Tan Kim Ching

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Tan Kim Ching (Chinese: 陳金鐘; pinyin: Chén Jīnzhōng; Wade–Giles: Chen Chin-chung; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tân Kim-tsing; 1829-Feb 1892) was a Singaporean politician and businessman. He was the eldest of the three sons of Tan Tock Seng, the founder and financier of Tan Tock Seng Hospital.[1] He was consul for Japan, Thailand and Russia, and was a member of the Royal Court of Siam. He was one of Singapore’s leading Chinese merchants and was one of its richest men at that time. He was also the first Asian member of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.[2][3][4][5] After his father, Tan Tock Seng's death, he became the Kapitan China of the Straits Chinese community.[6] He is believed to have been the Head of the Triad in Malaya.[7]

Businessman[edit]

In his day, Tan Kim Ching was one of Singapore’s leading Chinese merchants, one of the richest men in Singapore and had sizable business interests in Singapore, Siam, Vietnam and Malaya. His business boomed with rice mills he owned in Bangkok and Saigon.[8]

Upon the death of his father, the name of the firm "Tan Tock Seng" - mainly involved in the rice business - was changed to "Tan Kim Ching". The business was carried on at "River-Side" (now known as Boat Quay) from 1851 to 1859 by Tan Kim Ching as sole owner. In 1860, having admitted his brother Tan Swee Lim as a partner, the firm was known as "Tan Kim Ching & Brother", chop Chin Seng Ho, but a few months later Tan Swee Lim left the firm. The business which finally became known as "Kim Ching & Co." chop Chin Seng (成行) attained considerable success, and he bought rice mills at Saigon, Siam and elsewhere which supplied him with his milled rice. In 1888, the company opened a branch in Hong Kong.[4][8]

Apart from the rice business he had mining concessions in Patani, whose workers he could supply with his own rice. He was one of the earliest merchants to import silk from China. He also involved himself in the shipping business.

In 1863, he came up with $120,000 to found and set up the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company (the forerunner of today's Port of Singapore Authority), purchased two steamships, "Siam" and "Singapore" and promoted the Tanjong Pagar Dock Co.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

Some historians have said that the history of Kraburi began with its Governor[15] Tan Kim Ching. He was a Siamese official and had tin mining operations in the Kra province.[16][17]

British Ally[edit]

He played a significant role in fostering relationships between Singapore and the Colonial Government on the one hand, and Siam and its ruler King Mongkut (Rama IV) on the other.[14]

He helped Sir Harry Ord secure a new treaty with Kedah in 1867, and played an integral role in ending the Larut wars by getting Abdullah to seek British intervention, which led to the signing of treaties at Pangkor.[18]

Man of the People in Singapore[edit]

When the Hokkien-Teochew Riots which broke out on 5 May 1854 over 400 people were killed during 10 days of violence. In a meeting with British Authorities, Tan Kim Ching represented the Hokkiens and with his assurance and that of Seah Eu Chin of the Teochews, the situation was brought to an end.

A man of influence in Singapore, Hokkien marriages were often solemnized in his office and the marriage certificates authenticated with the company rubber stamp.

In 1860 the Hokkien Huay Kuan was established in the premises of the Hock Keng Temple at Telok Ayer Street and Tan Kim Ching was installed as its first leader. He held the position of President for 30 years. He was especially noted for his establishment of a marriage registry for the Hokkiens.[19]

In 1864, he was elected to the Grand Jury as one of five Chinese members on the jury.

In 1865 he was made a Justice of the Peace by the British Straits Settlements government.

In 1888, he was appointed to the Municipal Council.

He was also made a Kapitan Cina, responsible for the conduct and administration of the Chinese population in Singapore.

He was fluent in Malay and was arguably the most powerful Chinese leader in the region in the 19th century.

Tan Kim Ching, Anna and The King of Siam[edit]

This illustrious scion of the Tan family played a key role in strengthening ties between Singapore and Siam. Tan Kim Ching had a very close relationship with the royal family of Siam and often served as their go-between. In recognising the importance of his role, he was appointed ‘the first Siamese Consul in Singapore’ by King Mongkut in 1863 and in 1885, King Chulalongkorn elevated his title to that of Consul-General. He was bestowed the Royal Title Phraya Astongt Disrarak Siamprajanukulkij.[17] He was also Special Commissioner for Siam in the Straits Settlements.[20][21][22]

He introduced his business partner in Singapore, Read, to the Siamese King in the late 1850s when the King desired to get out of a disadvantageous treaty with France.[23]

He had great influence on the Chinese outside the Colony, especially in the northern Malay States bordering Siam, viz. Kelantan and Patani (originally all the Malay states were vassals of Siam but British intervention brought them under the control of the British Empire as "independent states". Eventually Patani was reannexed in 1909 as part of the Kingdom of Siam). Exercising this influence, during the time of Sir Andrew Clarke, Tan Kim Ching was instrumental in settling a difficulty, that arose between the Siamese and Perak governments.

