The 1990s X-Factor team.
Art by Joe Quesada.
|Group publication information|
|First appearance||(1980s team)
X-Factor #1 (February 1986)
X-Factor #71 (October 1991)
|Created by||1980s team:
|Type of organization||Team|
The Pentagon, Washington, D.C., Fall's Edge, Virginia
Marvel Girl (Jean Grey)
|See: List of X-Factor members|
|Cover to X-Factor #1.
Art by Jackson Guice.
|Series publication information|
|Publication date||(vol. 1)
February 1986 – September 1998
June – October 2002
February 2006 – September 2013
|Number of issues||(vol. 1)
94 (as of September 2012)
|Essential X-Factor: Volume 1||ISBN 0-7851-1886-1|
|Essential X-Factor: Volume 2||ISBN 0-7851-2099-8|
|The Longest Night||ISBN 0-7851-1817-9|
|Life & Death Matters||ISBN 0-7851-2146-3|
|Many Lives of Madrox||ISBN 0-7851-2359-8|
X-Factor is an American comic book series published by Marvel Comics. It is a spin-off from the popular X-Men franchise, featuring characters from X-Men stories. The series has been relaunched several times with different team rosters, most recently in X-Factor v. 3 as X-Factor Investigations.
X-Factor launched in 1986, featuring an eponymous team composed of the five original X-Men. In 1991, the founding members were incorporated back into the regular X-Men series, and X-Factor relaunched as a U.S. government-sponsored team incorporating many secondary characters from the X-Men mythos. The series was canceled in 1998.
In 2002, a four-part X-Factor mini-series detailed an investigation by the Mutant Civil Rights Task Force into an alleged conspiracy by hate-groups to commit murder against mutants. The series was written by Jeff Jensen with artwork by Arthur Ranson.
In 2005, a new X-Factor series was launched, following the mutant detective agency X-Factor Investigations. Written by Peter David, the series drew acclaim from Ain't It Cool News, as well as controversy for establishing a homosexual romantic relationship between Rictor and Shatterstar, a move criticized by Shatterstar's co-creator, Rob Liefeld. The series also won a 2011 GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Comic Book. The series ended in 2013.
A new series written by David, All-New X-Factor will be launched in 2014 and feature a new corporate-sponsored X-Factor team.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Collected editions
- 3 Other versions
- 4 In other media
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Volume 1 (1986–1998)
Original team (1986-1991)
- Angel - A millionaire heir, capable of flight by means of two feathery wings extending from his back.
- Beast - A brilliant scientist possessing bestial strength and agility.
- Cyclops - Former X-Men team leader, with the ability to emit powerful "optic blasts" from his eyes.
- Jean Grey (Marvel Girl) - The long-time love of Cyclops, possessing telekinetic abilities.
- Iceman - A brash jokester, gifted with cryokinetic abilities.
The founding of X-Factor hinged upon the reunion of the original X-Men, an event complicated by the extensive histories of the characters following the initiation of a new team of X-Men in 1975.
In the 1970s and early 1980s, Angel, Beast, and Iceman wandered through various superhero teams. By 1985, all three were members of the Defenders, whose monthly series was shortly canceled, which freed the trio.[clarification needed]
A more difficult task was the return of Cyclops and Jean Grey. In the late 1970s, Jean Grey was killed during the seminal Dark Phoenix Saga, and was not originally conceived in the team's female role, with fellow mutant Dazzler as the front-runner for that part. However, writer Kurt Busiek suggested a way to add Jean Grey to the roster that became one of the most significant cases of retconning in comic book history: Jean Grey had never actually been the Phoenix. Instead, the Phoenix entity copied Grey's identity and form, keeping her safe in a cocoon-like structure beneath Jamaica Bay. Busiek related the idea to Roger Stern, who related it to John Byrne. Byrne wrote and illustrated Fantastic Four #286 (1985), incorporating Busiek's idea.
