest city in the southeastern region. 2010 census results varied dramatically with previous Census Bureau estimates, counting 550,003 residents,[1][2] Atlanta is the core city of the ninth most populous United States metropolitan area at 5,268,860 (est. 2010),[3] with a combined statistical area of 5,626,400.[4]

City of Atlanta[edit]

History[edit]

Atlanta's population grew steadily during the first 100 years of the city's existence, and peaked in 1970 at around 496,000. However, from 1970 to 2000, the city lost over 100,000 residents, a decrease of around 16 percent. During the same time, the metro area gained over three million people, cutting the city's share of the metro population in half, from over 25 percent in 1970 to around 12 percent in 2000.[5] However, the city's population bottomed out in 1990 at around 394,000, and it has been increasing every year since then, reaching 420,003 residents in 2010.

Racial composition 2010[6] 1990[7] 1970[7] 1940[7]
White 38.4% 31.0% 48.4% 65.4%
—Non-Hispanic 36.3% 30.3% 47.3%[8] n/a
Black or African American 54.0% 67.1% 51.3% 34.6%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 5.2% 1.9% 1.5%[8] n/a

2010 Census[edit]

Historical populations
Census City[9] Region[10]
1850 2,572 N/A
1860 9,554 N/A
1870 21,789 N/A
1880 37,409 N/A
1890 65,533 N/A
1900 89,872 419,375
1910 154,839 522,442
1920 200,616 622,283
1930 270,366 715,391
1940 302,288 820,579
1950 331,314 997,666
1960 487,455 1,312,474
1970 496,973 1,763,626
1980 425,022 2,233,324
1990 394,017 2,959,950
2000 416,474 4,112,198
2010 420,003 5,729,304
*Estimates[11][12][4]
Region: Combined Statistical Area (CSA)


Income[edit]

In 2009, the median income for a household in the city was $47,464 and the median income for a family was $59,711. About 21.8% of the population and 17.2% of families lived below the poverty line.[13]

Race and ethnicity[edit]

The 2010 and 2000 composition of Atlanta by race, ethnicity and foreign-born status was:[14][15][16][17]

Race, ethnicity, or
foreign-born status
Pop. 2010  % of total 2010 Pop. 2000  % of total 2000 absolute
change 2000-2010
 % change 2000-2010
Black 286,126 54.0% 249,829 57.4% 36,297 14.5%
White 211,365 38.4% 138,352 33.2% 22,763 16.5%
White non-Hispanic 183,294 33.3% 135,322 31.3% 22,155 16.8%
Asian and Pacific Islander 28,071 5.1% 16,873 3.9% 11,198 65.8%
Hispanic or Latino of any race 56,142 10.2% 32,643 7.5% 23,499 72.0%
Foreign-born 33,621[18] 8.0%[19] 27,352 6.6% 6,269 22.9%

Atlanta is, as of 2010, the nation's 4th largest black-majority city and has long been known as a "black mecca" for its role as a center of black wealth, political and social power, education, and culture including film and music.[20]

The city of Atlanta is seeing a large demographic increase in its white population, and at a pace that outstrips the rest of the nation. The proportion of whites in the city's population grew faster between 2000 and 2006 than that of any other U.S. city.[21] By 2010, Atlanta's white population had increased by 22,763 people. The white percentage increased from 31% in 2000, to 35% in 2006, to 38% in 2010, more than double the increase between 1990 and 2000. During the same time, the city's black population decreased by 31,678 people, shrinking from 61.4% of the city's population in 2000 to 54.0% in 2010. The demographic changes are due to an influx of whites into gentrifying intown neighborhoods, such as East Atlanta and the Old Fourth Ward, coupled with a movement of blacks into adjacent suburbs, such as Clayton County.[22][23][23] Note that this phenomenon is not unique to Atlanta, as Washington, D.C. is undergoing a similar demographic change.

The city of Atlanta has recently become relatively more diverse. The city long consisted overwhelmingly of blacks and non-Hispanic whites; those groups made up 92.1% of the city in 1990, but by 2010 their proportion had shrunk to 85.0%. Atlanta's Hispanic population increased by 72.0% from 2000 to 2010, and in 2010 the city was 10.2% Hispanic. The Asian American population increased by 65.5%, and in 2010 Asian Americans made up 5.1% of the city.

