||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (January 2013)|
The original design and development of the Synclavier prototype occurred at Dartmouth College with the collaboration of Professor Jon Appleton, Professor of Digital Electronics, Sydney A. Alonso, and Cameron Jones, a software programmer and student at Dartmouth's Thayer School of Engineering.
- 1 History
- 2 Models and options
- 3 Notable users
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
First released in 1977-78 it proved to be highly influential among both electronic music composers and music producers, including Mike Thorne, an early adopter from the commercial world, due to its versatility, its cutting-edge technology, and distinctive sounds. Frank Zappa also made extensive use of the Synclavier.
The early Synclavier Digital Synthesizer used FM synthesis, and was sold mostly to universities. Some such systems had only a computer and synthesis modules, but no keyboard.
The system evolved in its next generation of product, the Synclavier II, which was released in early 1980 with the strong influence of master synthesist and music producer Denny Jaeger of Oakland, California. It was originally Jaeger's suggestion that the FM synthesis concept be extended to allow four simultaneous channels or voices of synthesis to be triggered with one key depression to allow the final synthesized sound to have much more harmonic series activity. This change greatly improved the overall sound design of the system and was very noticeable.
Synclavier II models used an on/off type keyboard (called the "ORK") while later models, labeled simply "Synclavier", used a weighted velocity- and pressure-sensitive keyboard (called the "VPK") that was licensed from Sequential Circuits and used in their Prophet-T8 synthesizer.
The company evolved the system continuously through the early 1980s to integrate the first 16-bit digital sampling system to magnetic disk, and eventually a 16-bit polyphonic sampling system to memory, as well. The company's product was the only digital sampling system that allowed sample rates to go as high as 100 kHz.
Tapeless studio concept
Ultimately, the system was referred to as the Synclavier Digital Recording "Tapeless Studio" system among many professionals. It was a pioneer system in revolutionizing movie and television sound effects and Foley effects methods of design and production starting at Glen Glenn Sound. Although pricing made it inaccessible for most musicians, it found widespread use among producers and professional recording studios, competing at times in this market with high-end production systems such as the Fairlight CMI.
When the company launched and evolved its technology, there were no off-the-shelf computing systems and integrated software and sound cards. Consequently, all of the hardware from the company's main real-time CPU, all input and output cards, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog cards and all of its memory cards, and more, were all developed internally, as well as all of the software. This was certainly a monumental task at best in those times. In fact, the hardware and software of the company's real-time capability was used in other fields completely remote to music, such as the main Dartmouth College campus computing node computers for one of the USA's first campus-wide computing networks, and in medical data acquisition research projects.
End of manufacture
New England Digital ceased operations in 1993. The bulk of its assets were purchased by Fostex of Japan.
Models and options
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2013)|
- Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer (1973)
- ABLE computer (1975): an early product of New England Digital, was a 16-bit mini-computer on two cards, using a transport triggered architecture architecture. It used a variant of XPL called Scientific XPL for programming. Early applications of the ABLE were for laboratory automation, data collection, and device control. The commercial version of the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer, the Synclavier, was built on this processor.
Digital Synthesis cards
- The FM/Additive synthesis waveforms are produced by the Synclavier Synthesizer cards (named SS1 through SS5). Each set of these five cards produced 8 mono FM voices (later variants supported stereo). The processor handles sending start-stop-setPitch-setParameter commands to the SS card set(s), as well as handling scanning of the keyboard and control panel. There is little public documentation available on these cards, as their design was the unique asset of the Synclavier. However, their structure was similar to other digital synthesizers of the mid-late 1970's realized in Medium Scale Integration (MSI) hardware, such as the Bell Labs Digital Synthesizer.
Black panel models
On 1970s–late 1980s:
- Synclavier I (1977)
- Hand Operated Processor (HOP box): a troubleshooting tool for Synclavier system, connected to ABLE computer via "D01 Front Panel Interface Card".