When King Mongkut of Siam also known as King Rama IV wanted to find someone who would help educate the members of his immediate family without attempting to convert them through use of Christian indoctrination it was to his Consul in Singapore, Tan Kim Ching, that he turned, pointing out "It is not pleasant to us if the school mistress much morely endeavour to convert the scholars to Christianity than teaching language literature etc. like the American missionaries here." In response, and upon a suggestion from William Adamson[24][25][26][27][28][29] of The Borneo Company, Tan Kim Ching recommend a suitable teacher in Singapore at that time who happened to be Anna Leonowens, a young widow, looking for work to support herself and two children. The story of the schoolteacher and the King of Siam has been made popular through the films The King And I (Yul Brynner and Deborah Kerr) and Anna and the King (Chow, Yun Fatt and Jodie Foster).[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]

When the King and Queen of Siam landed in Singapore in 1890 they stayed at Tan Kim Ching's house, "Siam house", in North Bridge Road. It was reported that The King, who was expected to arrive in Singapore at Tanjong Pagar Wharf on board the royal vessel "Ubon Burratit" on 30 May 1890, had landed at Johnston’s Pier instead. Due to the late arrival, only Tan Kim Ching was at the Pier to receive him.[14]

When His Majesty wished to acquire property in Singapore it was to Tan Kim Ching that he turned, resulting in the acquisition of "Hurricane House" in the vicinity of Orchard Road.[38][39]

Philanthropy[edit]

Tan Kim Ching And The Tan Tock Seng Hospital[edit]

On 25 July 1844, the foundation stone of the Tan Tock Seng Hospital was laid on Pearl's Hill. The stone was laid but the construction took 3 years. After that the hospital stayed empty for another 2 years because of insufficient funding. In 1852, in order to ease overcrowding at the hospital founded by his father Tan Tock Seng, Tan Kim Ching offered timely assistance - to bear the cost of additions to the building which was approximately two thousand dollars ($2,000). His generous gesture led to many other merchants increasing monthly subscriptions to Tan Tock Seng Hospital.

By 1854 the additions were completed. An inscription engraved in stone at the hospital gate acknowledges the donation of $3,000 by Tan Kim Ching. After all of that it was decided that the Tan Tock Seng Hospital had to move as the government wanted to build a new building. Tan Kim Ching agreed to the move, on condition that the rebuilt hospital should not cost less than the original one. He also requested for a female ward, which his mother paid for in 1858 to perpetuate the memory of Tan Tock Seng. In 1858, two years after the government's decision to acquire Pearl's Hill, construction work began and Tan Kim Ching donated an additional $3,340.[40][41][42]

Tan Kim Ching And The Tan Si Chong Su[edit]

Tan Kim Ching together with Tan Swee Beng donated funds to build an ancestral temple to serve the needs of the Tan Clan (people bearing the Tan surname) and in 1876 the Tan Si Chong Su was built.[43]

Others[edit]

In 1849, when the Chinese school Chung Wen Ge was built, he donated $100.

In 1854, he donated $150 towards the construction of the Chui Eng School.

Royal Asiatic Society[edit]

In March 1878 the The Straits Asiatic Society (formed on November 4, 1877) was renamed the The Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society and Tan Kim Ching was one of its founding members.[44]

Klang Concessionaire[edit]

In 1866 Tan Kim Ching, along with William Henry Macleod Read (Chairman of the Straits Chamber of Commerce), secured the lease for Klang from Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang. Among the benefits of this lease arrangement was being able to collect taxes. Their attempts to collect taxes from Raja Mahdi whose father Raja Sulaiman was Klang's Headman, however, sparked off a civil war that became known as The Klang War or The Selangor Civil War.[45]

The Larut Wars and The Pangkor Engagement[edit]

See articles at Larut War and Pangkor Engagement

Tan Kim Ching was a member of the Ghee Hin secret society and a supporter of the Raja Muda Abdullah of Perak and the Ghee Hin in Larut. It was Tan Kim Ching who had encouraged Abdullah to write seeking the involvement of the British.

Released from his arrest at sea, and his temporary incarceration on Penang, and forbidden return to Perak, Abdullah ventured to Singapore in October 1873 to seek help from the Ghee Hin there. Had Ngah Ibrahim not already aligned himself with the Hai San, he would not have got it. As it was, he arrived at an accommodation with Tan Kim Ching whose influence among the Chinese, at that time, was without comparison. After going through the introduction provided by the Ghi Hin from Penang Tan Kim Ching offered to put Abdullah on the throne in return for five elevenths (5/11) of all duties collected between Telok Serah and Krian for a period of ten years.[46][47][48][49]

Tan Kim Ching together with an English merchant in Singapore (W. H. M. Read) drafted a letter to Governor Sir Andrew Clarke, which Abdullah signed, in which Raja Muda Abdullah expressed his desire to place Perak under British protection, and "to have a man of sufficient abilities to show him a good system of government."[48]

In British Intervention in Malaya 1867-1877 Parkinson tells us that Sir Andrew Clarke, just weeks after his arrival in Singapore, had already found evidence of the continuing disturbances in Perak and Selangor. Apart from his executive council, he talked to Tan Kim Cheng. Clarke decided that both the Hai San and Ghee Hin should have access to Larut with neither side being excluded, a complete reversal of the policy of his predecessor, Sir Harry Ord. Tan Kim Ching agreed and wrote to the Ghee Hin on Penang to put this to them and advocate peace.