The trend towards ethnic diversity is much stronger in Metro Atlanta as a whole in which blacks and non-Hispanic whites make up only 83.1% of the population. The metro area's Hispanic population more than doubled from 268,851 in 2000 to 547,400 in 2010, and now makes up over 10% of the region's population.[24] These immigrant communities have altered the economic, cultural, and religious landscape of metro Atlanta.[25] The Asian American population in the metro nearly doubled and makes up just under 5% of the region's population. Gwinnett County became one of the most diverse counties in the nation.[26]

Race and ethnicity by neighborhood[edit]

2010 census figures for Atlanta's 25 neighborhood planning units reveal several key facts about Atlanta's neighborhoods:

  • 60% of the city's area consists of overwhelmingly black neighborhoods: together, Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast Atlanta are 92% black
  • there are some areas that are predominantly white, notably Buckhead and Northeast Atlanta (NPUs F and N) which are on average 80% white
  • most of the fastest growing areas are central: Downtown (25.9%), Midtown, West Midtown, close-in east side neighborhoods (NPU N) (18.4%)
  • the Ben Hill area at the southwest Perimeter is also growing quickly (up 5,452 people, 45.8%)
  • population loss in areas of Northwest Atlanta (avg. -24.1%) and Southeast Atlanta (-20.5%), as well as some parts of Southwest Atlanta

Source: City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Reports for this NPU[dead link]
Note: racial and ethnic groups are listed in the order established by the national census, not by their ranking within Atlanta

NPU Major neighborhoods 2010 pop. 2000 pop. Growth % White Black Asian All other Hispanic Source
Downtown/Midtown
M Downtown, Old Fourth Ward, Sweet Auburn, Castleberry Hill 26,886 21,359 25.9% 34.1% 56.1% 4.9% 4.9% 4.8% [27]
E Midtown, Georgia Tech, Atlantic Station, Loring Heights, Brookwood Hills 42,121 34,461 22.2% 65.4% 17.4% 12.6% 4.6% 4.9% [28]
Buckhead
A Paces, Margaret Mitchell, Mt. Paran/Northside, Chastain Park 11,687 11,300 3.4% 91.7% 3.2% 3.5% 1.7% 2.3% [29]
B Buckhead Village, North Buckhead, Lindbergh, Pine Hills, Peachtree Heights, Garden Hills 47,292 38,645 22.4% 75.5% 12.3% 5.3% 6.8% 9.5% [30]
C Collier Hills, Peachtree Battle, Arden/Habersham, SW Buckhead (W of Northside, S of Wesley) 18,122 16,199 11.9% 83.5% 8.4% 3.2% 4.9% 6.0% [31]
Northwest
G West Highlands, Carey Park 8,381 11,632 -27.9% 3.3% 94.2% 0.5% 2.1% 1.9% [32]
J Grove Park, Center Hill 12,533 17,085 -26.6% 1.9% 96.4% 0.1% 1.7% 1.3% [33]
K Bankhead, Washington Park, Mozley Park, Hunter Hills 9,399 11,997 -21.7% 9.1% 88.5% 0.4% 2.0% 1.9% [34]
L English Avenue, Vine City, (The Bluff) 6,148 7,316 -16.0% 6.1% 89.1% 1.0% 3.8% 2.8% [35]
Border Buckhead/West Midtown/Northwest
D Whittier Mill Village, Riverside, Bolton, Underwood Hills, Huff Rd in W Midtown, Berkeley Park 10,690 8,690 23.0% 59.2% 23.9% 4.5% 12.4% 15.7% [36]
Northeast / East
F Virginia-Highland, Morningside/Lenox Park 23,641 20,890 13.2% 79.6% 10.0% 3.3% 7.2% 9.7% [37]
N Inman Park, Candler Park, Poncey-Highland, Reynoldstown, Cabbagetown, Lake Claire 17,389 14,688 18.4% 79.9% 13.2% 2.7% 4.2% 4.2% [38]
O Edgewood, Kirkwood, East Lake 13,886 14,724 -5.7% 36.9% 58.7% 1.4% 3.0% 2.5% [39]
W Grant Park, East Atlanta, Ormewood Park, Benteen Park 19,233 20,054 -4.1% 54.8% 38.0% 1.7% 5.5% 6.5% [40]
Southwest
H Adamsville, areas S of I-20, W of I-285, N of Cascade Rd 14,049 17,274 -18.7% 2.1% 92.3% 0.2% 5.4% 6.2% [41]
I Collier Heights, Peyton Forest, Cascade Heights 20,741 21,500 -3.5% 2.2% 94.1% 0.1% 3.6% 4.2% [42]
P Ben Hill, (SW Atlanta W of I-285) 17,363 11,911 45.8% 1.9% 95.0% 0.6% 2.5% 1.9% [43]
Q Midwest Cascade, Regency Trace 1,770 1,024 72.9% 1.5% 96.5% 1.0% 1.0% 0.6% [44]
R Adams Park, Campbellton Road, Greenbriar 16,452 16,679 -1.4% 1.4% 96.8% 0.1% 1.6% 1.4% [45]
S Oakland City, Venetian Hills, Cascade Avenue/Road, Fort McPherson 10,204 12,396 -17.7% 4.0% 93.8% 0.2% 2.0% 1.2% [46]
T West End, Westview, Atlanta University Center, Ashview Heights 16,280 20,095 -19.0% 2.3% 94.5% 0.4% 2.9% 2.3% [47]
V Capitol Gateway, Summerhill, Peoplestown, Mechanicsville, Pittsburgh, Adair Park 14,198 15,825 -10.3% 6.3% 89.3% 1.3% 3.1% 2.5% [48]
X Metropolitan Parkway (Atlanta) corridor: Capitol View, Sylvan Hills, Perkerson 12,398 14,999 -17.3% 10.5% 83.2% 0.7% 5.6% 5.8% [49]
Southeast
Y South Atlanta, Lakewood Heights, Chosewood Park 11,111 12,472 -10.9% 14.3% 80.6% 0.4% 4.7% 9.2% [50]
Z Thomasville Heights, Glenrose Park, Southern Jonesboro Rd Corridor 18,050 24,210 -25.4% 3.1% 92.8% 0.4% 3.7% 4.2% [51]
Major shifts from 2000 to 2010[edit]

