|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2011)|
|Region||Central Luzon (Region III)|
|Founded by||Juan de Salcedo|
|• Mayor||Jeffrey D. Khonghun|
|• Total||287.16 km2 (110.87 sq mi)|
|• Density||310/km2 (810/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Income class||1st class|
Subic is a municipality in the province of Zambales, located along the northern coast of Subic Bay in the Philippines. According to the census of May 2010, it has a population of 89,724 and a 1st class Income classification.
Like Iba, the provincial capital, and neighboring Olongapo City, Subic is also a fast growing municipality and expected to become a component city. It is a former home of one of the largest US military facilities outside of the US mainland, the Subic Bay Naval Base.
The town's early name is "Hubek" among the native inhabitants of the area - the Zambales - which means "head of a plow". The missionary fathers mispronounced "Hubek" as "Subiq". By the time of the American occupation of Subic, the Yankees mispronounced "Subiq" into "Subig". Eventually, "Subig" reverted to "Subiq", but the letter 'q' was replaced with letter 'c', hence the name "Subic".
- Aningway Sacatihan
- Asinan Poblacion
- Asinan Proper
- Baraca-Camachile (Pob.)
- Calapandayan (Pob.)
- Ilwas (Pob.)
- San Isidro
- Santo Tomas
- Wawandue (Pob.)
In September 1762, the British invaded the Philippines and took over the Spanish main naval base in Manila Bay. This prompted the Spanish military to scout for the next promising naval station. The expedition returned with the good news for the naval command - a natural bounty and deep waters at Subic Bay. King Alfonso XII issued a decree in 1884 that declared Subic as "a naval port and the property appertaining thereto set aside for naval purposes." Construction of an arsenal and ship repair yard ensued March 8 the following year, as ordered by the new settlers' Naval Commission. Subic Bay's potential as naval station was realized by the Americans. Commodore George Dewey and his men engaged in a battle that destroyed the Spanish Army in 1898, and the Americans took over Subic Bay in December 10, 1899.
In 1902, Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, Commander of the Asiatic Stations, directed 200 Marines for an expeditionary force for the first U.S. fleet exercise in Asian waters. Guns were erected on Grande Island and Admiral Evans laid plans for emergency repairs of the station at Subic Bay but was denied assistance by the U.S. Five years later, the U.S. Congress finally appropriated funds for a full-scale Subic Bay Naval Reservation. Words from then President Theodore Roosevelt goes: "If we are to exert the slightest influence in Western Asia, it is of the highest importance that we have a naval station in Subic Bay." Subic Bay is now on the rise of being one of the best training areas in the Corps. But with the U.S. - Japan tension heating up, appropriations for operation and maintenance of the base fell short. Hawaii came in the scene; funding of the development of Pearl Harbor as US main station in the Pacific earned the thumbs up of the Congress. Subic took its ill fate - a promising harbor was left as a small repair station.
World War I
US was drawn into the war in Europe; Filipinos and Americans worked hand in hand to prepare the battleships for World War I. Workers at Subic Bay also overhauled 26 German ships, that had been used to transport thousands of American troops to Europe. Likewise, this period gave way for different developments: Olongapo had a taste of some of its best years; the base was lined with trees and plants, and several recreational facilities were constructed.
World War II
The Japanese claimed Subic and Olongapo on January 10, 1942, days after the Pearl Harbor attack, bringing with them the devastation of World War II. Many Filipinos and Americans were killed, several buildings were destroyed, seven seaplanes were sunk, and lines of telephones and telegraphs were sabotaged. The Marines were ordered to withdraw into Bataan then soon to Corregidor, burning all buildings left standing after the Japanese attack. Filipinos torched all the war's ruins in Olongapo. Filipinos have been subjected to the cruelty of the Japanese for three years, after which the American made a forceful rebound and reoccupied the base on January 29, 1945.