Clarke then sent Pickering to Penang to talk to the respective headmen in Penang. Pickering gave Tan Kim Ching's letter to Chin Ah Yam. Twenty Ghee Hin headmen met through the night at the Ghee Hin Kongsi house considering Tan Kim Cheng's letter. In the morning they met with Pickering and agreed to surrender their forces in seven days time.

Following that outcome and the outcome of a meeting with Chung Keng Quee whom Pickering also met, Sir Andrew Clarke then gathered the main Chinese leaders (principally Chung Keng Quee and Chin Ah Yam and some Malays – including Abdullah – at Pulau Pangkor where the ‘Pangkor Engagement’ was formulated and signed, recognising Abdullah as Sultan, and getting the Chinese to agree to settle their differences in Larut under British arbitration.[50][51][52]

Singapore Syndicates[edit]

During the tenure of Chiu Sin Yong's Revenue Farming syndicate in Singapore, backed by Khoo Thean Poh, Tan Kim Ching testified against Cheang Hong Lim and his group who had mobilized all of their allies and affiliates and organized a conspiracy to scuttle Chiu's farming syndicate. Tan Kim Cheng's testimony was a godsend for Chiu and Khoo. Tan Kim Ching and his father Tan Tock Seng, representing most of the Malacca-born Hockien, led the Haizhang group while their arch rivals Cheang Sam Teo and his son, Cheang Hong Lim led the Zhang Hai group, the division between Hockien migrants from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.[53][54]

Commendations[edit]

  • Commander of the Third Class of the Order of the Rising Sun of Japan.
  • Special letter of thanks from the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Sir Andrew Clarke, for his role in settling a difficulty that arose between the Siamese and Perak governments.
  • Special letter and honour from China for his contribution to the Famine Fund in 1890.

His Children[edit]

He had the following children through his marriage to CHUA, Yee Ren (1st marriage)
(also known as CHUA, Seah Neo; CHUA, Ee Jin; CHUA, Xiao Hui):[55]
i. TAN Sian Kee (d: BEF FEB 1892)
ii. TAN, Soon Toh (1853–1892)
iii. TAN, Keck Geang (d: 1886 in Bangkok, Thailand)
iv. TAN, Cheng Gay Neo (d: AFT Feb 1892)
v. TAN, Lan Neo
vi. TAN, Hway Neo
vii. TAN, Woon Neo (b: ABT 1858)

He had the following children through his marriage to KHUNYING, Puen Anukulsiamkit (2nd marriage):[55]
i. TAN Siew Kong b: BEF FEB 1892
ii. TAN Hay Leng b: BEF FEB 1892 in Thailand, d: 1943 in Singapore
iii. TAN Choon Neo b: 20 APR 1887 in Thailand

He had the following children through his third marriage:[55]
i. TAN, Kee Chuan
ii. TAN, Boon Nin
iii. TAN, TAN Eng Say (b: 1878)
iv. TAN, Kuang Liang
v. TAN, Lai Neo
vi. TAN, Leng Neo (b: EST 1865)
vii. TAN, Kiat Neo
viii. TAN, Cheok Neo
ix. TAN, Koh Neo (b: ABT 1855; 21 MAR 1944)

His daughter, Tan Cheng Gay Neo, who had been taught Chinese and also a little English, was the first among those appointed trustees of his estate to take out probate of his will- one of the rare instances of a Chinese lady being appointed and assuming the duties of executrix of the will of a Chinese testator.[56]

Five of his grandsons, Tan Boo Liat, Tan Cheow Pin, Tan Kwee Liang, Tan Kwee Swee and Tan Kwee Wah (all sons of the late Tan Soon Toh) were very well known members of the Chinese community.[57]

Final years[edit]

Towards the end of his life a prosecution was instituted against him for keeping slaves, but he was discharged. He died in February 1892 and his remains were interred at his private burial ground at the thirteenth mile on the Changi Road.

At his death, he was the owner of the steamers "Siam" and "Singapore", and of a large number of concessions, including some at Mount Ophir, Kampong Rusa, Patani and various others, which had not been prospected.

His Funeral[edit]

Reports from local and foreign newspapers of the time suggest the high esteem in which he was held and give us an idea of what it was like. For example, an Australian paper, The North Queensland Register, quoting The Singapore Free Press Reports:[58]

"The remains of the late Mr Tan Kim Ching were this morning removed with more than usual pomp and display from his residence in North Bridge Road for interment in his private burial ground at Changi.

Judging by the long lines of spectators and the throngs of Orientals at all the windows and street corners, all along the route of the procession, the ceremony was one of more than ordinary interest to the many sections of the Chinese community who were, thus represented, and who had assembled in thousands to do honour to the head of the Seh Tan, the deceased having, been for years one of the leading citizens in Singapore.