Rise in white population:

  • In NPU W (East Atlanta, Grant Park, Ormewood Park, Benteen Park), the black population went from 57.6% to 38.0%, and the white proportion rose from 36.5% to 54.8%
  • In NPU O (Edgewood, Kirkwood, East Lake area), the black population went from 86.2% to 58.7%, and the white proportion rose from 11.3% to 36.9%.
  • In NPU L (English Avenue, Vine City), the black proportion of the population went down from 97.5% to 89.1%, while the white proportion rose from 1.3% to 6.1%. Note that there many infill residential units were added in the King Plow Arts Center area, which falls under English Avenue but which in character is an extension of the Marietta Street Artery and West Midtown.
  • In NPU D, stretching from West Midtown along the border of Buckhead and northwestern Atlanta, westward towards the river, the white proportion rose from 49.3% to 59.2% with the black proportion dropping from 36.5% to 23.9%

Increasing black population:

  • In NPU X (Metropolitan Parkway corridor), the black proportion of the population rose from 59.5% to 83.2%, while the White, Asian and Hispanic proportion dropped about three percentage points each.
  • NPU B (central Buckhead) became more diverse, with the white proportion dropping from 82.8% to 75.5%, the black proportion rising from 5.9% to 12.3%, and the Asian proportion from 3.1% to 5.3%

Sexual orientation and marital status[edit]

The city of Atlanta also has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita. It ranks 3rd of all major cities, behind San Francisco and slightly behind Seattle, with 12.8% of the city's total population recognizing themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[52][53] According to the 2000 United States Census (revised in 2004), Atlanta has the twelfth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, which was at 38.5%.[54]

Daytime population[edit]

According to a 2000 daytime population estimate by the Census Bureau,[55] over 250,000 more people commuted to Atlanta on any given workday, boosting the city's estimated daytime population to 676,431. This is an increase of 62.4% over Atlanta's resident population, making it the largest gain in daytime population in the country among cities with fewer than 500,000 residents.

Timeline[edit]

1850 - 2,572

  • City limits a circle with radius of 1 mile (3.14 mi2)

1860 - 9,554

  • 1866 city limits enlarged to a radius of 1.5 miles (7 mi2) [56]

1870 - 21,789

1880 - 37,409

  • had eclipsed Savannah to become Georgia's largest city
  • 1889 city limits enlarged to a radius of 1.75 miles, Inman Park also annexed.[57] (9.6 mi2)

1890 - 65,533

  • 1894 annexation of West End (adding 1.0 mi2 for a total of 11 mi2)[58]

1900 - 89,872, including 2500 persons of foreign birth and 35,900 of African descent.

