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William Elden Bolcom (born May 26, 1938) is an American composer and pianist. He has received the Pulitzer Prize, the National Medal of Arts, two Grammy Awards, the Detroit Music Award and was named 2007 Composer of the Year by Musical America. Bolcom taught composition at the University of Michigan from 1973–2008. He is married to mezzo-soprano Joan Morris.
Life and career
Bolcom was born in Seattle, Washington. At the age of 11, he entered the University of Washington to study composition privately with George Frederick McKay and John Verrall and piano with Madame Berthe Poncy Jacobson. "He later studied with Darius Milhaud at Mills College while working on his Master of Arts degree, with Leland Smith at Stanford University while working on his D.M.A., and with Olivier Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire, where he received the 2ème Prix de Composition."
Bolcom won the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1988 for 12 New Etudes for Piano. In the fall of 1994, he was named the Ross Lee Finney Distinguished University Professor of Composition at the University of Michigan. In 2006, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. Notable students include Gabriela Lena Frank, Carter Pann, and Elena Ruehr.
As a pianist, Bolcom has performed and recorded frequently in collaboration with Joan Morris, whom he married in 1975 (Johnson 2001). Bolcom and Morris have recorded twenty albums together, beginning with After the Ball, a collection of popular songs from around the turn of the 20th century. Their primary specialties in both concerts and recordings are showtunes, parlour, and popular songs from the late 19th and early 20th century, by Henry Russell, Henry Clay Work, and others, and cabaret songs (often from failed musicals). As a soloist, Bolcom has recorded his own compositions, as well as music by Gershwin and Milhaud (Johnson 2001).
Bolcom's compositions have been recognized and highlighted at Michigan State University in their Michigan Writers Series.
- For a complete list, see List of compositions by William Bolcom.
Bolcom's earliest compositions employed serial technique, under the influence of Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Luciano Berio, whose music he particularly admired. In the 1960s he gradually began to embrace an eclectic use of a wider variety of musical styles. His goal has been to erase boundaries between popular and art music (Johnson 2001).
He has composed three major operas, McTeague, A View From the Bridge, and A Wedding, all commissioned and premiered by the Lyric Opera of Chicago conducted by Dennis Russell Davies. All were composed with librettist Arnold Weinstein, sometimes in collaboration with other writers. McTeague, based on the 1899 novel by Frank Norris, with libretto by Weinstein, was premiered on October 31, 1992. A View from the Bridge, with libretto by Weinstein and Arthur Miller, was premiered October 9, 1999. A Wedding, based on the 1978 motion picture by Robert Altman and John Considine, with libretto by Weinstein and Altman, was premiered on December 11, 2004.
He has also composed concertos such as Lyric Concerto for Flute and Orchestra for James Galway, the Concerto in D for violin and orchestra for Sergiu Luca, the Concerto for clarinet and orchestra for Stanley Drucker, and Concert Suite for alto saxophone and band, composed for University of Michigan professor Donald Sinta in 1998. He composed his concerto Gaea for two pianos (left hand) and orchestra for Gary Graffman and Leon Fleisher, both of whom have suffered from debilitating problems with their right hands. It received its first performance on April 11, 1996 by the Baltimore Symphony conducted by David Zinman. The concerto is constructed so that it can be performed in one of three ways, with either piano part alone with reduced orchestra, or with both piano parts and the two reduced orchestras combined into a full orchestra. This structure mimics that of a similar three-in-one work by his teacher, Milhaud.
Bolcom's other works include eight symphonies, eleven string quartets, four violin sonatas, a number of piano rags (one written in collaboration with William Albright), four volumes of Gospel Preludes for organ, four volumes of cabaret songs, three musical theater works (Casino Paradise, Dynamite Tonite, and Greatshot; all with Weinstein), and a one-act chamber opera, Lucrezia, with librettist Mark Campbell. William Bolcom was also commissioned to write Recuerdos for two pianos by The Dranoff International Two Piano Foundation.