Mr Tan Kim Ching was during his lifetime Consul-General for Siam, and as representing His Siamese Majesty there were in attendance three Siamese priests, who took part in the unwieldy yet orderly procession, which covered more than a mile in length.

Leading the procession, which was unusually picturesque on account of t e numerous, costly and rainbow tinted presentation banners freely subscribed for by the deceased's compatriots, was a gigantic figure which cost 40dol, some 15 feet or more in height, by name the Kye Loh Sin, a kind of Chinese Beelzebub whose functions was to act in some sort as a scarecrow for devils. And sufficiently terrible for this purpose he looked with his stark, staring red face and huge rolling eyes in violent oscillation with every jolt of his wooden car.

Following these were the bearers of the titles of the deceased, which were apparently many and varied, other Mandarin monstrosities, painted Kling, Malay and Malacca bands, and innumerable detachments of discordant Chinese with a never ceasing rumble of drums and banging of brazen instruments.

The coffin according to custom was carried in a most elaborate palanquin with a highly decorated a canopy the whole structure being carried by a band of 72 coolies in mourning costume. In the rear were the females of the deceased's family clad in sackcloth.

The funeral cortege left the house in North Bridge Road shortly after eleven o'clock, and proceeded slowly along, via the Lochore Police Station, past the Gas Works to the thirteenth milestone is on the Changi Koai, the great body of the procession however, dispersing at a refreshment booth on the line of route. The interment proper, all things being favourable, and the astral influences sufficiently benign, will take place this evening about eight o'clock."

Testimonial[edit]

Vaughan, Jonas Daniel, 1825-1891 in The manners and customs of the Chinese of the Straits Settlements, 1879, p. 22

"It is usual in the Straits to speak of well-to-do Chinamen as gentlemen but as a fact, very few of them would be entitled to the distinction in China; and none with exception perhaps of the Honorable Mr. Whampoa, a member of the Legislative Council of this Colony, and Consul for China, and Mr. Tan Kim Ching the Siamese Consul who has some Chinese rank, none would be allowed to stand upright in the presence of a Mandarin."

Posthumous Reference[edit]

The setting up of the Tao Nan School, established on 18 November 1906, financed by the Hokkien Huay Kuan (which was led by Tan Kim Ching before he died), was initiated by Tan Boo Liat, the grandson of Tan Kim Ching. Tan Kim Ching's residence at Siam House served as temporary grounds for the school which moved to its own premises in Armenian Street and later Marine Parade (1982).[6][59]

Although he was buried in Changi, his grave was transferred to Bukit Brown in 1940.

Notes/References[edit]