1910 - 154,839 (metro 522,442)

1920 - 200,616 (metro 622,283)

1930 - 270,688 (metro 715,391)

1940 - 302,288 (metro 820,579)

1950 - 331,314 (metro 997,666)

1960 - 487,455 (metro 1,312,474)

1970 - 496,973 (metro 1,763,626)

1980 - 425,022 (metro 2,233,324)

1990 - 394,017 (metro 2,959,950)

2000 - 416,474 (metro 4,112,198)

2010 - 420,003 (metro 5,268,860)

Political implications[edit]

Atlanta's changing demographics have had effects on its political system. In the 2009 mayoral race, Mary Norwood lost by just 714 votes (out of over 84,000 cast) to Kasim Reed. Norwood, who is white, would have become the city's first non-black mayor since 1974. This comes amid the fact that in recent years, an influx of whites, Asians and Hispanics into Atlanta has shifted the demographics in what was once a city guaranteed to elect a black mayor. In fact, the percentage of blacks dropped to 54 percent in 2010 from 61 percent in 2000. This demographic change and its possible historic effect on Atlanta's city government was a factor that, among others, helped draw supporters of both candidates to the polls.[63]

Projections[edit]

Atlanta is projected to have a population of around 590,000 people by 2030. However, this projection assumes Atlanta garners only seven percent of the metro's growth during that period. If the city was to capture ten percent of metro Atlanta's growth, it would reach a population of 660,000 people by 2030.[5]

Metro Atlanta[edit]

Race, ethnicity, or
foreign-born status
Pop. 2010  % of total 2010 Pop. 2000[A]  % of total 2000 absolute
change 2000-2010[B]
 % change 2000-2010[B]
Total 5,268,860 4,112,198
White only 2,920,480 55.4% 2,589,888 63.0% 330,592 12.8%
    Non-Hispanic white only 2,671,757 50.7% 2,447,856 59.5% 223,901 9.1%
Black only 1,707,913 32.4% 1,189,179 28.9% 518,734 43.6%
Asian only and Pacific Islander only   256,956 4.9% 137,640 3.3% 119,316 86.7%
    Asian Indian 78,980 1.5% 37,162 0.9% 41,818 112.5%
    Korean 43,870 0.8% 22,317 0.5% 21,553 96.6%
    Chinese 37,660 0.7% 22,564 0.5% 15,096 66.9%
    Vietnamese 36,554 0.7% 23,996 0.6% 12,558 52.3%
Hispanic or Latino of any race 547,400 10.4% 268,851 6.5% 278,549 103.6%
    Mexican 314,351 6.0% 165,109 4.0% 149,242 90.4%
    Puerto Rican 43,337 0.8% 19,358 0.5% 23,979 123.9%
    Cuban 17,648 0.3% 9,206 0.2% 8,442 91.7%
Foreign-born 716,434 13.6% 424,519 10.3% 291,915 68.8%

A Atlanta MSA in 2000 did not include Butts, Dawson, Haralson, Heard, Jasper, Lamar, Meriwether, and Price counties, whose population totalled in 2000: 135,783; in 2010: 156,368 (2.96% of total new 28-county metro)[64]
B Compares the larger 28-county Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta MSA 2010 with a smaller 20-county Atlanta MSA 2000; however the 8 new counties represent less than 3% of the larger 28-county metro.
Source: for race and Hispanic population, U.S. Census Bureau 2010 and 2000 census; for foreign-born population: US Census Bureau 2010 and 2000 American Community Surveys; Immigrants in 2010 Metropolitan America, Brookings Institution

Race and ethnicity[edit]

The 2010 census counted 5,268,860 people in the 28-county metro area. This was an increase of 1,020,879 versus the same 28-county area in 2000, second only to Houston. The percent increase was 24.0%, second-highest (after Houston) among the nation's ten largest metro areas.

White Americans made up 55.4% of metro Atlanta's population, a relative decrease from 63.0% ten years earlier, but still an absolute increase of over 330,000 people. Non-Hispanic whites dropped from 59.5% to 50.7% of the metro's population, increasing by about 224,000 people.