The Marine station underwent massive reconstruction and was again ready for naval endeavors on September 26, 1945. Shortly after the marines resumed their duties, the Tydings-McDuffie Law set provision for Philippine independence and was granted on July 4, 1946. Nonetheless, the US maintained that it would still retain the country's military bases. The Philippines, acknowledging its frailty in the Cold War, entered into the RP-US Military Bases Agreement on March 14, 1947. The US was granted the right to retain sixteen military bases and to administrate the town of Olongapo. Several significant urbanization projects were orchestrated, but the most challenging was as gigantic as displacing half the part of a 1,200-foot mountain, that needed around 20 million man-hours, and required five years of labor - the exceptional air station and pier construction of the Seabees was the highlight of 1956 in Subic Bay. Another accomplishment at the height of the cold war was ammunition bunkers and buildings that occupied over 12,400 acres of the Southwestern part of Subic Bay. Set in the tropical rainforest, ammunition and ordnance from these facilities played a big role in the Vietnam War and in the Gulf War of 1991.
The original 1947 military pact between the Philippines and the US has been amended. The year 1979 witnessed a turning point for both countries - Philippines claimed a sovereign rule over the base and the US area of responsibility was reduced from 24,000 hectares to 6,300 hectares. What followed was a series of events that would change the course of Subic Bay forever. On June 15, 1991, volcanic ashes and debris rained over the base, devastating Subic Bay and neighboring provinces. Mt. Pinatubo's fury has left the US Navy and Air Force no option but to evacuate all their dependents. When Pinatubo's rage came to a halt, and American and Filipino personnel restored the base, bringing it back to business in no time. Uncertainty continued hovering the Philippine Senate with regard to the termination of the 1947 treaty. Months-long discussions were held; parliamentary proceedings were organized; and a pro-bases rally was staged, but to no avail. September 16, 1991 surfaced a conclusion - The US had to withdraw its forces and equipment from Clark and Subic, having received the rejection of 12 senators on the earlier proposed new treaty. The lowering of the Stars and Stripes followed suit. The Navy bid farewell to America's nine decades of military presence on Philippine soil.
Surprisingly the departure of the Americans did not spell doom. Subic Bay was converted into a commercial zone largely through the efforts of some 8,000 residents of nearby Olongapo City, under the leadership of their mayor, Richard Gordon, who volunteered to protect and preserve 8 billion dollars worth of facilities and property from looting and destruction. Subic has since been transformed and became a model for bases conversion into commercial use after the Cold War with blue chip companies like Coastal Petroleum, Enron and Fed Ex pumping in over $3 billion of investments creating 70,000 jobs in the free port's first four years. It was host to the 4th APEC Leaders' Summit on November 24, 1996 and FedEx's Asia-Pacific hub, Asia-One, was also located in Subic Bay for almost ten years..
In addition to commercial use, Subic Bay is also a popular destination for weekend visitors from Metro Manila. Attractions include several beaches, an underwater aquarium, jungle survival tours, racing and duty-free shopping centers.
|Population census of Subic|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
There is a great deal of confusion in the tourism industry and in peoples' minds in general concerning Subic, Zambales.
- Subic town sits at the north end of Subic Bay and is located about 10 km north of the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. Subic town has few beach resorts and currently no casinos.
- The Subic Bay Freeport Zone is on the former site of the US Subic Naval Base, and is host to many tourist attractions which include casinos, beaches, diving/snorkeling, parks, beachside huts and cottages and historical artifacts. The Freeport is right next to Olongapo City (which was administered by the US Naval Base commander back in the 1950s), separated only by a moat constructed by the US Navy.
- Many locals confusingly call the Freeport as "SBMA," short for Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority, which is the administrative body of the Freeport.
- Beside the Freeport, Olongapo City, formerly a part of Subic municipality, is directly accessible to and from the Freeport - unlike Subic town which is 25 minutes away by motor vehicle. Still, visitors usually confuse "Subic" town with "Subic" Freeport.
- "Municipalities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Province: Zambales". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Municipalities". Zambales Now, Official Website of Zambales. Retrieved on 2012-05.24.
** The year of 1542 in the founding of Subic is a misprint and should be the year 1572 like in Botolan as Salcedo was born in 1549.
- "Province of Zambales". Municipality Population Data. LWUA Research Division. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Subic, Zambales.|
- The Official Tourism Website for the Subic Bay Area, contains Visitor and Accommodation Information (Authorized by SBMA)
- Subic Bay Travel and Dive Guide
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- Photos of Olongapo, Barrio Barretto and Baloy Beach Road
||Castillejos / San Marcelino|
|San Antonio||Floridablanca, Pampanga|
|Subic Bay / Olongapo|