  1. ^ An Anecdotal History of Old Times in Singapore By Charles Burton Buckley Published 1965 University of Malaya Press, 1965; pp. 411, 412, 620
  2. ^ The Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society - its History, Publications and Distributions in Ancient and Modern Times by Tan Sri Dato Mubin Sheppard
  3. ^ One Hundred Years' History of the Chinese in Singapore: Being a Chronological Record of the Contribution by the Chinese Community to the Development, Progress and Prosperity of Singapore ... from the Foundation of Singapore on 6 February 1819 to Its Centenary on 6 February 1919 By Ong Siang Song Published by Murray, 1923 reprinted Singapore, 1967, 1975 and 1984; ISBN 0-19-582603-5, ISBN 978-0-19-582603-6; pp. xiv, xv, xix, 40, 63, 92, 193
  4. ^ a b Tan Tock Seng, Pioneer: His Life, Times, Contributions, and Legacy By Kamala Devi Dhoraisingam, Dhoraisingam S. Samuel Published by Natural History Publications (Borneo), 2003; ISBN 983-812-079-0, ISBN 978-983-812-079-1; p. 79
  5. ^ Chinese Society in Nineteenth Century Singapore By Poh Ping Lee Published by Oxford University Press, 1978; ISBN 0-19-580384-1, ISBN 978-0-19-580384-6; p. 54
  6. ^ a b Singapore: A Pictorial History 1819-2000 By Gretchen Liu Published by Routledge, 2001; ISBN 0-7007-1584-3, ISBN 978-0-7007-1584-8; pp. 88, 169, 398
  7. ^ Triad societies: western accounts of the history, sociology and linguistics.... By Kingsley Bolton, Christopher Hutton et al pg 275
  8. ^ a b Capital and Entrepreneurship in South-East Asia By Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown, 1943- Brown Published by St. Martin's Press, 1994; ISBN 0-312-12096-6, ISBN 978-0-312-12096-2; p. 128
  9. ^ A History of Singapore, 1819-1988: 1819-1988 By Constance Mary Turnbull Published by Oxford University Press, 1989; ISBN 0-19-588911-8, ISBN 978-0-19-588911-6; p. 92, 93, 99
  10. ^ Historical Dictionary of Singapore By K. Mulliner, Lian The-Mulliner Published by Scarecrow Press, 1991; ISBN 0-8108-2504-X, 9780810825048; pp. 63, 146, 148
  11. ^ The American Neptune By Peabody Museum of Salem, Peabody Essex Museum Published by Peabody Museum of Salem, 1966; Item notes: v.26-27 1966-1967; p. 113
  12. ^ Management of Success: The Moulding of Modern Singapore By Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley, Syed Hussein Alatas Published by Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1989; ISBN 9971-988-96-8, ISBN 978-9971-988-96-8; p. 12
  13. ^ Tanjong Pagar: A Pictorial Journey (1819-1989) = Tan-jung Pa-ko Tʻu Pʻien Chi By Tanjong Pagar Constituency (Singapore, Tanjong Pagar Citizens' Consultative Committee, Tanjong Pagar Constituency (Singapore), Tanjong Pagar Citizens' Consultative Committee Published by Tanjong Pagar Constituency, 1989; ISBN 981-3002-27-1, ISBN 978-981-3002-27-2; p. 182
  14. ^ a b c An Ode To Friendship: Celebrating Singapore-Thailand Relations, Heritage 05 (April June) Newsletter, by Wong Wee Hon, Head (Archives Reference Room) / National Archives of Singapore, the National Heritage Board of Singapore published the National Heritage Board, National Archives of Singapore.
  15. ^ Tan Tock Seng, Pioneer: His Life, Times, Contributions, and Legacy By Kamala Devi Dhoraisingam, Dhoraisingam S. Samuel Published by Natural History Publications (Borneo), 2003; ISBN 983-812-079-0, ISBN 978-983-812-079-1; p. 82
  16. ^ The Political Economy of Siam, 1910-1932 By Chatthip Nartsupha, Suthy Prasartset, Montri Chenvidyakarn, Montrī Čhēnwitkān Published by Social Science Association of Thailand, 1981; p. 127, 131
  17. ^ a b The Greek Favourite of the King of Siam By Sitsayamkan (Sit) Published by Donald Moore Press, 1967; p. xiv
  18. ^ The Imperial Frontier in the Tropics, 1865-75: A Study of British Colonial Policy in West Africa, Malaya and the South Pacific in the Age of Gladstone and Disraeli By W. David McIntyre Published by St. Martin's P., 1967; pp. 165, 292
  19. ^ Social Change and the Chinese in Singapore: A Socio-economic Geography with Special Reference to Bāng Structure By Lim Keak Cheng Published by Singapore University Press, 1985; ISBN 9971-69-077-2, ISBN 978-9971-69-077-9; pp. 31, 204, 234
  20. ^ Nineteenth-century Malaya: The Origins of British Political Control By Charles Donald Cowan Published by Oxford University Press, 1961; pp. 56, 57, 285
  21. ^ Triad Societies: Western Accounts of the History, Sociology and Linguistics of Chinese Secret Societies By Kingsley Bolton, Gustaaf Schlegel, Herbert Allen Giles, Christopher Hutton, J. S. M. Ward, Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne, W. P. Morgan, William Stanton, W. G. Stirling Contributor Kingsley Bolton, Chris Hutton Published by Taylor & Francis, 2000; ISBN 0-415-24397-1, ISBN 978-0-415-24397-1; p. 75 etc.
  22. ^ The Colonial Office List for ... By Great Britain Colonial Office Published by Harrison, 1916 Item notes: v.1889; p. 232
  23. ^ An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and Other Histories of Sumatra By Anthony Reid Published by NUS Press, 2005 ISBN 9971-69-298-8, ISBN 978-9971-69-298-8; p. 254
  24. ^ The Borneo Story: The History of the First 100 Years of Trading in the Far East by the Borneo Company Limited By Henry Longhurst Published by Newman Neame, 1956; pp. 34, 36, 48
  25. ^ Historical Foundations of Globalization By James Foreman-Peck Contributor James Foreman-Peck Published by Edward Elgar, 1998; ISBN 1-85898-678-8, ISBN 978-1-85898-678-4; p. 427
  26. ^ One Hundred Years of Singapore: Being Some Account of the Capital of the Straits Settlements from Its Foundation by Sir Stamford Raffles on 6 February 1819 to 6 February 1919 By Walter Makepeace, Gilbert Edward Brooke, Roland St. John Braddell Published by Murray, 1921; Item notes: v.2; p. 185
  27. ^ A King of Siam Speaks By Mongkut, Seni Pramoj Published by Siam Society, 1987; ISBN 974-8298-12-4, ISBN 978-974-8298-12-2; p. 216
