C. Vann Woodward
Comer Vann Woodward (November 13, 1908 – December 17, 1999) was a preeminent American historian focusing primarily on the American South and race relations. He was considered, along with Richard Hofstadter and Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., to be one of the most influential historians of the postwar era, 1940s-1970s, both by scholars and by the general public. He was long a supporter of the approach of Charles A. Beard, stressing the influence of unseen economic motivations in politics. Stylistically, he was a master of irony and counterpoint. Woodward was on the left end of the history profession in the 1930s. By the 1950s he was a leading liberal and supporter of civil rights. After attacks on him by the New Left in the late 1960s he moved to the right politically.
Early life and education
C. Vann Woodward was born in Vanndale, a town named after his mother's family and the county seat from 1886-1903. It was in Cross County in eastern Arkansas. Woodward attended high school in Morrilton, Arkansas. He attended Henderson-Brown College a small Methodist school in Arkadelphia, for two years. In 1930 he transferred to Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, where his uncle was dean of students and professor of sociology. After graduating, he taught English composition for two years at Georgia Tech in Atlanta. There he met Will W. Alexander, head of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, and J. Saunders Redding, an historian at Atlanta University.
Woodward enrolled in graduate school at Columbia University in 1931 and received his M.A. from that institution in 1932. In New York, Woodward met, and was influenced by, W. E. B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes, and other figures who were associated with the Harlem Renaissance movement. After receiving his Master's degree in 1932, Woodward worked for the defense of Angelo Herndon, a young African-American Communist Party member who had been accused of subversive activities. He also traveled to the Soviet Union and Germany in 1932.
He did graduate work in history and sociology at the University of North Carolina. He was granted a Ph.D. in history in 1937, using as his dissertation the manuscript he had already finished on Thomas E. Watson. Woodward's dissertation director was Howard K. Beale, a Reconstruction specialist who promoted the Beardian economic interpretation of history that deemphasized ideology and ideas and stressed material self-interest as a motivating factor.
Woodward, starting out on the left, wanted to use history to explore dissent. He approached W. E. B. Du Bois about writing about him, and thought of following his biography of Watson with one of Eugene V. Debs. He picked Georgia politician Tom Watson, who in the 1890s was a leader of Populism focusing the anger and hatred of poor whites against the establishment, banks, railroads and businessmen, and who a decade later became the leader in mobilizing the hatred of the same poor whites against blacks, and a promoter of lynching.
The Strange Career of Jim Crow
Woodward's most influential book was The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1955), which explained that segregation was a relatively late development and was not inevitable. After the Supreme Court's "Brown" decision in spring 1954, Woodward gave the Richards Lectures at the University of Virginia. The lectures were published in 1955 as The Strange Career of Jim Crow. With Woodward in the audience in Montgomery, Alabama, in March 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. proclaimed the book "the historical bible of the Civil Rights Movement." It reached a large popular audience and helped shape the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.
Jim Crow laws, Woodward argued, were not part of the immediate aftermath of Reconstruction; they came later and were not inevitable. Following the Compromise of 1877, in the 1870s and 1880s there were localized informal practices of racial separation in some areas of society along with what he termed "forgotten alternatives" in others. Finally the 1890s saw white southerners "capitulate to racism" to create "legally prescribed, rigidly enforced, state-wide Jim Crowism."
The Origins of the New South: 1877-1913
Scholars especially praised The Origins of the New South: 1877-1913, which was published in 1951 by Louisiana State University Press in a prominent multivolume history of the South. It combined the Beardian theme of economic forces shaping history, and the Faulknerian tone of tragedy and declension. He insisted on the discontinuity of the era, and rejected both the romantic ante-bellum popular images of the Lost Cause School as well as the overoptimistic business boosterism of the New South Creed. Sheldon Hackney, a Woodward student hails the book, explaining:
- "Of one thing we may be certain at the outset. The durability of Origins of the New South is not a result of its ennobling and uplifting message. It is the story of the decay and decline of the aristocracy, the suffering and betrayal of the poor whites, and the rise and transformation of a middle class. It is not a happy story. The Redeemers are revealed to be as venal as the carpetbaggers. The declining aristocracy are ineffectual and money hungry, and in the last analysis they subordinated the values of their political and social heritage in order to maintain control over the black population. The poor whites suffered from strange malignancies of racism and conspiracy-mindedness, and the rising middle class was timid and self-interested even in its reform movement. The most sympathetic characters in the whole sordid affair are simply those who are too powerless to be blamed for their actions."
