Super Dual Auroral Radar Network
The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is an international radar network for studying the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, comprising twenty one radars in the northern hemisphere and eleven in the southern hemisphere  that operate in the High Frequency (HF) bands between 8.0 MHz (37m) and 22.0 MHz (14m).
The Java applets that are used as the radar data display system currently indicate the 10 MHz (30m) and 14 MHz (21m) frequency bands as being primarily used in 2012 (in the Northern Hemisphere). The radars measure the Doppler velocity (and other related characteristics) of plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere.
In the standard operating mode each radar scans through 16 beams of azimuthal separation ~3.24°, with a total scan time of 1 min. Each beam is divided into 75 range gates of length 45 km, and so in each full scan the radars each cover 52° in azimuth and over 3000 km in range, an area of over 4×106 km².
Additions to the ionospheric RADAR network (in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres) have occurred about once every 4 years.
The following is a list of SuperDARN sites, based on a list maintained by Virginia Tech College of Engineering. As of 2009, an expansion project was underway for expanding the network into the middle latitudes, including the addition of sites in Hays, Kansas (near Fort Hays State University), Oregon, and the Azores, in order to support mapping outside of the auroral regions during large magnetic storms.
|King Salmon||ksr||King Salmon, Alaska, United States||−20.0°||National Institute of Information and Communications Technology||Japan|
|Adak Island East||ade||Adak Island, Alaska, United States||46.0°||University of Alaska Fairbanks||United States|
|Adak Island West||adw||−28.0°|
|Kodiak||kod||Kodiak, Alaska, United States||30.0°|
|Prince George||pgr||Prince George, British Columbia, Canada||−5.0°||University of Saskatchewan||Canada|
|Saskatoon||sas||Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada||23.1°|
|Rankin Inlet||rkn||Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, Canada||5.7°|
|Inuvik||inv||Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada||26.4°|
|Clyde River||cly||Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada||−55.6°|
|Blackstone||bks||Blackstone, Virginia, USA||-40.0°||Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University||United States|
|Fort Hays East||fhe||Hays, Kansas, United States||45.0°|
|Fort Hays West||fhw||−25.0°|
|Goose Bay||gbr||Happy Valley-Goose Bay,
Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
|Kapuskasing||kap||Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada||−12.0°|
|Wallops Island||wal||Wallops Island, Virginia, United States||35.9°||Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory||United States|
|Stokkseyri||sto||Stokkseyri, Iceland||−59.0°||University of Leicester||United Kingdom|
|Hokkaido||hok||Hokkaido, Japan||25.0°||Nagoya University||Japan|
|cve||Christmas Valley, Oregon, United States||54.0°||Dartmouth College||United States|
|Dome C||dce||Concordia Station, Antarctica||115.0°||Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology||Italy|
|Halley*||hal||Halley Research Station, Antarctica||165.0°||British Antarctic Survey||United Kingdom|
|McMurdo||mcm||McMurdo Station, Antarctica||300.0°||University of Alaska Fairbanks||United States|
|South Pole||sps||South Pole Station, Antarctica||75.7°|
|SANAE*||san||SANAE IV, Vesleskarvet, Antarctica||173.2°||South African National Space Agency||South Africa|
|Syowa South*||sys||Showa Station, Antarctica||159.0°||National Institute of Polar Research||Japan|
|Kerguelen||ker||Kerguelen Islands||168.0°||French National Centre for Scientific Research||France|
|TIGER||tig||Bruny Island, Tasmania, Australia||180.0°||La Trobe University||Australia|
|TIGER-Unwin||unw||Awarua, near Invercargill, New Zealand||227.9°|
|Zhongshan||zho||Zhongshan Station, Antarctica||72.5°||Polar Research Institute of China||China|
*: Part of the Southern Hemisphere Auroral Radar Experiment
- Because the SuperDARN network evolved in the west during the late Cold War, coverage of Russia's arctic regions is poor.
- Although there is no shortage of possible sites to cover Russia's arctic regions from Northern Europe and Alaska, the coverage would probably not be of high quality.
- So far there has been no movement within those managing the SuperDARN network to do joint ventures with Russian universities to build the Russian part of the network.
- Although Antarctica is covered reasonably well, the Sub-Antarctic regions do not have uniform coverage.
- Java VM real time display software interoperability (where both poles could be observed at the same time) is still a work in progress.
|SuperDARN in action|
- http://superdarn.jhuapl.edu/info/info.html. Retrieved 2013-07-19
- "National Science Foundation constructs radar facility on FHSU grounds; internship created". Fort Hays State University. August 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-04.[dead link]
- "SuperDARN". Virginia Tech. Retrieved 2015-01-07.
- "APL Part of International Team Expanding Space Weather Radar Network". Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. 2009-08-30. Retrieved 2015-01-07.
Research papers related to SuperDARN and related technologies
Real time display of SuperDarn radar
- Realtime Java applet display (North American Arctic)
Each participating university should be listed here. As these are ongoing research sites, these links are subject to change.
Northern Hemisphere Stations
- Canada : SuperDARN at University of Saskatchewan
- Canada : Canadian Space Agency SuperDARN portal
- US : VT SuperDARN at Virginia Tech
- US :SuperDARN at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute
- US : SuperDARN at Virginia Tech
- US :SuperDARN at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire
- UK : SuperDARN UK
Southern Hemisphere Stations
Media related to Unwin Radar at Wikimedia Commons