Comédie-Italienne or Théâtre-Italien are French names which have been used to refer to Italian-language theatre and opera when performed in France. The earliest recorded visits by Italian players were commedia dell'arte companies employed by the French court under the Italian-born queens Catherine de Medici and Marie de Medici. The first official use of the name Comédie-Italienne was in 1680, when it was given to the commedia dell'arte troupe at the Hôtel de Bourgogne in Paris, to distinguish it from the French troupe, the Comédie-Française, which was founded that year, and just as the name Théâtre-Français was commonly applied to the latter, Théâtre-Italien was used for the Italians. Over time French phrases, songs, whole scenes, and eventually entire plays were incorporated into the Comédie-Italienne's performances. By 1762 the company was merged with the Opéra-Comique, but the names Comédie-Italienne and Théâtre-Italien continued to be used, even though the repertory soon became almost exclusively French opéra-comique. The names were dropped completely in 1801, when the company was merged with the Théâtre Feydeau. From 1801 to 1878, Théâtre-Italien was used for a succession of Parisian opera companies performing Italian opera in Italian, and in 1980 the name Comédie-Italienne was revived for a theatre in the Montparnasse district of Paris, presenting Italian commedia dell'arte plays in French translation.
The Comédie-Italienne in the 17th century
In the 17th century, the historical Comédie-Italienne was supported by the king. At that time, a distinction was made between so-called legitimate theatre, which could be performed in royally-sanctioned theatres, and the more lowbrow street theatre, which did not undergo the scrutiny of royal censors. The troupe performed in the Hôtel de Bourgogne up to 1645, at which time they moved to Petit Bourbon. In 1660 they moved to the Palais-Royal, where they performed in alternation with the troupe of Molière until both were evicted by Lully's Académie royale de Musique in 1673. Both companies then moved to the Théâtre Guénégaud, where they continued to perform in alternation until the establishment of the Comédie-Française in 1680, at which time the Comédie-Italienne returned to the Hôtel de Bourgogne and performed there until their expulsion in 1697.
The historical Comédie-Italienne presented to the French-speaking public spectacles performed by professional Italian actors. At first, these actors performed commedia dell'arte in their native Italian. Commedia dell'arte is an improvisational type of theatre; there were no scripts. They had multiple scenarios that they would pick from to perform, but inside that scenario they really did not have anything else planned out. They did however have specific character types, called Stock Characters, that became famous and loved by the theatre goers. The actors later worked with the greatest French playwrights of the era, from Molière to Marivaux, along with Dufresny, Regnard, Houdar de la Motte, Nolant de Fatouville (fr), Brugière de Barente, Évariste Gherardi, Jacques Losme de Monchesnay, Palaprat, Eustache Le Noble, Louis Biancolelli, Mongin or Boisfranc. Around the same time the troupe became widely popular, King Louis XIV gave the newly formed national theatre of France, the Comedie Francaise, a monopoly on spoken French drama. The royalty saw the troupe's cooperation with French playwrights as a threat and began to consider refusing the troupe their annual pension.
In 1697, a single event caused the King to finalize his decision.The actors had just announced upcoming performances of the play La fausse prude, or The False Hypocrite, a play that directly ridiculed King Louis XIV of France's wife, Madame de Maintenon. There is a debate among scholars as to whether or not the play was actually performed or if the play was simply advertised and the King learned of its existence. Regardless, upon his knowledge of the play's existence, the king had the actors sent away and the theatre shut down.
The Comédie-Italienne in the 18th century
After the period of mourning following the death of Louis XIV in 1716, the oppressive atmosphere of religious devotion characteristic of the latter part of his reign began to lift. Philippe d'Orléans, the Regent, was particularly desirous of restoring pleasure and amusement to the capital. He and his friends fondly remembered the Théâtre-Italien from twenty years previous. The main options for theatre in Paris at the time were the highly refined productions of the Comédie-Française or the "crude and tasteless" performances of the fair theatres. There was a need for theatrical comedy somewhere in between, with greater popular appeal than the Comédie-Française, but higher production values than those of the theatres at the fairs. In the spring of 1716 Philippe asked his cousin, the Duke of Parma, to send him a troupe of Italian actors to revive the Comédie-Italienne in Paris, which had been disbanded nearly twenty years previous. To avoid some of the difficulties of the earlier troupe, he specified that its leader should be a man of good character and manners. Luigi Riccoboni was chosen, and in a few weeks he assembled a group of ten actors, all of whom were devout Christians.