  28. ^ Anna Leonowens: A Life Beyond the King and I By Leslie Smith Dow Published by Pottersfield Press, 1991; ISBN 0-919001-69-6, ISBN 978-0-919001-69-5; p. 11
  29. ^ Far Eastern Economic Review By Far Eastern Economic Review Ltd, ProQuest, Bell & Howell Information and Learning Published by [Review Pub. Co. Ltd., etc.], 1946; p. 397
  30. ^ James Brooke of Sarawak: A Biography of Sir James Brooke By Emily Hahn Published by A. Barker, 1953; p. 251
  31. ^ Cavenagh Private Letterbooks Volume XI Oct 1865 To Oct 1868 and Volume VII 10 Jul 1863 To 27 Dec 1863, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  32. ^ The English Governess at the Siamese Court -- Being Recollections of Six Years in the Royal Palace at Bangkok by Anna Hariette Leonowens, 26 July 1870
  33. ^ The Borneo Story: The History of the First 100 Years of Trading in the Far East by the Borneo Company Limited By Henry Longhurst Published by Newman Neame, 1956; pp. 51, 52
  34. ^ Anna and the King of Siam By Margaret Landon, Margaret Ayer, Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection (Library of Congress) Illustrated by Margaret Ayer Contributor Edith Goodkind Rosenwald Published by The John Day company, 1944; pp. 21, 74
  35. ^ Thailand: An Introduction to Modern Siam By Noel Fairchild Busch Published by Van Nostrand, 1959; pp. 63, 64
  36. ^ Mongkut, the King of Siam By Abbot Low Moffat Published by Cornell University Press, 1968; pp. 167, 168
  37. ^ Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan By Asiatic Society of Japan Published by The Society, 1993; Item notes: ser.4 v.8-10 (1993-95); p. 75
  38. ^ The Straits Settlements, 1826-67: Indian Presidency to Crown Colony By Constance Mary Turnbull Published by Athlone Press, 1972; 32, 125, 296
  39. ^ Family and State: The Formation of a Sino-Thai Tin-mining Dynasty, 1797-1932 By Jennifer Wayne Cushman, Craig J. Reynolds Contributor Craig J. Reynolds Published by Oxford University Press, 1991; ISBN 0-19-588966-5, ISBN 978-0-19-588966-6; pp. 31, 32, 33
  40. ^ Tan Tock Seng, Pioneer: His Life, Times, Contributions, and Legacy By Kamala Devi Dhoraisingam, Dhoraisingam S. Samuel Published by Natural History Publications (Borneo), 2003; ISBN 983-812-079-0, ISBN 978-983-812-079-1; pp. 52, 56, 57
  41. ^ An Anecdotal History of Old Times in Singapore, from the Foundation of the Settlement Under the Honourable the East India Company, on 6 Feb. 1819, to the Transfer to the Colonial Office as Part of the Colonial Possessions of the Crown on 1 April 1867 By Charles Burton Buckley Published by Fraser & Neave, 1902 and republished by University of Malaya Press, 1965; Item notes: v.2; pp. 411, 412, 620
  42. ^ One Hundred Years of Singapore: Being Some Account of the Capital of the Straits Settlements from Its Foundation by Sir Stamford Raffles on 6 February 1819 to 6 February 1919 By Walter Makepeace, Gilbert Edward Brooke, Roland St. John Braddel Published by J. Murray, 1921; p. 496
  43. ^ A History of Singapore Architecture: The Making of a City By Jane Beamish, Jane Ferguson Published by G. Brash, 1989; ISBN 9971-947-97-8, ISBN 978-9971-947-97-2; pp. 55, 182
  44. ^ One Hundred Years' History of the Chinese in Singapore By Ong Siang Song Published by Oxford University Press, 1985; ISBN 0-19-582603-5, ISBN 978-0-19-582603-6; p. 193
  45. ^ British Trade and Expansion in Southeast Asia, 1830-1914 By D. R. Sardesai Contributor D. R. Sardesai Published by South Asia Books, 1977; p. 151
  46. ^ The Making of Modern South-East Asia: The Western Impact - Economic and Social Change V. 2 By D. J. M. Tate Published by Oxford University Press, 1971; Item notes: v.1; pp. 278
  47. ^ The Imperial Frontier in the Tropics, 1865-75: A Study of British Colonial Policy in West Africa, Malaya and the South Pacific in the Age of Gladstone and Disraeli By W. David McIntyre Published by St. Martin's P., 1967; p. 292
  48. ^ a b The Journals of J. W. W. Birch, First British Resident to Perak, 1874-1875: First British Resident to Perak, 1874-75 By James Wheeler Woodford Birch, Peter Laurie Burns; Contributor Peter Laurie Burns, Published by Oxford University Press, 1976; pp. 16, 17, 18, 43
  49. ^ Letters to Henrietta By Isabella Lucy Bird, Kay Chubbuck, Henrietta Amelia Bird Contributor Kay Chubbuck Published by UPNE, 2003; ISBN 1-55553-554-2, ISBN 978-1-55553-554-4; p. 313
  50. ^ The Protected Malay States, 1874-1895 By Emily Sadka Published by University of Malaya Press, 1968; 81, 83, 84
  51. ^ A Short History of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei By Constance Mary Turnbull Published by Cassell Australia, 1979; ISBN 0-7269-8725-5, ISBN 978-0-7269-8725-0; 134, 137, 139
  52. ^ Pasir Salak: pusat gerakan menentang British di Perak By Abdullah Zakaria Ghazali, Abdullah Published by Yayasan Perak, 1997; ISBN 983-100-036-6, ISBN 978-983-100-036-6; p. 63
  53. ^ Singapore: Wealth, Power and the Culture of Control By Carl A. Trocki Published by Routledge, 2006; ISBN 0-415-26386-7, ISBN 978-0-415-26386-3; pp. 24, 25, 31, 32, 50, 91, 94, 96
  54. ^ Yen 1986: 181-91
  55. ^ a b c TAN Lawrence, 25 APR 2012. Family Tree on Rootsweb
  56. ^ The Directory & Chronicle for China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands India, Borneo, the Philippines, &c. ; with which are Incorporated "The China Directory" and "The Hongkong Directory and Hong List for the Far East" ...: With which are Incorporated ... Published by The Hongkong Daily Press Office, 1894; Item notes: 1894; pp. 325, 345
  57. ^ Sunny Singapore By John Angus Bethune Cook Published by E. Stock, 1907
  58. ^ The North Queensland Register (Townsville, Qld. : 1892 - 1905), Wed 6 Jul 1892, P7(S)
  59. ^ The Babas By Felix Chia Published by Times Books International, 1980; ISBN 9971-65-058-4, ISBN 978-9971-65-058-2; p. 86