Terminal: ADM-3A (1975)
- Synclavier II (1979): 8bit FM/Additive synthesis, 32Track Memory Recorder, and ORK keyboard. Earlier models were entirely controlled via ORK keyboard with buttons and wheel; a VT100 terminal was subsequently introduced for editing performances. Later models had a VT640 graphic terminal for graphical audio analysis (described below).
- Original Keyboard (ORK, c.1979): original musical keyboard controller in a wooden chassis, with buttons and silver control wheel on the panel.
- Sample-to-Disk (STD, c.1982): a first commercial hard disk streaming sampler, with 16bit sampling at up to 50 kHz.
- Sample-to-Memory (STM): later option to sample sounds and edit them in computer memory.
- Direct-to-Disk (DTD, c.1984): a first commercial hard disk recording system.
- Signal File Manager: a software program operated via VT640 graphic terminal, enabling 'Additive Resynthesis' and complex audio analysis.
- Digital Guitar Interface
- SMPTE timecode tracking
- MIDI interface
Terminal: DEC VT100 (1978) / VT640
- Synclavier PSMT (1984): a faster ABLE Model C processor based system, with a new 'Multi-Chanel-Distribution' real-time digital controlled analog signal routing technology, and 16bit RAM based stereo sampling subsystem. The monaural FM voice card was doubled up and enabling software panning for stereo output was introduced.
- Velocity/Pressure Keyboard (VPK, c.1984): a weighted velocity/after-pressure sensitive musical keyboard controller, was introduced. This had a black piano lacquer finished chassis, a larger display, additional buttons and a silver control wheel.
Ivory panel models
On late 1980s–1993; operated via Macintosh II as terminal.
- Synclavier 3200
- Synclavier 6400
- Synclavier 9600
- Synclavier TS (Tapeless Studio): consists of "Synclavier" and "Direct-to-Disk"
- Synclavier Post Pro: consists of "Direct-to-Disk"
- Synclavier Post Pro SD (Sound Design): consists of small "Synclavier" and "Direct-to-Disk"
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (January 2013)|
- Tony Banks of Genesis used a Synclavier II (ORK version) on the albums, Genesis and Invisible Touch and their respective tours, along with solo albums and soundtracks of that period, Notably on "Mama" and "Home by the Sea".
- Christopher Boyes: supervising sound editor/sound designer for the film Avatar. He used the Synclavier for blending or layering different sound effects and matching pitches.
- Joel Chadabe: composer/founder of Electronic Music Foundation. In September 1977 he bought the first Synclavier without musical keyboard (ORK), and wrote custom software to control Synclavier via various devices.
- Suzanne Ciani used a Synclavier to design sounds for the Bally Xenon pinball game released in 1980.
- Chick Corea used the Synclavier on various Elektric Band albums from 1986–1991 as well as various Elektric Band tours.
- Paul Davis: singer/songwriter, producer at Monarch Sound in Atlanta.
- Depeche Mode had access to producer Daniel Miller's Synclavier, which was responsible for the character of the sound of Construction Time Again, Some Great Reward and Black Celebration.
- Vince DiCola: used the Synclavier extensively in creating studio albums; also for soundtracks Rocky IV and The Transformers: The Movie
- Patrick Gleeson: film score composer. Used the Synclavier to score Apocalypse Now.
- Paul Hardcastle: composer and musician.
- Michael Hoenig: film scoring work on the Synclavier, including The Wraith.
- Trevor Horn: used the Synclavier to produce records by Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Yes, and Grace Jones (Slave to the Rhythm), among others.
- Mannheim Steamroller: used on most of their albums to present
- Michael Jackson: particularly on his 1982 album Thriller, programming by Steve Porcaro, Brian Banks, and Anthony Marinelli. The gong sound at the beginning of "Beat It" comes courtesy of the Synclavier.