Woodward taught at Johns Hopkins University from 1946 to 1961. He became Sterling Professor of History at Yale from 1961 to 1977, where he taught both graduate students and undergraduates. He did much writing but little original research at Yale, writing frequent essays for such highbrow outlets as the New York Review of Books. He directed scores of PhD dissertations, including those by Patricia Nelson Limerick, Professor of History at the University of Colorado at Boulder; Michael Wayne (historian), Professor of History at the University of Toronto; Steven Hahn, Professor of History at the University of Pennsylvania; John Herbert Roper, Richardson Chair of American History at Emory & Henry College and noted Civil War scholar; and David L. Carlton, professor of History at Vanderbilt University.
British historian Michael O'Brien, the editor of Woodward’s letters in 2013, says that by the 1970s:
- "He became greatly troubled by the rise of the black power movement, disliked affirmative action, never came to grips with feminism, mistrusted what came to be known as ‘theory,’ and became a strong opponent of multiculturalism and 'political correctness.'"
In 1969, as president of the American Historical Association, Woodward led the fight to defeat a proposal by New Left historians to politicize the organization. He wrote his daughter afterwards, "The preparations paid off and I had pretty well second-guessed the Rads on every turn."
In 1974, the United States House Committee on the Judiciary asked Woodward for an historical study of misconduct in previous administrations and how the Presidents responded. Woodward led a group of fourteen historians and they produced a thorough 400 page report in less than four months, Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct.
In 1975-6 Woodward led the unsuccessful fight at Yale to block the temporary appointment of Communist historian Herbert Aptheker to teach a course. Radicals denounced his actions but a joint committee of the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association exonerated the process and found that there was no evidence that political criteria had been used. In 1977 he joined the conservative scholars who made up the National Association of Scholars, a group explicitly opposed to the academic Left. Woodward wrote a favorable review in the New York Review of Books of Dinesh D'Souza's Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus. It said that Duke University used racial criteria when it hired John Hope Franklin; Franklin and Woodward publicly feuded. Hackney says, "Woodward became an open critic of political correctness and in other ways appeared to have shifted his seat at the political table."
In 1978 the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Woodward for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. His lecture, entitled "The European Vision of America," was later incorporated into his book The Old World's New World.
C. Vann Woodward died in Hamden, Connecticut.
The Southern Historical Association has established the C. Vann Woodward Dissertation Prize, awarded annually to the best dissertation on Southern history. There is a Peter V. and C. Vann Woodward Chair of History at Yale; it is now held by southern historian Glenda Gilmore.
Major journal articles by Woodward
- "Tom Watson and the Negro in Agrarian Politics," Journal of Southern History, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1938), pp. 14-33 in JSTOR
- "The Irony of Southern History," Journal of Southern History, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Feb., 1953), pp. 3-19 in JSTOR
- "The Political Legacy of Reconstruction," Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 26, No. 3, The Negro Voter in the South (Summer, 1957), pp. 231-240 in JSTOR
- "The Age of Reinterpretation," American Historical Review, Vol. 66, No. 1 (Oct., 1960), pp. 1-19 in JSTOR
- "Seeds of Failure in Radical Race Policy," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 110, No. 1 (Feb. 18, 1966), pp. 1-9 in JSTOR
- "History and the Third Culture," Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, No. 2, Reappraisals (Apr., 1968), pp. 23-35 in JSTOR
- "The Southern Ethic in a Puritan World," William and Mary Quarterly Vol. 25, No. 3 (Jul., 1968), pp. 344-370 in JSTOR
- "Clio With Soul," Journal of American History, Vol. 56, No. 1 (June, 1969), pp. 5-20 in JSTOR
- "The Future of the Past," American Historical Review, Vol. 75, No. 3 (Feb., 1970), pp. 711-726 in JSTOR
- "The Erosion of Academic Privileges and Immunities," Daedalus, Vol. 103, No. 4, (Fall, 1974), pp. 33-37 in JSTOR
- "The Aging of America," American Historical Review, Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 583-594 in JSTOR
- "The Fall of the American Adam," Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Nov., 1981), pp. 26-34 in JSTOR
- "Strange Career Critics: Long May they Persevere," Journal of American History, Vol. 75, No. 3 (Dec., 1988), pp. 857-868 in JSTOR
- "Look Away, Look Away," Journal of Southern History, Vol. 59, No. 3 (Aug., 1993), pp. 487-504 in JSTOR
Books by Woodward
- Tom Watson, Agrarian Rebel (1938) online.