In order to join the team, Cyclops walked out on his new wife Madelyne Pryor, an Alaskan pilot who bore a strange resemblance to Grey, and their infant son, Nathan Christopher. These events, along with the resurrection of Grey in general, were highly controversial with fans.
The original X-Men disassociate with the current team because Professor X had placed their old nemesis, Magneto, as its leader. The five original members set up a business advertised as mutant-hunters for hire, headquartered in the TriBeCa neighborhood of downtown New York City, posing as "normal" (non-superpowered) humans to their clients. The mutants that X-Factor capture are secretly trained to control their powers and reintegrated into society. Through their "mutant hunting" they recruit a group of young wards:
- Artie Maddicks - A pink-skinned, mute child who could project hologram-like images of his thoughts.
- Tabitha Smith - A young woman who ran away from her abusive father, who can create handheld energy spheres that she can explode at will, which she calls "time bombs".
- Rusty Collins - A former member of the U.S. Navy whose pyrokinesis first manifested uncontrollably, severely injuring a woman.
- Leech - A green-skinned young boy, who can dampen the mutant powers of those around him.
- Rictor - A Mexican teenager who can produce powerful seismic waves.
- Skids - A runaway who could project a protective force field around her body.
Eventually, the team decides that the "mutant hunter" ruse did more harm than good by inflaming hatred, and blames it on X-Factor's original business manager, Cameron Hodge, who is revealed as a mutant-hating mastermind.
Bob Layton and Jackson Guice wrote and illustrated, respectively, the first few issues of X-Factor. They soon turned over creative duties to Louise Simonson (writer) and Walt Simonson (artist). Despite their relationship as husband-and-wife, both the Simonsons have said they did not approach work with each other any differently than any other collaboration; in particular, though Walt occasionally contributed ideas, he did not co-plot the series with his wife. In X-Factor #6 (1986), Louise introduced Apocalypse, who would appear in multiple issues and become X-Factor's nemesis.
Louise Simonson placed the series in line with the darker tone of most of the X-Men franchise; after a year on X-Factor, she remarked that "in real life all of my friends should be happy, but in comic books all of my characters should be miserable." In X-Factor #10, the Marauders, a group of mutant mercenaries, severely injure Angel's wings, which are later amputated. When an interviewer commented on the brutality of this turn of events, Walt Simonson replied, "Hey, that's nothing compared to what happens to him eventually." Despondent, Angel attempts suicide by detonating his airliner mid-flight, but Apocalypse rescues him and transforms him into Death, one of his Four Horsemen, giving him metal wings and blue skin. Angel escaped Apocalypse's control, but these physical changes remain. He is renamed Archangel and becomes a much darker character, eventually rejoining the team in issue #36. Angel's replacement on X-Factor, Caliban, turns to Apocalypse for more power in issue #24, with Apocalypse leaving X-Factor his ship in return.
In the 1989 crossover Inferno, Madelyne Pryor is revealed to be a clone of Jean Grey created by the mutant geneticist Mister Sinister. Manipulated by demons and tormented by Scott's rejection of her, Madelyne kills herself in a suicide attack on X-Factor.
Wanting to do stories with more focus on X-Factor's teenage wards, Louise Simonson successfully petitioned editor Bob Harras for permission to do a miniseries featuring them. Following the miniseries, titled X-Terminators, the characters left X-Factor and were moved to New Mutants.
In the last major storyline of the first X-Factor series, published in early 1991, Apocalypse kidnaps Nathan Summers, sensing that he would grow up to be a powerful mutant and possible threat. X-Factor rescue Nathan from Apocalypse's lunar base, but find him infected with a "techno-organic" virus that cannot be treated. A clan of rebels from the future, known as the Askani, send a representative to the present time to bring Nathan 2,000 years into the future to be treated. Fully grown, he returns to the 20th century as the antihero, Cable.