- Eddie Jobson: the 1985 album Theme of Secrets was completely made with a Synclavier.
- Shane Keister: used in the movie Ernest Goes to Camp
- Mark Knopfler: on The Princess Bride soundtrack (1987), with the exception of the guitar sounds, every sound is generated by the Synclavier, including hand claps. On Last Exit to Brooklyn (1989), all sounds except guitar and horns were produced by the Synclavier. Tracking for On Every Street was completed on a Synclavier.
- John McLaughlin used it on the albums Adventures in Radioland and Mahavishnu.
- Pat Metheny: American jazz guitarist.
- Mr. Mister: used Synclavier on albums I Wear the Face, Welcome to the Real World, and Go On....
- Danny Quatrochi used Synclavier on Sting's album The Dream of the Blue Turtles (1985).
- Kashif Saleem, American post-disco and contemporary R&B record producer, multi-instrumentalist, also a creative consultant with the New England Digital Corporation: Bass synthesizer music pioneer and an early Synclavier II avid user who used Synclavier in production, for instance, of his Grammy-nominated instrumental piece "The Mood" (1983). His innovating vocalist-related sampling methods (created using Synclavier) are still in use.
- Howard Shore, film score composer: pictured with a Synclavier on the cover of Berklee Today, Fall 1997.
- Alan Silvestri: in producing the scores for the 1980s films The Clan of the Cave Bear and Flight of the Navigator.
- Paul Simon: on Simon's 1983 album Hearts and Bones, Tom Coppola is credited for Synclavier for "When Numbers Get Serious", "Think Too Much (b)", "Song About the Moon", and "Think Too Much (a)"; and Wells Christie is credited with Synclavier on "Rene And Georgette Magritte With Their Dog After The War". On his 1986 album Graceland, Simon is credited under "Synclavier" for "I Know What I Know" and "Gumboots".
- Mark Snow: film and television score composer; Synclavier used on The X-Files.
- Sting (musician): used the Synclavier extensively in pre-production as he embarked on a solo career. "We Work The Black Seam" rehearsal on YouTube.
- James Stroud: producer who used a Synclavier II on many hit albums he produced.
- Mike Thorne: producer, one of first musicians to buy a Synclavier; used it on records by Siouxsie and the Banshees, Soft Cell ("Tainted Love"), Marc Almond, and Bronski Beat, among others.
- Pete Townshend: started using the Synclavier since the recording of All the Best Cowboys Have Chinese Eyes and all albums after.
- Triumph: Rik Emmett used a Synclavier 9600 around the period of Thunder Seven to Surveillance.
- Whodini: Synclavier II was used on albums Escape and Back In Black.
- Stevie Wonder: Used a Synclavier to sample the voices of Clair Huxtable and children in an episode of The Cosby Show.
- Frank Zappa: in 1982 one of the first Synclavier owners; 1984's Thing-Fish (underscoring), Boulez Conducts Zappa: The Perfect Stranger (underscoring) and Francesco Zappa (solely Synclavier); 1985's Frank Zappa Meets the Mothers of Prevention (sampled sounds); 1986's Grammy-winning album Jazz from Hell ("St. Etienne" excepted, solely Synclavier); 1994's Civilization Phaze III completed in 1993 shortly before his death, released posthumously, musical portions composed and recorded exclusively using the Synclavier. Zappa also used the instrument to create the music released in 2011 on Feeding the Monkies at Ma Maison.
- "History of Masters Program in Digital Musics". Dartmouth College. Archived from the original on 2009-10-12.
- Joel Chadabe (May 1, 2001). "The Electronic Century Part IV: The Seeds of the Future". Electronic Musician.
In September 1977, I bought the first Synclavier, although mine came without the special keyboard and control panel ...
- "1978 New England Digital Synclavier". Mix (Penton Media). September 1, 2006.
- ABLE Series Hardware Reference Manual. New England Digital Corporation, 110pp.