Songs of Innocence and of Experience
- Inspiration for the Creation of the Work
- At the age of seventeen, William Bolcom wanted to set the complete poems of Songs of Innocence and of Experience by William Blake to music. As he comprehended the huge diversity of the artistic ideas and the technical styles presented in the poems, he realized that he needed more musical vocabulary of different styles in order to complete his music. This realization also bolstered his ideas that genres of music should not be placed in a hierarchy and that there was no distinction between "serious" music and "popular" music.
- Style and Instrumentation
- Bolcom incorporated a variety of different musical styles and genres in the music, including modern classical style using pentatonic scales, tonal classical style, bluegrass, country, soul, folk vaudeville, rock musical, and reggae. In order to make the genres sound more convincing, Bolcom has used instruments that are not usually used in a traditional orchestra but are used in the genres that he chose: saxophones, guitar, electric guitar, bass guitar, harmonica, electric violin, and "country, rock, and folk singers."
- Premiere and Subsequent Performances
- According to Naxos Records, the premiere of the Songs at the Stuttgart Opera in 1984 was followed by performances in Ann Arbor, Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, St. Louis, Carnegie Hall, and London's Royal Festival Hall, the latter performed by the BBC Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Leonard Slatkin.
- Awards and Reception
- In 2004, Naxos Records produced a recording of the Songs on location at Hill Auditorium, featuring the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance Symphony Orchestra, the student choirs from the same university, University Musical Society Choral Union, Michigan State University Children's Choir, and a variety of solo instrumentalists and singers (who also included Joan Morris, wife of Bolcom). In 2006, it won 3 Grammy Awards for Best Choral Performance, Best Classical Contemporary Composition, and Best Classical Album.
- Composer and critic Robert Carl has stated that Bolcom wrote seemingly disparate genres of music with "sincerity," without irony, "as equal partners," and with "love for and mastery of popular music."
VocalEssence celebrated the music of William Bolcom with a two-week festival in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota in April 2007. Nine different performances and a number of master classes were part of the festival. The spotlight performance was of Bolcom's setting of William Blake's Songs of Innocence and of Experience, performed in Orchestra Hall in Minneapolis with over 400 musicians performing under projections of Blake's accompanying artwork by Wendell K. Harrington.
Eastern Michigan University Celebrated its 16th Biennial Contemporary Music Festival by featuring William Bolcom as a guest composer. The three day festival showcased a range of Bolcom's compositions as well as a discussion on "Musical Grass-Roots" led by Bolcom himself.
- "William Bolcom Biography", WilliamBolcom.com.
- "Michigan Writers Series". Michigan State University Libraries. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Lister, Rodney (2006). WILLIAM BOLCOM: Songs of Innocence and of Experience...Review by Rodney Lister". Tempo. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- "Hu, Chih-long (2004). Interview of William Bolcom, 4 Dec. 2004". Living Music. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- "Bolcom, William. Songs of Innocence and of Experience". William Bolcom. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
- "Naxos (2004). Leonard Slatkin Conducts William Bolcom". Naxos. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- "NPR (2006). William Bolcom Tops Classical Grammy Awards". NPR. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- "Carl, Robert (1990). Six Cases Studies in New American Music: A Postmodern Portrait Gallery". College Music Symposium. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
- Johnson, Steven. 2001. "Bolcom, William (Elden)". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- The Lied and Art Song Texts Page created and mantained from Emily Ezust Texts and titles of vocal settings in alphabetic order.
- William Bolcom and Joan Morris's website
- William Bolcom website
- "The Unrepentant Eclectic" - An Interview with William Bolcom on AdventuresInMusic.biz, 2005 ("one of the best articles on me so far" - WB)
- Information about Michelle and David Murray, performers of Bolcom's Cabaret Songs
- Rags to Riches: Alumnus of the Year