See also[edit]

  1. Chung Keng Quee
  2. From Competition to Constraint: The International Rice Trade in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries A. J. H. Latham University of Wales, Swansea
  3. Transcultural Diaspora: The Straits Chinese in Singapore, 1819-1918 by MR Frost
  4. The Big Five Hokkien Families in Penang, 1830s–1890s
  5. Chinese Capitalism and the British Empire By Carl A. Trocki A paper presented to the International Association of Historians of Asia, Conference, Taiwan, Taipei, 6-10 December 2004
  6. Pioneers of Singapore: Builders of Our Land By Lee Chin Lim, Soon Onn Chan Contributor Lee Chin Lim Published by Asiapac, 2004; ISBN 981-229-387-6, ISBN 978-981-229-387-9
  7. "Singapore Story" by the National Library Board of Singapore
  8. The Golden Chersonese and The Way Thither by Isabella L. Bird (Mrs. Bishop) published 1892 G.P. Putnam's Sons
  9. James Brooke of Sarawak: A Biography of Sir James Brooke - Page 251 by Emily Hahn - 1953 - 271 pages, Published 1953 by A. Barker
  10. An Ode To Friendship—Celebrating Thailand-Singapore Relations, Mr Wong Wee Hon, Head (Archives Reference Room), National Archives of Singapore
  11. Tanjong Pagar: A Pictorial Journey (1819–1989) = Tan-Jung Pa-Ko T'u P'Ien Chi - Page 88 1989 - 149 pages Published 1989 by Tanjong Pagar Citizens'Consultative Committee
  12. The Kuomintang Movement in British Malaya, 1912-1949 By Ching Fatt Yong, R. B. McKenna Published 1990, SUP
  13. Singapore: Wealth, Power And The Culture Of Control By Carl A. Trocki Published 2006 Routledge (UK)
  14. The Greek Favourite of the King of Siam - Page xiv by Sitsayamkan (Sit) - 1967 - 362 pages Published 1967 Donald Moore Press
  15. Handbook to Singapore with Map, and a Plan of the Botanical Gardens By George Murray Reith Published 1892 Singapore and Straits Print. Off.
  16. Anna and the King of Siam - Page 74 by Margaret Landon, Lessing J. Published 1944 John Day Company, Incorporated
  17. Thailand: an introduction to modern Siam - Page 63 by Noel Fairchild Busch - 1959 - 166 pages Published 1959 Van Nostrand
  18. The Political Economy of Siam, 1910-1932 - Page 127 by Chatthip Nartsupha, Suthy Prasartset, Montri Chenvidyakarn, Samākhom Sangkhommasāt hǣng Prathēt Thai, Montrī Čhēnwitkān - 1981 - 253 pages Published 1981 Social Science Association of Thailand
  19. Manners and Customs of the Chinese of the Straits Settlements - Page 112 by Jonas Daniel Vaughan - 1971 - 136 pages Published 1974 Oxford University Press
  20. The American Neptune ... - Page 113 by Peabody Museum of Salem - 1941 Published 1941 Peabody Museum of Salem
  21. Play and Politics: Recollections of Malaya by W. H. M. Read - 1901 - 178 pages Page 38 Published 1901 Darto
  22. The Management of Success: the moulding of modern Singapore By Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley, Syed Hussein Alatas Published 1989 Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ISBN 9971-988-96-8
  23. Chinese Business in the Making of a Malay State, 1882-1941 By Walter Ullmann, Xiao An Wu, Kedah and Penang Published 2003 Routledge (UK) ISBN 0-415-30176-9
  24. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society - Page xii by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Malaysian Branch - Published 1922
  25. Singapore Then & Now, Ray Tyers, University Education Press, 1976
  26. The London Illustrated News, 6 March 1858
  27. The Free Press, 31 May 1890
  28. The Sunday Times, 30 November 1969
  29. A King of Siam Speaks By M.R. Kukrit Pramoj, Mongkut, Seni Pramoj Published 1987 by The Siam Society ISBN 974-8298-12-4
  30. From Competition to Constraint: The International Rice Trade in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, A. J. H. Latham, University of Wales, Swansea
  31. Tao Nan School by Mr Dhoraisingam S. Samuel
  32. Lim Siew Yeen & Renuka M, National Library Board, Singapore, 2002
  33. The King of Siam's Eclipse: The Total Solar Eclipse of 18 August 1868 by Heather Hobden
