VERITAS

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For other uses, see Veritas (disambiguation).
Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS)
VERITAS array.jpg
VERITAS - array of four telescopes
Organisation VERITAS Collaboration
Location Mount Hopkins, Arizona, USA
at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory
Coordinates 31°40′30.21″N 110°57′07.77″W / 31.6750583°N 110.9521583°W / 31.6750583; -110.9521583
Altitude 1,268 m (4,159 ft)
First light February 1, 2005 (2005-02-01), (first telescope), April 2007 (2007-04) (array)
Telescope style Four Cherenkov Telescopes
Diameter 4 x 12m
Angular resolution 0.08 deg at 1 TeV,
0.13 deg at 200 GeV
Collecting area 100,000 square meters (~1 million square feet)
Website veritas.sao.arizona.edu

VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) is a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory with an array of four 12m optical reflectors for gamma-ray astronomy in the GeV - TeV energy range. VERITAS uses the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope technique to observe gamma-rays. The telescope design is based on the design of the existing 10m gamma-ray telescope of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. It consists of an array of imaging telescopes deployed such that they permit the maximum versatility and give the highest sensitivity in the 50 GeV - 50 TeV band (with maximum sensitivity from 100 GeV to 10 TeV). This very high energy observatory, completed in 2007, effectively complements Fermi.

Specifications & Design[edit]

VERITAS is constructed of four 12m Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes with an approximate separation of 100 meters (330 feet) from each adjacent telescope.[1] The four telescope array is needed for stereoscopic observations. These stereoscopic observations allow the reconstruction of the particle shower geometry, thus giving precise angular and energy resolution. The angular resolution is acquired by finding the center axis of the spread of the shower on each telescope and tracing those lines until they cross. The intersection of these lines is the direction of the source of the gamma ray. This is depicted on the figure to the right. Each telescope sees the particle shower at a specific region in its camera (shown as grey ellipses), and thus the source of the shower can be found.

Geometric reconstruction of a particle shower.

Each of the individual telescopes have a 39 feet aperture, 350 mirrors on each dish, and a 3.5 degree filed of view. The telescopes are built on a Davies-Cotton optical design, which uses a spherical reflector and is easy to construct and align. This design does cause a small time spread in the signal, but this spread is very small (~ 4 nanoseconds).[2] The camera on each telescope has 499 individual PMTs. VERITAS, like other IACTs, are most sensitive to the highest energy cosmic rays. It's full range of sensitivity is from 85 GeV to >30 TeV (although the spectral reconstruction does not start until at least 100 GeV). The energy and angular resolution depend on the Energy of the incident gamma ray but at 1 TeV the energy resolution is ~17%, and the angular resolution is 0.08 degrees. The entire array has an effective area of 100,000 square meters.

In order to distinguish between the background noise (e.g. hadronic showers, starlight, moonlight, and muons)) and the targeted data (i.e. electromagnetic showers produced from gamma rays), VERITAS uses a three-level trigger system. Level one corresponds to the discriminators on each pixel usingconstant fraction discriminators. Level two is a pattern selection trigger, which selects only photon-initiated showers, which have compact shapes, and background pulses, which have more random distributions. Level three is the array trigger which looks for coincidence between multiple telescopes. [3]

The Cherenkov light that is produced by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere is incredibly dim, so VERITAS can only observe under clear, dark skies. Observations are not possible under cloudy or rainy skies, or when the moon is bright. This shrinks the observation time to approximately 70-100 hours each month from September until June. The observatory does not collect data in July or August due to local monsoon conditions.

Computer animation of a particle shower over the VERITAS observatory.

History[edit]

The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System was built as first next generation IACT in the western hemisphere. It was originally planned as an array of seven telescopes, but only four were constructed in the end. [2] Each telescope was based on the design of the Wipple 10m telescope that is also present at the FLWO but with significant updates to the reflector optics, light collection efficiency, signal chain, and recording electronics. This was perceived as a significant step up from the previous generation of instruments such as Whipple, HEGRA, and CAT.[2] The original VERITAS prototype telescope was installed in April 2003 and saw first light in February of 2004.

After, the success of the first telescope, construction was completed on the other three telescopes in January 2007, and the first light celebration for the full 4 telescope array was on April 27-28, 2007. More recently, telescope 1 was moved to a new location for improved sensitivity in the summer of 2009, and in the summer of 2012 all of the camera PMTs were upgraded to high-quantum-efficiency PMTs.

Science[edit]

VERITAS cosmic ray observations further the study of astrophysical objects that emit high-energy cosmic rays, such as:[4]

In October, 2011 the journal Science reported that the Crab Nebula pulsar is emitting gamma rays with energies exceeding 100 billion electron-volts (100 GeV), an observation made at VERITAS.[5]

Mirrors on VERITAS telescope 3

Collaboration[edit]

VERITAS is supported by the United States Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council in Canada, Science Foundation Ireland and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council in the U.K.

The collaboration is composed of several members and other collaborating institutions.

Member Institutions[edit]

Collaborators[edit]

See also[edit]

IACT
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
MAGIC (telescope)
High Energy Stereoscopic System

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perkins, Jeremy S.; Maier, Gernot; The VERITAS Collaboration (2009). "VERITAS Telescope 1 Relocation: Details and Improvements". arXiv:0912.3841 [astro-ph.IM]. 
  2. ^ a b c Krennrich, F.; Bond, I. H.; Boyle, P. J.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Carter-Lewis, D.; Celik, O.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M.; d'Vali, M.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, D. J.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L. F.; Gaidos, J.; Gammell, S.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Hall, J.; Hall, T. A.; Hanna, D.; Hillas, A. M.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Jarvis, A. et al. (2004). "VERITAS: The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System". New Astronomy Reviews 48 (5–6): 345. doi:10.1016/j.newar.2003.12.050.  edit
  3. ^ Error: No DOI specified!
  4. ^ "VERITAS Homepage". Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  5. ^ "Crab Pulsar Dazzles Astronomers with its Gamma-Ray Beams". HARVARD-SMITHSONIAN CENTER FOR ASTROPHYSICS. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 

External links[edit]