- The Battle of Leyte Gulf (1947, new ed. 1965) *online
- Origins of the New South, 1877–1913 (1951) ACLS ebook edition
- Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (1951, rev. ed. 1991).
- The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Third Revised Edition (1955; Oxford University Press, 1974). ISBN 0-19-501805-2 ACLS ebook edition
- The Age of Reinterpretation (1961). pamphlet
- The Burden of Southern History (1955; 3rd ed. 1993) ACLS ebook edition
- Maxwell, Angie et al. eds. The Ongoing Burden of Southern History: Politics and Identity in the Twenty-First Century South (Louisiana State University Press; 2013) 240 pages; $interdisciplinary essays on the relevance of Woodward's 1955 book, The Burden of Southern History.
- The Comparative Approach to American History (1968), editor
- American Counterpoint (1971). essays
- Mary Chesnut’s Civil War (1981), editor. Pulitzer prize.
- The Oxford History of the United States (1982–99), series editor.
- The Private Mary Chestnut: The Unpublished Civil War Diaries (1984) edited, with Elizabeth Muhlenfeld.
- Thinking Back: The Perils of Writing History (Louisiana State University Press, 1986). memoirs
- The Old World's New World (1991). lectures
- The Letters of C. Vann Woodward, edited by Michael O'Brien, (Yale U.P. 2013)
- Boles, John B., and Bethany L. Johnson, eds. Origins of the New South Fifty Years Later (2003), articles by scholars online review
- Ferrell, Robert. "C. Vann Woodward" in Clio's Favorites: Leading Historians of the United States, 1945-2000. ed by Robert Allen Rutland; (2000) pp 170-81
- Hackney, Sheldon. "Origins of the New South in Retrospect," Journal of Southern History (1972) 38#2 pp. 191-216 in JSTOR
- Hackney, Sheldon. "C. Vann Woodward: 13 November 1908-17 December 1999," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (2001) 145#2 pp 233-240 in JSTOR
- Hackney, Sheldon. "C. Vann Woodward, Dissenter," Historically Speaking (2009) 10#1 pp. 31-34 in Project MUSE
- Kousser, J. Morgan and James McPherson, eds. Religion, Race and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward (1982), festschrift of articles; also lists most of his PhD students
- Lerner, Mitchell, “Conquering the Hearts of the People: Lyndon Johnson, C. Vann Woodward, and ‘The Irony of Southern History,’” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 115 (Oct. 2011), 155–71.
- Potter, David M. "C. Vann Woodward," in Pastmasters: Some Essays on American Historians, ed. Marcus Cunliffe and Robin W. Winks (1969).
- Rabinowitz, Howard N. "More Than the Woodward Thesis: Assessing The Strange Career of Jim Crow," Journal of American History (1988) 75#3 pp 842-856. in JSTOR
- Woodward, C. Vann. "Strange Career Critics: Long May They Persevere," Journal of American History (1988) 75#3 pp 857-868. a reply to Rabinowitz, in JSTOR
- Roper, John Herbert. C. Vann Woodward, Southerner (1987), biography
- Roper, John Herbert, ed. C. Vann Woodward: A Southern Historian and His Critics (1997) essays about Woodward
- Hackney, 2009
- John Herbert Roper, C. Vann Woodward: Southerner (1987) ch 1-2
- Roper, C. Vann Woodward (1987) ch 3
- Roper, C. Vann Woodward (1987) ch 4
- Hackney, (2009)
- Roper, C. Vann Woodward, pp 171-200
- Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (1974 edition), page xii.
- Hackney (1972) p. 191
- Roper, C. Vann Woodward (1987) pp 134-5, 141
- Roper, C. Vann Woodward (1987) p 197
- Michael O'Brien, ed., The Letters of C. Vann Woodward (2013) p. xl
- Hackney, 2009, p 32
- Roper, C. Vann Woodward (1987) pp 268-84
- John Hope Franklin, Mirror To America: The Autobiography of John Hope Franklin (2005), pp 325-28.
- Hackney, 2009, p 33
- Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website (retrieved January 22, 2009).
- C. Vann Woodward, The Old World's New World (Oxford University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-19-506451-8.
- Woodward Papers at Yale with short biography
- Oral History Interview with C. Vann Woodward from Oral Histories of the American South
- Obituary and interview with Woodward's student, James McPherson, 24 December 1999 David Walsh on the World Socialist Web Site