|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2014)|
|Cover artist||Cliff Nielsen|
|Series||The Giver Quartet|
|Genre||Social Science Fiction, dystopia|
|ISBN||ISBN 0-553-57133-8 (paperback edition)|
|LC Class||PZ7.L9673 Gi 1993|
|Followed by||Gathering Blue|
The Giver is a 1993 American children's novel (generally Young Adult or older) by Lois Lowry. It is set in a society which is at first presented as a utopian society but gradually appears more and more dystopian. The novel follows a boy named Jonas through the twelfth and thirteenth years of his life. The society has eliminated pain and strife by converting to "Sameness," a plan that has also eradicated emotional depth from their lives. Jonas is selected to inherit the position of Receiver of Memory, the person who stores all the past memories of the time before Sameness, in case they are ever needed to aid in decisions that others lack the experience to make. Jonas learns the truth about his dystopian society and struggles with its weight. The Community lacks any color, memory, climate and terrain whatsoever, all part of Sameness and this emphasizes the dystopian qualities of the Community.
The Giver won the 1994 Newbery Medal and has sold more than 10 million copies. In Australia, Canada, and the United States, it is a part of many middle school reading lists, but it is also on many challenged book lists and appeared on the American Library Association's list of most challenged books of the 1990s.
Jonas, who is 11, is apprehensive about the upcoming Ceremony where he will be assigned his job or his "assignment in the community." In his society, little privacy is allowed; even private houses have two-way intercoms which can be used to listen in for infractions of the rules. However, the rules appear to be readily accepted by all, including Jonas. So it is without real protest that he initially accepts with his selection as the Receiver of Memories, a job he is told will be filled with pain and the training for which will isolate him from his family and friends forever.
Yet, under the guidance of the present Receiver, a surprisingly kind man who has the same rare, pale eyes as Jonas, the boy absorbs memories that induce for the first time feelings of true happiness and love. Also, for the first time, Jonas knows what it is to see a rainbow, and to experience snow and the thrill of riding a sled down a hill. But then he is given the painful memories: war, pain, death, and starvation. These are memories of the Community's deep past. Jonas learns that the Community engineered a society of "sameness" to protect its people against this past, yet he begins to understand the tremendous loss he and his people have endured by giving their memories away, embracing "sameness", and using "climate control".
In his "community," which is under extreme control, there is no suffering, hunger, war, and also no color, music, or love. Everything is controlled by "the Elders," who are looked upon in a very positive light, though they control who will marry whom, where children are placed, and what everyone will be "assigned" as a job. The people in the community do not have the freedom to choose. Jonas aches with this new found wisdom and his desire for a life Elsewhere blossoms. But the final blow for Jonas comes when he asks the Receiver (who now calls himself "The Giver") what "release" is. The Giver says that he could show him, and allows Jonas to watch a present-day tape of his own father, a seemingly kind and loving man, "releasing" a baby twin by giving him a lethal injection. Like any other "aberration" from sameness, identical twins are against the rules, so the smaller of the two is dispatched like garbage, without the one who conducted the release understanding the true meaning of the action. Together, Jonas and the Giver come to the understanding that the time for change is now, that the Community has lost its way and must have its memories returned. The only way to make this happen is if Jonas leaves the Community, at which time the memories he has been given will flood back into the people. Jonas wants the Giver to escape with him, but the Giver insists that he will be needed to help the people manage the memories, or they will destroy themselves. The Giver also wants to remain behind so that when his work is done, he can be with his daughter, Rosemary, a girl with pale eyes who ten years earlier had failed in her training to become the new Receiver of Memories and who had asked to be released (the memories of pain and loneliness having overwhelmed her).
The Giver devises a plot in which Jonas will escape to Elsewhere, an unknown land that exists beyond the boundaries of the Communities. The Giver will make it appear as if Jonas drowned in the river so that the search for him will be limited. In the meantime, the Giver will give Jonas memories of strength and courage to sustain him and save up his meals as Jonas' food and water supply for his journey.
Their plan is changed when Jonas learns that Gabriel, the baby staying with his family unit, will be "released" the following morning. Jonas has become attached to the baby, who also has unusual pale eyes, and feels he has no choice but to escape with the infant. Without the memories of strength and courage promised by the Giver, Jonas steals his father's bike and leaves with Gabriel to find the Elsewhere. Their escape ride is fraught with dangers, and the two are near death from cold and starvation when they reach the border of what Jonas believes must be Elsewhere. Using his ability to "see beyond," a gift that he does not quite understand, he finds a sled waiting for him at the top of a snowy hill. He and Gabriel ride the sled down towards a house filled with coloured lights and warmth and love and a Christmas tree, and for the first time he hears something he knows must be music. The ending is ambiguous, with Jonas depicted as experiencing symptoms of hypothermia. This leaves his and Gabriel's future unresolved. However, their fate is revealed in Messenger, a companion novel written much later.
Literary significance and criticism
Some reviewers have commented that the story lacks originality and is not likely to stand up to the sort of probing literary criticism used in "serious" circles, while others argue that books appealing to a young-adult audience are critical for building a developing reader's appetite for reading. Karen Ray, writing in The New York Times, detects "occasional logical lapses", but adds that the book "is sure to keep older children reading". Young adult fiction author Debra Doyle was more critical stating that "Personal taste aside, The Giver fails the Plausibility Test", and that "Things are the way they are (in the novel) because The Author is Making A Point; things work out the way they do because The Author's Point Requires It".