Black Americans are the largest racial minority with 32.4% of the population, up from 28.9% in 2000. The city of Atlanta has long been regarded as a "black mecca" for its role as a center of black education, political power, wealth, and culture. From 2000-2010, the geographic disbursement of blacks in Metro Atlanta changed radically. Long concentrated in the city of Atlanta and DeKalb County, the black population there dropped while over half a million African Americans settled across other parts of the metro area, including approximately 112,000 in Gwinnett County, 71,000 in Fulton outside Atlanta, 58,000 in Cobb, 50,000 in Clayton, 34,000 in Douglas, and 27,000 each in Newton and Rockdale Counties.[65]

Year Black pop. in
City of Atlanta
Black pop. in
DeKalb County
Total black pop.
Atlanta + DeKalb
Total black pop.
Metro Atlanta
Proportion of black pop.
in Atlanta + DeKalb
2000 255,689 361,111 616,800 1,189,179 51.9%
2010 226,894 375,697 602,591 1,707,913 35.2%

Hispanic Americans are the fastest growing ethnic group. At 10.4% of the metro's population in 2010, versus only 6.5% in 2000, the metro's Hispanic population increased an astounding 103.6%, or 278,459 people, in ten years. Major Hispanic groups include 314,351 Mexicans, 43,337 Puerto Ricans and 17,648 Cubans. All of those groups' populations increased by over 90% in the ten-year period. Of the metro's 279,000-person increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010, 98,000 came in Gwinnett County, 37,000 in Cobb, 25,000 in Fulton (all but 3,000 outside the city of Atlanta), 20,000 in Hall, and 15,000 in DeKalb County.[66] The Hispanic population is heavily concentrated in the northeastern section of the Atlanta metropolitan Area.

The Asian American population also increased rapidly from 2000 to 2010. There were 256,956 Asian Americans in the metro area in 2010, making up 4.9% of the population. This represented an 87% increase over 2000. The largest Asian groups are 78,980 Indians, 43,870 Koreans, 37,660 Chinese and 36,554 Vietnamese.

Foreign-born population[edit]

Metro Atlanta is increasingly international, with its 716,434 foreign-born residents in 2010, a 69% increase versus 2000. This was the fourth largest rate of growth among the nation's top 100 metros, after Baltimore, Orlando and Las Vegas. The foreign-born proportion of the population went up from 10.3% to 13.6%, and Atlanta moved up from 14th to 12th in ranking of US metro areas with the largest immigrant population by sheer numbers. Still, its 13.6% proportion of immigrants is only the 29th highest of the nation's top 100 metros.[67]

Metro Atlanta's immigrants are more suburban than most other cities'. Out of the top 100 US metros, Atlanta has the 11th highest ratio of the foreign-born living in the suburbs and not in the core city.[67] Atlanta does not have single centers of ethnic groups such as a Koreatown, but rather areas such as the Buford Highway Corridor in DeKalb County and parts of Gwinnett County are commercial centers for multiple ethnic communities.[citation needed]

In 1990 Greater Atlanta had the largest Japanese population in the Southeast United States. The Consulate General of Japan in Atlanta estimated that, during that year, 3,500 to 4,000 Japanese lived in Greater Atlanta. Of the metropolitan areas in the Southeast United States, as of 1990 Greater Atlanta had the most extensive education network for Japanese nationals.[68]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Atlanta, while historically centered around Protestant Christianity, now involves many faiths as a result of the city and metro area's increasingly international population. While Protestant Christianity still maintains a strong presence in the city, in recent decades Catholicism has gained a strong foothold due to migration patterns. Metro Atlanta also has a considerable number of ethnic Christian congregations, including Korean and Indian churches. Large non-Christian faiths are present in the form of Judaism and Hinduism. Overall, there are over 1,000 places of worship within Atlanta.[69]

Language[edit]