Riccoboni's troupe performed at the Palais-Royal from 18 May 1716 until the Hôtel de Bourgogne had been renovated. Their first performance in the renovated Bourgogne theatre was on 1 June, when they performed La Folle supposée (La Finta Pazza) in Italian.
In 1762, the company merged with the Opéra-Comique of the Théâtre de la Foire. The combined company opened at the Bourgogne on 3 February 1762 and continued to perform in the theatre until 4 April 1783, after which they moved to the new Salle Favart. During this period the company created a new style of performance which combined French elegance and Italian exuberance, which is what the troupe had sought to do from the beginning.
Italian opera in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries
The first operas shown in Paris (in the mid-17th century) had been Italian; however, Italian opera was quickly abandoned in favour of French opera, as witnessed by the creation of the Académie Royale de Musique. Despite this, over the course of the 18th century, Italian musical performers came to Paris. In particular, in 1752, performances of the opera buffa La serva padrona led to the Querelle des Bouffons, a debate about the relative superiorities of French and Italian musical traditions.
In 1787, after the particular success of one troupe of Italian singers, came the idea of establishing a resident theatrical company for opera buffa. This initiative became reality in January 1789 with the founding of the Théâtre de Monsieur company, which was soon put under the auspices of the Count of Provence, the king's brother, and derived its name from the Count. They first performed at the Tuileries Palace theatre, before moving to the Théâtre Feydeau. However, in 1792, the Italian troupe departed due to the upheaval of the French Revolution, but the theatre continued presenting French plays and opéra-comique.
The Théâtre-Italien in the 19th century
The Théâtre-Italien of Paris was re-formed in 1801 by Mademoiselle Montansier, when it was officially known as the Opera Buffa, but more familiarly as the Bouffons. The company first performed at the Théâtre Olympique on the rue de la Victoire, but moved to the Salle Favart on 17 January 1802. Montansier retired on 21 March 1803. The company performed opera seria as well as opera buffa. From 9 July 1804 it performed at the Théâtre Louvois (fr), and from 16 June 1808, at the Théâtre de l'Odéon, at that time called the "Théâtre de l'Impératrice". They stayed there until 1815.
At the time of the Bourbon Restoration, King Louis XVIII wanted to entrust the theatre to the soprano Angelica Catalani. Almost everything was set for the transfer, when the return of Napoleon and his reign of a Hundred Days disrupted the King's plans. The actors therefore stayed a little longer at the Théâtre de l'Impératrice. Upon the restoration of King Louis XVIII to power, Madame Catalani joined the troupe. However, she soon went on a tour across Europe, leaving control of the theatre to Ferdinando Paër.
In 1818, Madame Catalani's privilège, or royal permission to perform, was revoked, and the theatre shut down. It was then decided to hand over administration of the theatre, now known as the "Théâtre royal italien", to the Academie Royale de Musique, while maintaining the autonomy of each establishment. This system only lasted until 1827, when the theatre regained its independence from the crown and lost the appellation "royal". The Théâtre-Italien later made known the works of William Shakespeare to the Parisian public.
The Théâtre-Italien settled permanently in the Salle Ventadour in 1841. It saw the premiere of Rossini's Stabat Mater there in 1842. The Théâtre-Italien also produced popular works by Gaetano Donizetti, Giacomo Meyerbeer, and Giuseppe Verdi, but the theatre was later forced to close in 1878.
