Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
|Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic|
Location of the Transcaucasian SFSR within the Soviet Union.
|Government||Soviet socialist republic|
|-||Established||12 March 1922|
|-||Disestablished||5 December 1936|
|-||1922||186,100 km² (71,854 sq mi)|
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Russian: Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика – ЗСФСР, Zakavkazskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsalisticheskaya Respublika – ZSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Federation, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the TSFSR, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936. It consisted of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. As they were separated from Russia by the Caucasus Mountains, they were known traditionally as the Transcaucasian Republics.
The roots of Transcaucasian condominium state trace back to dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1918, following the October Revolution, when the provinces of the Caucasus seceded and formed their own federal state called the Transcaucasian Federation. Competing ethno-national interests and World War I confrontation with the Ottoman Empire led to the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Federation two months later, in April 1918.
The three successor states lasted until the end of the Russian civil war that was being fought across the mountains, when they were made Soviet Republics by the Red Army. In March 1922 the three republics were united into the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia. The union was renamed into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic in December. The republic became a founding member of the Soviet Union the same month along with the Russian SFSR, the Ukranian SSR, and the Byelorussian SSR. In 1936, the republic was dissolved and divided among the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani SSRs.
Names in the languages of the constituent republics
- Armenian: Անդրկովկասի Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Ֆեդերատիվ Հանրապետություն
- Andrkovkasi Sovetakan Soc‘ialistakan Federativ Hanrapetut‘yun
- Azerbaijani: Загафгазија Совет Федератив Сосиалист Республикасы
- Zaqafqaziya Sovet Federativ Sosialist Cümhuriyyəti
- Georgian: ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა ფედერაციული სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა
- Amierk'avk'asiis Sabch'ota Pederatsiuli Sotsialist'uri Resp'ublik'a
Stamps and postal history
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2011)|
Before 1923, each of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan issued its own postage stamps. The Federation began issuing its own stamps on September 15, 1923, and superseded the separate republics' issues on October 1. The first issues consisted of some of the stamps of Russia and Armenia overprinted with a star containing the five-letter acronym of the federation inside the points. Massive inflation having set in, this was followed by an issue of the Federation's own designs, four values of a view of oil fields, and four with a montage of Soviet symbols over mountains and oil derricks, values ranging from 40,000 to 500,000 rubles. The 40,000 руб and 75,000 руб were then surcharged to 700,000 rubles. On October 24, the stamps were re-issued with values from 1 to 18 gold kopecks. Starting in 1924, the Federation used stamps of the Soviet Union.
Most of the stamps of the Federation are not especially rare today, with 1998 prices in the US$1–2 range, although the overprints on Armenian stamps range up to US$200. As might be expected from a short period of usage, used stamps are less common than unused and covers are not often seen.
Heads of state
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
|Nariman Narimanov||March–December 1922||Communist Party of Azerbaijan|
|Polikarp Mdivani||March–December 1922||Communist Party of Georgia|
|Aleksandr Myasnikyan||March–December 1922||Communist Party of Armenia|
|Nariman Narimanov||1922-1925||Communist Party of Azerbaijan|
|Gazanfar Musabekov||1925-1938||Communist Party of Azerbaijan|
|Mikhail Tskhakaya (1st time)||1922–1927||Georgia|
|Samad aga Aliyev||1922–1929||Azerbaijan|
|Filipp Makharadze (1st time)||1927–1928||Georgia|
|Mikhail Tskhakaya (2nd time)||1928–1931||Georgia|
|Filipp Makharadze (2nd time)||1931–1935||Georgia|
|Sultan Majid Afandiyev||1931–1936||Azerbaijan|
|Avel Enukidze||March–May 1935||Georgia|
|Filipp Makharadze (3rd time)||1935–1936||Georgia|
- Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
- Northern Caucasus
- Far Eastern Republic
- Bavarian Soviet Republic
- Republics of the Soviet Union
- Don Cossack Republic
- "The Soviet Period - History - Azerbaijan - Asia". Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Закавказская федерация. Большая советская энциклопедия, 3-е изд., гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров. Москва: Советская энциклопедия, 1972. Т. 9 (A. M. Prokhorov et al., ed. (1972). "Transcaucasian Federation". Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian) 9. Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia.)