Suillus luteus

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Suillus luteus
Butterroehrling.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Suillaceae
Genus: Suillus
Species: S. luteus
Binomial name
Suillus luteus
(L.: Fries) Gray
Suillus luteus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
pores on hymenium
cap is convex

hymenium is adnate

or subdecurrent
stipe has a ring
spore print is brown
ecology is mycorrhizal
edibility: edible

Suillus luteus is a basidiomycete fungus, and the type species of the genus Suillus. It is a common fungus indigenous to coniferous forests of Eurasia and North America, and introduced to southern Australia and New Zealand. Commonly referred to as slippery jack or sticky bun in English-speaking countries, its names refer to the brown cap, which is characteristically viscid in wet conditions. The fungus fruits abundantly in autumn, and is harvested for food. The slime coating, however, may cause indigestion if not removed.

Description[edit]

The cap is brown and up to 12 cm in diameter at maturity.[1] The cap is initially hemispherical, later flattening out. It is slimy to the touch, bare, smooth, and glossy even when dry and the cuticle is easily peeled off. The tiny, circular pores of the tubes are at first light yellow but turn olive to dark yellow with maturity. The attachment to the stem is adnate. The stem attains a height of up to 10 cm and a width 3 cm. It is pale yellow and more or less cylindrical but may bear a swollen base. A white partial veil extends from the stem to the cap margin in immature specimens. At maturity the veil detaches from the cap and its remnant forms a ring around the stem. The underside of the ring is characteristically dark brown to violet. This species is one of the few members of the genus Suillus that sport such a ring. The white flesh of the entire fungus does not discolour when damaged, and it is soft particularly in mature specimens. It is frequently infested with larvae.

Similar species[edit]

Suillus luteus is often confused with Suillus granulatus, which is another common mushroom occurring in the same habitat. S. granulatus is yellow-fleshed and exudes latex droplets when young but most conspicuously, it bears neither partial veil nor ring. Other than that, Suillus luteus is unlikely to be confused with other mushrooms, especially if its preferred home under pine trees and the whitish partial veil are taken into consideration.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Suillus luteus can be found all over the northern hemisphere. It is found in coastal and montane pine forests and exhibits a tolerance of the northern latitudes. It is especially common in pine plantations and young pine forests. Suillus luteus forms mycorrhizal associations with various species of pine, which include Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, and Pinus peuce in Europe,[2][3] and Pinus resinosa and Pinus strobus in North America.[4] It does not require a specific soil but seems to prefer acidic and nutrient-deficient soil. The fungus fruits in spring, summer and fairly prolifically in autumn, following periods of wet weather.

It has also been found under pine trees in introduced pine plantations in Australia, particularly in the Blue Mountains and Southern Highlands, as well as New Zealand and Argentinean Patagonia. There it can be picked around Easter.

Edibility[edit]

Suillus luteus is an edible mushroom. Although some authors regard it as one of low quality,[1][5] the species is considered a delicacy in Slavic cultures (known as maslyata in Russian or maślaki in Polish, derived from the word for buttery). Slippery jacks are frequently marinated, fried, or stewed (used both fresh or dried), and are known for their tendency to maintain very light flesh color during cooking if the skin is peeled beforehand. S. luteus and other Suillus species may cause allergic reactions in some people[6] or digestive problems. The fungus is better cooked before eating, and some authors recommend discarding the glutinous cuticle and tubes before cooking.[7] However, some people may find slippery jacks excessively slippery. Gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to high levels of arabitol.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia.

  • Helmut und Renate Grünert: Pilze, (1984), Mosaik-Verlag, 287 pages
  • Meinhard Moser, Helmut Gams: Kleine Kryptogamenflora, Vol. 2, Die Röhrlinge, Blätter- und Bauchpilze (Agaricales und Gastromycetales) (1980), Fischer-Verlag
  1. ^ a b Jordan M. (1995). The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain and Europe. London: David & Charles. p. 350. ISBN 0-7153-0129-2. 
  2. ^ Karadelev M., Rusevska K., Spasikova S. (2007). "The Family Boletaceae s.l. (Excluding Boletus) in the Republic of Macedonia". Turkish Journal of Botany 31: 539–50. 
  3. ^ Yagiz D., Afyon A., Konuk. M.,Helfer S. (2006). "Contributions to the macrofungi of Kastamonu province, Turkey". Mycotaxon 98: 177–80. 
  4. ^ "Suillus luteus: The Slippery Jack at Mushroom Expert". Kuo M. Retrieved May 15, 2010. 
  5. ^ Arora D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: a comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Ten Speed Press. p. 350. ISBN 0-89815-169-4. 
  6. ^ Bruhn J., Soderberg M. (1991). "Allergic contact dermatitis caused by mushrooms". Mycopathologia 115 (3): 191–95. doi:10.1007/BF00462225. PMID 1749402. 
  7. ^ McKnight K., McKnight V., Peterson R. (1998). A Field Guide to Mushrooms: North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 500. ISBN 0-395-91090-0. 

External links[edit]