William L. Langer
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|William Leonard Langer|
March 16, 1896|
South Boston, Massachusetts
|Died||December 26, 1977
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
|Monuments||William Langer Award (Central Intelligence Agency#Directorate of Intelligence)|
|Occupation||academic historian, intelligence analyst, policy advisor|
|Home town||South Boston, Massachusetts|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||December 1917-|
William Leonard Langer (March 16, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was the chair of the history department at Harvard University and the World War II volunteer head of the Research and Analysis branch of the Office of Strategic Services. He was the older brother of psychoanalyst Walter Charles Langer.
Born in South Boston, Massachusetts, he was the second of three sons of recent German immigrants, Charles Rudolph and Johanna Rockenbach. His elder brother Rudolph Langer became a mathematician and younger brother Walter Charles Langer, a psychoanalyst.
When William was only three years old, his father died unexpectedly, leaving the family in difficult circumstances. Nevertheless, his mother, who supported the family by working as a dressmaker, made education a priority for her children.
Education, teaching, family
His job and education were interrupted by military service World War I. After the war, he returned to his studies and obtained his Ph.D. in 1923. In 1921, he married Susanne Katherina Langer (née Knauth) who became a noted philosopher. They had two sons together, though later divorced.
He taught Modern European history at Clark University for four years before accepting an assistant professorship at Harvard. In 1936, Langer was appointed the first incumbent of the Archibald Coolidge chair.
With the help of other scholars during the 1930s, Langer completely revised the Epitome of History by German Scholar Karl Ploetz. Langer’s massive work was published in 1940 under the title An Encyclopedia of World History. Its fifth edition (1972) is the last to be edited by Langer. Peter N. Stearns and thirty other prominent historians edited the sixth edition, published in 2001. Stearns paid tribute to Langer's great achievement in the introduction to the new edition.
In 1957 Langer urged historians to expand their insights with techniques from modern psychology.
Langer was an enlisted man in the United States Army Chemical Service in World War I, and saw combat in a chemical weapons unit on the Western Front in France. He described this experience in a book he wrote with another man in his company.
During World War II, Langer served in the new Office of Strategic Services (OSS), where deputy chief, and later chief of the OSS Research and Analysis Branch until the end of the war. In correspondence he was identified as OSS 117, an identifier which entered French popular culture in 1949 for an unrelated iconic fictional character of books and film. He was special assistant for intelligence analysis to the U.S. Secretary of State, James F. Byrnes. In 1950, Langer organized the office of National Estimates in the newly established Central Intelligence Agency. Langer then returned to academia, but from 1961 to 1977 he served on the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.
William Langer was awarded the Bancroft Prize in 1954. Post-war, both Harvard and Yale University awarded Langer LL.D. degrees as did the University of Hamburg in 1955. Among his many involvements, Dr. Langer served as president of the American Historical Association for 1957.
- Langer, William L.; MacMullin, Robert Burns (1919). With "E" of the First Gas. Brooklyn: Holton printing co. revised as: Gas and Flame in World War I (1965)
- An Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged. © 1972, 1968, 1952, 1948, & 1940.
- The Franco-Russian Alliance 1890-1894 (1929)
- European Alliances and Alignments 1870-1890 (1931)
- The Diplomacy of Imperialism (1935) (two volumes)
- Our Vichy Gamble (1947)
- The Challenge to Isolation, 1937-1940 (1952) with S. Everett Gleason
- The Undeclared War, 1940-1941 (1953) with S. Everett Gleason
- Conyers Read, 1881-1959: Scholar, Teacher, Public Servant (M. and V. Dean, 1963)
- Political and Social Upheaval, 1832-1852 (1969)
- "William Leonard Langer" (fee, via Fairfax County Public Library). Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1995. Gale Document Number: GALE|BT2310009409. Retrieved 2014-02-03. Biography in Context. (subscription required)
- Greer, William R. (July 19, 1985). "SUSANNE K. LANGER, PHILOSOPHER, IS DEAD AT 89". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- Vetter, Herbert, ed. (2007). Notable American Unitarians 1936-1961. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Square library. pp. iii, 134. ISBN 978-0-6151-4784-0. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- "William L. Langer: Historian of Diplomacy". Notable American Unitarians. Archived from the original on 2013-12-30. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- "CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence Marks its 50th Anniversary". Central Intelligence Agency. November 4, 2002. Retrieved 2014-02-03. "William Langer Award for outstanding analytic contributions to the DI. Langer - a distinguished scholar and pioneer OSS analyst - was the first chairman of CIA’s Office of National Estimates and later served on the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB). During his career, Langer demonstrated the feasibility of performing intelligence analysis by combining information from multiple intelligence collection disciplines, including imagery, signals intercepts, and human intelligence."
- "Gas and Flame in World War I: The New Weapons of Terror". George Washington University. Retrieved 2014-02-03. "Langer served as an engineer in Company E of the 1st Gas Regiment, Chemical Warfare Service, of the U.S. Army."
- Waggoner, Walter H. (July 10, 1981). "WALTER LANGER IS DEAD AT 82; WROTE SECRET STUDY OF HITLER". New York Times. "Walter Langer was born in Boston on Feb. 9, 1899, the son of Charles Rudolph and Johanna Rockenbach Langer. He was a practicing psychoanalyst from the late 1930's until about 1960, and he was the The brother of William L. Langer, the Harvard historian, and Rudolph Ernest Langer, chairman of the mathematics department at the University of Wisconsin."
- Kann, Peter R. (June 9, 1964). "Historian Langer Enters Retirement After 37 Years On Harvard Faculty". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
- Ostro, Ernest A. (May 25, 1951). "Emeritus Professors Continue Work, Return from Retirement to Teach Fay Came Out of Retirement On Two-Day's Warning to Give History 132 for Langer". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
- "Preface to the First Edition. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History". Archived from the original on 2008-09-06. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
- Rogow, Arnold A. (September 8, 1985). "The World on a Couch". The New York Times. (review of Gay, Peter. Freud for historians.)
- Petersen, Neal H. (ed.). "OSS Code Number Identifications". From Hitler's Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 543. ISBN 0-271-01485-7. LCCN 95-34966. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- "Minutes of Meeting held in Director's Conference Room ... at 1100 hours" (PDF). December 26, 1950. Retrieved 2014-02-03. "William L. Langer, Asst. Dir. for National Estimates"[non-primary source needed]
- In and Out of the Ivory Tower: The Autobiography of William L. Langer (Neele Watson Academic Publications, 1977) ISBN 0-88202-177-X