X-Factor, the X-Men, and several minor characters team up to fight the telepathic Shadow King in another crossover event, The Muir Island Saga. Afterward, the original members of X-Factor rejoin the X-Men and several characters from various X-Men-related series become founding members of a new X-Factor.
Government team (1991-1998)
Rather than end the series, Marvel hired writer Peter David and illustrator Larry Stroman to recreate X-Factor with new members, all of whom were already allies of the X-Men, and three of whom were involved in the Muir Island Saga. The new X-Factor worked for the Pentagon, replacing Freedom Force as the government's salaried mutant team. Their relationship with their benefactors was often strained and complicated. The new X-Factor, debuting in issue #71, included:
- Valerie Cooper - A U.S. government agent with history as both ally and adversary of the X-Men who became X-Factor's government liaison, carrying over from her duties as liaison to a prior government-sponsored team of mutants, Freedom Force.
- Havok - A former X-Man and brother of Cyclops who could manipulate powerful, but hard to control, cosmic rays. Havok served as X-Factor's leader.
- Multiple Man - He could create duplicates of himself on physical impact. He was previously offered X-Men membership, but he declined, opting instead to work at the Muir Island research center.
- Polaris - Havok's long-time lover and also a former X-Man who could control magnetism.
- Quicksilver - A long-running Avengers character and former foe of the X-Men, who possessed super speed and a difficult temperament. He was a late addition to the team roster.
- Strong Guy - A wise-cracking character who could re-channel kinetic energy aimed at him, transforming it into muscular mass and power. Lila Cheney's former bodyguard.
- Wolfsbane - A Scottish, former New Mutant who could transform into a wolf-like creature. Some artificial manipulation of her feelings caused her to love Havok, much against her will, and caused her much conflict and frustration because she knew he loved Polaris.
Although X-Factor was not as flashy or wildly popular as other X-books, David was applauded for his use of humor and cultural references, and his ability to flesh out characters that had previously only been background characters.
David left in 1993. The series continued under writer J. M. DeMatteis and artist Jan Duursema, but struggled to distinguish itself among other X-books. Shortly after David's tenure on the book ended, Forge, a former government weapons contractor whose mutant powers were his brilliant engineering skills, was added to the group; first replacing Cooper as their liaison after she had been compromised by one of Magneto's Acolytes, and later as an active member. Cooper later became an active member as well, her marksmanship and athletic skills compensating for her lack of superhuman powers.
By 1995, Multiple Man had apparently died of the Legacy Virus, a deadly illness that attacked mutant genes, which was later revealed to have only killed one of his duplicates. Strong Guy was put into suspended animation after suffering a heart attack caused by the stress his extra mass put on his body. Wolfsbane, who had been cured of her artificial love for Alex, transferred to the European mutant team Excalibur. Havok left to infiltrate a mutant terrorist ring.
- Mystique - A shapeshifting mutant criminal and master of espionage. Mystique was forced to join X-Factor following her capture by federal agents.
- Sabretooth - A homicidal mutant criminal who possessed talons, heightened senses, and a healing factor. Like Mystique, Sabretooth was a captive member that Forge used special technology to control.
- Shard - A holographic computer program that took on the personality of the X-Man Bishop's deceased sister of the same name. Bishop was a time-traveler from a distant future, where he and Shard were members the X-Men descendants, Xavier's Security Enforcers. The holographic Shard was brought to the 20th century with Bishop.
- Wild Child - A former member of Alpha Flight who possessed heightened senses, fangs, and claws.
Afterward, writer Howard Mackie injected more political and espionage elements into the series, a trend that culminated in the team's secession from government sponsorship. Multiple Man and Strong Guy appeared again at the same time. Despite Forge managing to fix Strong Guy's problems, he did not rejoin the team. The popularity of X-Factor continued to dwindle and Mystique and Sabretooth, two popular X-Men villains, failed to draw in more readers. Wild Child mutated out of control, Mystique hunted down Sabretooth (who had kidnapped young Tyler Trevor Chase), and Forge wanted nothing to do with X-Factor.