Signs in English, Spanish and Chinese along Buford Highway in Metro Atlanta

In 2008, approximately 83.3% of the population five years and older spoke only English at home, which is roughly 4,125,000 people. Over 436,000 people (8.8%) spoke Spanish at home, making Metro Atlanta the 15th highest number of Spanish speakers among American metropolitan areas (MSAs). Over 193,000 people (3.9%) spoke other Indo-European languages at home. People who speak an Asian language at home numbered over 137,000 and made up 2.8% of the population.[70][71]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ US Census Bureau
  2. ^ "Table 4 - Colorado through Idaho". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 2010-04-05. [dead link]
  3. ^ Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010, U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  4. ^ a b "Combined statistical area population and estimated components of change: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (Comma-separated values). United States Census Bureau. July 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  5. ^ a b http://www.atlantada.com/media/Aconversationaboutgrowth_002.pdf
  6. ^ "Atlanta (city), Georgia". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  7. ^ a b c "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b From 15% sample
  9. ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "POPULATION OF THE 100 LARGEST CITIES AND OTHER URBAN PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES: 1790 TO 1990". Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  10. ^ "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING: DECENIAL CENSUS". U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2000. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  11. ^ http://2010.census.gov/news/releases/operations/cb11-cn97.html
  12. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population" (Comma-separated values). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  13. ^ Atlanta city, Georgia - Selected Economic Characteristics: 2006-2008
  14. ^ DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000; Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data; Geographic Area: Atlanta city, Georgia, US Census Bureau
  15. ^ Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010" (Select Atlanta (city), Georgia), US Census Bureau
  16. ^ City of Atlanta Quick Facts, US Census Bureau
  17. ^ "Living Cities" study, Brookings Institution
  18. ^ Census Bureau estimate, "SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates" for Atlanta city, US Census Bureau
  19. ^ 2005-2009 data from US Census Bureau
  20. ^
  21. ^ Gurwitt, Rob (July 1, 2008). "Governing Magazine: Atlanta and the Urban Future, July 2008". Governing.com. Retrieved April 5, 2010.  and State of Metropolitan America, Part II, "Race and Ethnicity', p.62
  22. ^ A census speeds Atlanta toward racially neutral ground | Political Insider
  23. ^ a b Wheatley, Thomas (March 21, 2011). "Thomas Wheatley, "Atlanta's census numbers reveal dip in black population – and lots of people who mysteriously vanished", Creative Loafing, March 21, 2011". Clatl.com. Retrieved June 27, 2011. 
  24. ^ Jeffry Scott, "Hispanic population doubles across metro area", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 17, 2011
  25. ^ Mary Odem, "Global Lives, Local Struggles: Latin American Immigrants in Atlanta" Southern Spaces 2006
  26. ^ "Gwinnett is now a minority majority county", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 10, 2010
  27. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU M
  28. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU E
  29. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU A
  30. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU B
  31. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU C
  32. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU G
  33. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU J
  34. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU K
  35. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU L
  36. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU D
  37. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU N
  38. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU N
  39. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU O
  40. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU W
  41. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU H
  42. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU I
  43. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU P
  44. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU Q
  45. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU R
  46. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU S
  47. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU T
  48. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU V
  49. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU X
  50. ^ http://174.37.215.145/client_resources/government/planning/2010census/2010censusbroch_npu_y.pdf
  51. ^ City of Atlanta 2010 Census Summary Report, NPU Z
  52. ^ "12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says". The Seattle Times. 
  53. ^ Gary J. Gates Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey PDF (2.07 MB). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, UCLA School of Law October, 2006
  54. ^ http://www.census.gov/statab/ccdb/cit3060r.txt
  55. ^ "Estimated Daytime Population". U.S. Census Bureau. December 6, 2005. Retrieved 2006-04-02. 
  56. ^ Garrett, Franklin, Atlanta and Its Environs, 1954, Vol.I, p.703
  57. ^ City of Atlanta annexation database Case ID ANX-1889-001
  58. ^ City of Atlanta annexation database Case ID ANX-1894-001
  59. ^ a b Annexation Map of Atlanta, City of Atlanta, revised 1981
  60. ^ City of Atlanta annexation database Case ID ANX-1910-004
  61. ^ City of Atlanta annexation database Case ID ANX-1910-003
  62. ^ City of Atlanta Annexation database, Case ANX-1952-005
  63. ^ Brown, Robbie (December 10, 2009). "Atlanta Mayor Recount Goes to Reed". The New York Times. 
  64. ^ "METROPOLITAN AREAS AND COMPONENTS, 1999, WITH FIPS CODES", US Census Bureau
  65. ^ U.S. Census 2010 vs. 2000 population estimates by race
  66. ^ U.S. Census 2000 and 2010 data
  67. ^ a b Immigrants in 2010 Metropolitan America, Brookings Institution
  68. ^ Lively, Kit. "EDUCATION IS MADE IN JAPAN, EXPORTED TO ATLANTA." Orlando Sentinel. December 24, 1990. A1. Retrieved on January 11, 2012.
  69. ^ "Atlanta, Ga.". Information Please Database. Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved 2006-05-17. 
  70. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_DP5&geo_id=31000US12060&_lang=en
  71. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=31000US12060&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_DP2&-context=adp&-ds_name=&-tree_id=3308&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=

External links[edit]