Venues of the 19th-century Théâtre-Italien
|Salle Olympique||31 May 1801 – 13 January 1802||Located on the rue de la Victoire.|
|Salle Favart (1st)||17 January 1802 – 19 May 1804|
|Salle Louvois||9 July 1804 – 4 August 1808|
|Salle de l'Odéon (2nd)||16 June 1808 – 30 September 1815|
|Salle Favart (1st)||2 October 1815 – 20 April 1818|
|Salle Louvois||20 March 1819 – 8 November 1825|
|Salle Favart (1st)||12 November 1825 – 14 January 1838||Destroyed by fire 14 January 1838.|
|Salle Ventadour||30 January 1838 – 31 March 1838|
|Salle de l'Odéon (3rd)||October 1838 – 31 March 1841|
|Salle Ventadour||2 October 1841 – 28 June 1878||Final performance 28 June 1878.|
The modern Comédie-Italienne
The present-day Comédie-Italienne is situated on the rue de la Gaîté (fr), where it was established in 1980 by the director Attilio Maggiulli, after the closing of his Teatrino Italiano, founded in 1975 on the avenue du Maine. The Comédie-Italienne remains the only Italian theatre in France and performs exclusively plays by Italian writers, classic and contemporary, in French translation.
- Hartnoll 1983, p. 168; Roy 1995, p. 233.
- "Historique du Théâtre" at La Comédie Italienne website.
- Forman 2010, p. 82.
- Wild 1989, pp. 100–101.
- Brenner 1961, pp. 1–2.
- Brenner 1961, pp. 2–3, 47.
- "Comédie-Italienne", DictionaryCentral.com
- Wild 1989, pp. 229–232.
- Charlton 1992.
- Wild 1989, p. 195.
- Wild 1989, p. 196.
- The information in the table is from Charlton, 1992, pp. 867, 870–871; Wild 1989, pp. 194–209.
- Barbier (1995), pp. 174–175.
- Baschet, Armand (1882). Les comédiens italiens à la cour de France sous Charles IX, Henri III, Henri IV et Louis XIII. Paris: Plon. Copy at Google Books; Copies 1 & 2 at Internet Archive.
- Boudet, Micheline (2001). La Comédie Italienne: Marivaux et Silvia. Paris: Albin Michel. ISBN 9782226130013.
- Brenner, Clarence D. (1961). The Théâtre Italien: Its Repertory, 1716–1793. Berkeley: University of California Press. OCLC 2167834.
- Campardon, Émile (1880). Les comédiens du roi de la troupe italienne (2 volumes). Paris: Berger-Levrault. Copies at Internet Archive.
- Castil-Blaze (1856). L'Opéra italien de 1645 à 1855. Paris: Castil-Blaze. Copies at Internet Archive.
- Charlton, David (1992). "Paris. 4. 1789–1870. (v) The Théâtre Italien", vol. 3, pp. 870–871, in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 4 volumes, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan. ISBN 9781561592289.
- Di Profio, Alessandro (2003). La révolution des Bouffons. L'opéra italien au Théâtre de Monsieur, 1789–1792. Paris: Éditions du CNRS. ISBN 9782271060174.
- Forman, Edward (2010). Historical Dictionary of French Theater. Lanham: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810849396.
- Hartnoll, Phyllis, editor (1983). The Oxford Companion to the Theatre (fourth edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192115461.
- Origny, Antoine d' (1788). Annales du théâtre italien depuis son origine jusqu'à ce jour (3 volumes). Paris: Veuve Duchesne. Reprint: Geneva: Slatkine (1970). Vols. 1, 2, and 3 at Google Books.
- Roy, Donald (1995). "Comédie-Italienne", pp. 233–234, in The Cambridge Guide to the Theatre, edited by Martin Banham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521434379.
- Scott, Virginia (1990). The Commedia dell'Arte in Paris, 1644–1697. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. ISBN 9780813912554.
- Soubiès, Albert (1913). Le théâtre italien de 1801 à 1913. Paris: Fischbacher. Copy at Internet Archive.
- Wild, Nicole (). Dictionnaire des théâtres parisiens au XIXe siècle: les théâtres et la musique. Paris: Aux Amateurs de livres. ISBN 9780828825863. ISBN 9782905053800 (paperback). View formats and editions at WorldCat.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Comédie-Italienne.|
- Comédie-Italienne official website
- Le théâtre italien à Paris
- List of all the performances at the Comédie-Italienne from 1783 to 1800 on the site CÉSAR