Natalie Babbitt of The Washington Post was more forgiving, calling Lowry's work "a warning in narrative form", saying:
The story has been told before in a variety of forms—Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 comes to mind—but not, to my knowledge, for children. It's well worth telling, especially by a writer of Lowry's great skill. If it is exceedingly fragile—if, in other words, some situations do not survive that well-known suspension of disbelief—well, so be it. The Giver has things to say that cannot be said too often, and I hope there will be many, many young people who will be willing to listen.
Awards, nominations, and recognition
Lowry won many awards for her work on The Giver, including the following:
- The 1994 Newbery Medal – The John Newbery award (Medal) is given by the Association for Library Service to Children.The award is given for the most distinguished contribution to American literature for children.
- The 1994 Regina Medal
- The 1996 William Allen White Award
- American Library Association listings for "Best Book for Young Adults", "ALA Notable Children's Book", and "100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000."
- A Boston Globe-Horn Book Honor Book
- Booklist Editors' Choice
- A School Library Journal Best Book of the Year
A 2004 study found that it was a common read-aloud book for sixth-graders in schools in San Diego County, California. Based on a 2007 online poll, the National Education Association named the book one of its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children." It was one of the "Top 100 Chapter Books" of all time in a 2012 poll by School Library Journal.
Oregon Children's Theatre (Portland, Oregon) premiered a stage adaptation of The Giver by Eric Coble in March 2006. Subsequent productions of Coble's one-hour script have been presented several American theatres.
In the fall of 1994, actor Bill Cosby and his ASIS Productions film company established an agreement with Lancit Media Productions to adapt The Giver to film. In the years following, members of the partnership changed and the production team grew in size, but little motion was seen toward making the film. At one point, screenwriter Ed Neumeier was signed to create the screenplay. Later, Neumeier was replaced by Todd Alcott and Walden Media became the central production company.
A PC computer game based on the novel was planned by Edutainment Software company Brøderbund in 1995, however it was plagued by delays. Eventually the game was scrapped following the company's sale to The Learning Company, however some audio clips of the game (the titular Giver was fully voice acted by American composer Ry Cooder) have made their way into other media.
The Lyric Opera of Kansas City and the Minnesota Opera co-commissioned and staged a new opera based on the novel in January 2012. It was presented in Minneapolis on 27–29 April 2012, and was webcast live on 18 May 2012.
The film adaptation was given the green light in December 2012. Jeff Bridges had wanted to film the futuristic novel for several years, but encountered obstacles when Warner Bros. bought the rights in 2007. Jeff Bridges plays the title character with Brenton Thwaites in the role of Jonas. Meryl Streep, Katie Holmes, Odeya Rush, Cameron Monaghan, Alexander Skarsgård and Taylor Swift round out the rest of the main cast. It was released in North America on August 15, 2014. Jeff Bridges has said he has wanted to make the film for nearly 20 years, but originally wanted to direct it with his father Lloyd Bridges in the title role. The elder Bridges's 1998 death cancelled that plan and the film languished in development hell for another 15 years.
- New Trailer hits for 'The Giver'
- ,"100 most frequently challenged books: 1990–1999," ALA
- Lois Lowry. "The Trilogy". Retrieved 2011-12-26.
- "The Giver summary". Retrieved on 18th November 2014.
- "'One Book' Reading Promotion Projects", form the Library of Congress's Center for the Book
- Judith Rosen, "Many Cities, Many Picks", Publishers Weekly March 10, 2003 p. 19.
- Marie C. Franklin, "CHILDREN'S LITERATURE: Debate continues over merit of young-adult fare", The Boston Globe, February 23, 1997, p. G1.
- Karen Ray, "Children's Books", The New York Times October 31, 1993.
- , Debra Doyle, SFF Net, accessed July 1, 2008
- Natalie Babbitt, "The Hidden Cost of Contentment", Washington Post May 9, 1993, p. X15.
- Catholic Library Association. "Past Regina Medal Recipients."
- Emporia State University. "William Allen White Children's Book Awards. The Giver; Author. Lois Lowry."
- Fisher, Douglas, et al. (2004). "Interactive Read-Alouds: Is There a Common Set of Implementation Practices?". The Reading Teacher 58 (1): 8¬–17. doi:10.1598/rt.58.1.1. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- National Education Association (2007). "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Bird, Elizabeth (July 7, 2012). "Top 100 Chapter Book Poll Results". School Library Journal "A Fuse #8 Production" blog. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Article on the film adaptation
- "Jeff Bridges and Lancit Media to co-produce No. 1 best seller 'THE GIVER' as feature film", Entertainment Editors September 28, 1994
- Ian Mohr, "Walden gives 'Giver' to Neumeier", Hollywood Reporter July 10, 2003
- "Short Takes: 'Giver' thoughtful; Pillow Project Dance super". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. May 2, 2006.
- Delange, Suzanne (August 5, 2003). "'Transcript of Lois Lowry Interview'". Scholastic.
-  The Giver
-  Minnesota Opera (website)
- Krasnow, David (December 20, 2012). "Lois Lowry Confirms Jeff Bridges to Film The Giver". Studio 360. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Blum, Haley (September 27, 2013). "Taylor Swift is a 'Giver,' not a taker". usatoday.com. Retrieved 2013-09-27.
- Busis, Hillary (September 27, 2013). "Taylor Swift will co-star in long-awaited adaptation of 'The Giver'". Entertainment Weekly.
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