World Health Organization ranking of health systems in 2000

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The World Health Organization (WHO) ranked the health systems of its 191 member states in its World Health Report[1] 2000. It provided a framework and measurement approach to examine and compare aspects of health systems around the world.[2] It developed a series of performance indicators to assess the overall level and distribution of health in the populations, and the responsiveness and financing of health care services. It was the organization's first ever analysis of the world's health systems.[3]

Ranking[edit]

Ranking Country Expenditure Per Capita
1 France France 4
2 Italy Italy 11
3 San Marino San Marino 21
4  Andorra 23
5  Malta 37
6 Singapore Singapore 38
7 Spain Spain 29
8 Oman Oman 62
9 Austria Austria 6
10 Japan Japan 13
11  Norway 16
12 Portugal Portugal 27
13  Monaco 12
14 Greece Greece 30
15 Iceland Iceland 14
16  Luxembourg 5
17 Netherlands Netherlands 9
18 United Kingdom United Kingdom 26
19 Republic of Ireland Ireland 25
20 Switzerland Switzerland 2
21  Belgium 15
22 Colombia Colombia 49
23 Sweden Sweden 7
24 Cyprus Cyprus 39
25 Germany Germany 3
26 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 63
27 United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 35
28 Israel Israel 19
29 Morocco Morocco 99
30 Canada Canada 10
31 Finland Finland 18
32 Australia Australia 17
33  Chile 44
34 Argentina Argentina 15
35  Denmark 8
36  Dominica 70
37 Costa Rica Costa Rica 50
38 United States United States 1
39 Slovenia Slovenia 29
40 Cuba Cuba 118
41  Brunei 32
42 New Zealand New Zealand 20
43  Bahrain 48
44  Croatia 56
45 Qatar Qatar 27
46  Kuwait 41
47  Barbados 36
48 Thailand Thailand 64
49 Czech Republic Czech Republic 40
50 Malaysia Malaysia 93
51 Poland Poland 58
52  Dominican Republic 92
53  Tunisia 79
54  Jamaica 89
55 Venezuela Venezuela 68
56  Albania 149
57  Seychelles 52
58 Paraguay Paraguay 91
59 South Korea South Korea 31
60 Senegal Senegal 143
61 Philippines Philippines 124
62 Mexico Mexico 55
63  Slovakia 45
64 Egypt Egypt 115
65 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 112
66  Uruguay 33
67  Hungary 59
68 Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 65
69  Saint Lucia 86
70  Belize 88
71 Turkey Turkey 82
72  Nicaragua 104
73  Belarus 74
74  Lithuania 71
75  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 90
76 Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 138
77 Estonia Estonia 60
78  Guatemala 130
79 Ukraine Ukraine 111
80  Solomon Islands 134
81 Algeria Algeria 114
82  Palau 47
83 Jordan Jordan 98
84  Mauritius 69
85  Grenada 67
86 Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 43
87 Libya Libya 84
88 Bangladesh Bangladesh 144
89  Macedonia 106
90  Bosnia-Herzegovina 105
91  Lebanon 46
92 Indonesia Indonesia 154
93 Iran Iran 94
94  Bahamas 22
95  Panama 53
96  Fiji 87
97  Benin 171
98  Nauru 42
99 Romania Romania 107
100  Saint Kitts and Nevis 51
101  Moldova
102 Bulgaria Bulgaria
103 Iraq Iraq
104  Armenia
105  Latvia
106  Yugoslavia
107  Cook Islands
108 Syria Syria
109  Azerbaijan
110  Suriname
111  Ecuador
112 India India
113 Cape Verde Cape Verde
114 Georgia (country) Georgia
115  El Salvador
116  Tonga
117 Uzbekistan Uzbekistan
118 Comoros Comoros
119  Samoa
120 Yemen Yemen
121  Niue
122 Pakistan Pakistan
123  Federated States of Micronesia
124  Bhutan
125 Brazil Brazil
126 Bolivia Bolivia
127  Vanuatu
128  Guyana
129  Peru
130 Russia Russia
131  Honduras
132  Burkina Faso
133  Sao Tome and Principe
134 Sudan Sudan
135 Ghana Ghana
136  Tuvalu
137  Ivory Coast
138 Haiti Haiti
139  Gabon
140 Kenya Kenya
141  Marshall Islands
142  Kiribati
143  Burundi
144 China People's Republic of China
145  Mongolia
146  Gambia
147  Maldives
148  Papua New Guinea
149 Uganda Uganda
150 Nepal Nepal
151 Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
152  Togo
153 Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
154 Tajikistan Tajikistan
155 Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
156 Tanzania Tanzania
157  Djibouti
158 Eritrea Eritrea
159  Madagascar
160 Vietnam Vietnam
161  Guinea
162 Mauritania Mauritania
163 Mali Mali
164  Cameroon
165 Laos Laos
166  Congo
167 North Korea North Korea
168  Namibia
169  Botswana
170 Niger Niger
171  Equatorial Guinea
172  Rwanda
173 Afghanistan Afghanistan
174 Cambodia Cambodia
175 South Africa South Africa
176  Guinea-Bissau
177  Swaziland
178  Chad
179  Somalia
180 Ethiopia Ethiopia
181  Angola
182  Zambia
183  Lesotho
184  Mozambique
185  Malawi
186  Liberia
187 Nigeria Nigeria
188 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
189  Central African Republic
190 Burma Burma

Methodology[edit]

The rankings are based on an index of five factors:[2]

  • Health (50%) : disability-adjusted life expectancy
    • Overall or average : 25%
    • Distribution or equality : 25%
  • Responsiveness (25%) : speed of service, protection of privacy, and quality of amenities
    • Overall or average : 12.5%
    • Distribution or equality : 12.5%
  • Fair financial contribution : 25%

Criticism[edit]

The WHO rankings have been subject to many and varied criticisms since its publication. Concerns raised over the five factors considered, data sets used and comparison methodologies have led health bodies and political commentators in most of the countries on the list to question the efficacy of its results and validity of any conclusions drawn. Such criticisms of a broad endeavour by the WHO to rank all the world's healthcare systems must also however be understood in the context of a predisposition to analytical bias commensurate with an individual nation's demographics, socio-economics and politics. In considering such a disparate global spectrum, ranking criteria, methodology, results and conclusions will always be an area for contention.

In over a decade of discussion and controversy over the WHO Ranking of 2000, there is still no consensus about how an objective world health system ranking should be compiled. Indeed, the 2000 results have proved so controversial that the WHO declined to rank countries in their World Health Reports since 2010, but the debate still rages on. With burgeoning and ageing populations, spiralling costs and the recognition by most national governments that constant vigilance and periodic healthcare reform are necessary, the appetite for a means of measuring national performance in broader world contexts is ever increasing and all the more relevant. With this in mind, and in lieu of any further ranking information from the WHO since 2000, there are many analytical bodies now looking at national healthcare delivery in global contexts and publishing their findings. Bloomberg finds "the U.S. spends the most on health care on a relative cost basis with the worst outcome"[4] and notes Cubans live longer than Americans, but Americans pay more than fourteen times as much for less effective health care. The Commonwealth Fund ranked seven developed countries on health care, the US ranked lowest[5](AU, CA, DE, NL, NZ, UK , US[6]).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]