- Creating Programs for ABLE Series Computers. New England Digital Corporation, 1978, 39pp.
- Scientific XPL for New England Digital Corporation's ABLE Series Computers. New England Digital Corporation, 1978, 74pp.
- "Synclavier Early History". Synclavier European Services.
- "Synclavier Hardware". Synhouse Multimedia.
- Synclavier Manual III Reference Guide III. Synclavier Digital. February 2007. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18.
- Nicholas Webb, "Interview with Roland GR User Pat Metheny", Roland GR-300 Modification and More (Wayne Scott Joness (Composer))
- "Roland G-303 Guitar Synthesizer Controller", Roland GR-300 Modification and More (Wayne Scott Joness (Composer))
- "Keyboard". Tony Banks unofficial website. lakeofsilence.de.
- Blair Jackson (Jan 1, 2010). "Avator — Jame Cameron and Audio Team Create a New World of Futuristic Sounds". Mix (Penton Media).
- "Omni-Suzanne Ciani".
- Darter, Tom; Doerschuk, Bob (2008). "The state of the artist". In Ernie Rideout. Keyboard Presents the Best of the '80s: The Artists, Instruments, and Techniques of an Era. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 15–19. ISBN 0-87930-930-X.
- "yahoo groups interview with Paul Davis". 2007.
- Droney, Maureen (September 1, 2001). "Dave Hard Drive Pensado". Mix (Los Angeles: Penton Media). Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- Interview with Glen Hammarstrom
- Keyboard Magazine, May 1985, p. 40
- Trynka, Paul (1996). Rock Hardware. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 1983. ISBN 978-0-87930-428-7.[verification needed]
- "list of synclavier users". 2012.
- Amato, Mia (July 12, 1986). "NED Synclavier Seminar Offers Sound Solutions". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.) 98 (28): 40. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Warner, Timothy (2003). Pop music: technology and creativity : Trevor Horn and the digital revolution. Ashgate popular and folk music. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-7546-3132-X.
- Keyboard Magazine, Sept 1995, p. 32
- Milner, Greg (2009). Perfecting Sound Forever: An Aural History of Recorded Music. Macmillan. p. 323. ISBN 0-571-21165-8.
- The ending titles of the movie
- Musician (Amordian Press) (153–158): 34. 1991. Missing or empty
- Stump, Paul (2000). Go ahead John: the music of John McLaughlin. SAF Publishing Ltd. pp. 173–174. ISBN 0-946719-24-1.
- Keyboard Magazine, Dec 1987, p. 31
- "Review: The Dream of the Blue Turtles". Stereo Review (CBS Magazines) 50 (1): 154. 1985.
- Harry, Weinger (20 Oct 1984). "Kashif Juggles Multi-Layered". Billboard 96: 42.
- [Q&A: Kashif – Music History in the Making http://soultrain.com/2012/01/23/qa-kashif-music-history-in-the-making/] (January 23, 2012). Soul Train. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- Kashif | Biography | AllMusic.com. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2014-04-24
- "(cover page)". Berklee Today (Berklee college of music) 9 (Fall 1997, No.2).
- Hagen, Earle (1990). Advanced techniques for film scoring: a complete text. Alfred Music Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 0-88284-447-4.
- "Wells Christie's biography". WellsChristie.com.
- Keyboard Magazine, Aug 1983, p. 32
- Milner 2009, p. 345.
- Keyboard Magazine, Aug 1981, p. 28
- Keyboard Magazine, July 1986, p.42
- Keyboard Magazine, Nov 1986, p. 42
- "the cosby show_stevie wonder's recording session".
- Lowe, Kelly Fisher (2007). The Words and Music of Frank Zappa. Bison Books, University of Nebraska Press. pp. 195–197. ISBN 0-8032-6005-9.
- "What Makes The Synclavier So Special And Different?" Steve Hills, Synclavier European Services
- Synclavier Early History