  34. Ancestors of Claudine Chionh, Claudine Chionh, 2005
  35. Lawrence Tan's Family Tree, Lawrence Tan
  36. Koh Saeng Tat - The Opium King by Carl A Trocki
  37. Lecture 3.2 The underside of Development, Topic 3: Singapore's Economic Development, Associate Professor Karl Hack, Humanities and Social Studies Education Academic Group, National Institute of Education
  38. Class Structure and Social Mobility in the Chinese Community in Singapore and Malaya 1800-1911
  39. Yen Ching-Hwang Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3 (1987), pp. 417–445
  40. Chinese Capitalism and the British Empire By Carl A. Trocki—A paper presented to the International Association of Historians of Asia, Conference, Taiwan, Taipei, 6–10 December 2004
  41. The Siamese Royal Agent in Singapore: The Activities of Tan Kim Ching by Miyamata, Toshiyuki., Southeast Asia: History & Culture, Number 31, 30 May 2002
  42. "Rescuing Businesses through Transnationalism: Embedded Chinese Enterprise and Nationalist Activities in Singapore in the 1930s Great Depression" by Kuo, Huei-Ying, Enterprise & Society - Volume 7, Number 1, March 2006, pp. 98–127
  43. The rice trade between Siam and Singapore in the late nineteenth century : Tan Kim Ching and Siam 'Garden Rice' by Sooyoon Lee
  44. The Straits Settlements, 1826-67: Indian Presidency to Crown Colony By Constance Mary Turnbull Published by Athlone Press, 1972; pp. 32, 125, 296
  45. Methodist Schools in Malaysia: Their Record and History By Seng Ong Ho Published by Board of Education, Malaya Annual Conference, 1965; p. 209
  46. Journeys to Java by a Siamese King By Imtip Pattajoti Suharto Published by Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand, 2001; ISBN 979-9299-32-2, ISBN 978-979-9299-32-1; p. 5, 20
  47. American Association of Singapore, 50th Anniversary: 50th Anniversary By American Association of Singapore, Glenn A. Wood Published by American Association of Singapore, 1967; p. 21
  48. Siam and the British, 1874-75: Sir Andrew Clarke and the Front Palace Crisis By Shunyu Xie Published by Thammasat University Press, 1988; p. 42
  49. Play and Politics, Recollection of Malaya by an Old Resident By William Henry Macleod Read published in London by W. Gardner Darton, 1901 (Call no.: RRARE 959 503 REA); p. 38
  50. Zhongguo hai yang fa zhan shi lun wen ji By Zhongguo hai yang fa zhan shi lun wen ji bian ji wei yuan hui, Zhong yang yan jiu yuan San min zhu yi yan jiu suo, Zhong yang yan jiu yuan Zhongshan ren wen she hui ke xue yan jiu suo Published by Zhong yang yan jiu yuan san min zhu yi yan jiu suo, 1984; Item notes: v.5 (1993)
  51. An Early Surveyor in Singapore: John Turnbull Thomson in Singapore, 1841-1853 By John Hall-Jones, Christopher Hooi Published by National Museum, 1979; p. 135
  52. Nghiên cứu Huế By Trung tâm nghiên cứu Huế Published by Trung tâm nghiên cứu Huế, 2002; Item notes: v.4; p. 70
  53. Estudios del archipiélago asiático: Bajo el punto de vista geográfico, histórico, agrícola, colonial, político y commercial By Balbino Cortés Published by Impr. de A.A. Babi, 1861; p. 114
  54. Xingzhou shi nian By Chupu Guan Published by Xing zhou ri bao, 1940
  55. 新社學報 By Island Society (Singapore) Published by Xin she, 1967; Item notes: v.1-3 1967-1969; p. 63
  56. The Siamese Royal Agent in Singapore: The Activities of Tan Kim Ching by MIYATA Toshiyuki Southeast Asia: History and Culture (Academic Journal, 2002 ) 31 /, 27-56
  57. Straits Times SINGAPORE: TUESDAY, JAN 24TH,1854., Page 4
  58. Tan Kim Cheng's Estate., The Straits Times, 16 December 1913, Page 8
  59. The Straits Times, 3 November 1913, Page 3
  60. The Straits Times, 28 March 1928, Page 7
  61. The Straits Times, 20 November 1913, Page 5
  62. The Straits Times, 3 October 1913, Page 5
  63. The Straits Times, 7 November 1913, Page 10
  64. The Straits Times, 7 March 1913, Page 14
  65. The Straits Times, 24 November 1913, Page 14