In 1997, Marvel attempted yet another revival. After various stories focusing on individual characters, a new team was gathered consisting of Havok, Multiple Man, Polaris, Shard, and other members of the X.S.E., Fixx, and Greystone, that were brought to the 20th century (their teammate Archer, who also came back in time, turned down an offer to join). However, this version of the team was disbanded in the same issue in which they debuted. In that issue, #149 (1998), Greystone built a time machine meant to take him and his compatriots back to the future. However, the device exploded, killing Greystone and Havok. Afterward, X-Factor disbanded.
In fact, the time machine did not kill Havok, but transported him to a parallel world, populated by twisted versions of Marvel characters. He explored this strange world in the series Mutant X, which lasted from 1998 until 2001. Although Marvel planned to revive X-Factor as an ongoing title after Mutant X ended, this did not happen for another 4 years.
Volume 2 (2002 miniseries)
A four-issue X-Factor limited series was launched in 2002. This series focused on the government's new Mutant Civil Rights Task Force, which consisted of humans who investigated anti-mutant hate crimes and inadvertently discovered an anti-mutant conspiracy within their own ranks. This series focused heavily on the "mutants as a metaphor for minorities" aspects of the X-Men concept.
Volume 3 (2005–2013)
X-Factor Investigations is a detective agency run by Jamie Madrox, formerly known as Multiple Man. The agency was originally named "XXX Investigations," but team members thought that sounded too much like Madrox was investigating pornography. The new name is taken from the government-sponsored group the three founders had previously served on.
The initial staff consisted of Madrox's best friend and special enforcer, Guido Carosella (Strong Guy), and former teammate Rahne Sinclair (Wolfsbane). Following the House of M, Madrox's new-found wealth from winning a Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?-style game show allowed him to recruit several of his former colleagues from the Paris branch of the now defunct X-Corporation. New members include M (Monet), a powerless Rictor, Siryn, and Layla Miller, who has inserted herself into the group to keep them from discovering the truth behind the mutant Decimation event.
Peter David has put a noir spin on the mutant series and has dealt with the former Multiple Man, Jamie Madrox, as the central character. The new series spins directly out of House of M and opens with a suicide attempt by Rictor, who has lost his powers in the Decimation that has caused 90-percent of all mutants to lose their powers. The series deals with the group's attempt to unravel the truth behind the Decimation and its aftermath, getting involved with the events of Marvel's crossover Civil War, fighting with Singularity Investigations, and dealing with Madrox's powers and their consequences. The team also attempted to protect Professor Xavier when the Hulk attacked him and the New X-Men in the World War Hulk crossover.
During the Messiah Complex crossover, Jamie and Layla travel to a dystopian future in which mutants are persecuted and imprisoned. Jamie manages to escape and return to the early 21st century, but Layla is still trapped in that undesirable future. Rahne believes she knows that Layla will return and will marry Jamie when she grows up. However, Rahne fears (because of a glimpse she has had of the future) that she, while in her wolf shape, will murder both Jamie and Layla. To prevent this, she quits the team and joins X-Force. Rictor also quits, reducing the team to only four members. They are attacked by the Isolationist, a villain with a plan to kill all mutants, but defeat him with the unintended help of Pietro Maximoff.
In the first half of 2009, Jamie travels to the future with the help of an aged Layla Miller and helps the Summers' rebellion, led by a cyborg Scott Summers and his daughter Ruby, while the rest of the team is in the present. After battling Arcade, who captured Rictor (who then rejoins), the team is joined by the real Longshot and Darwin and meets one of Jamie's duplicates, who calls himself Cortex.
Writer Peter David's decision to explicitly establish male characters Shatterstar and Rictor entering a romantic relationship in X-Factor #45 (August 2009), confirming clues that had been established in X-Force years earlier, drew criticism from Shatterstar's co-creator, Rob Liefeld, though Editor-in-Chief Joe Quesada supported David's story. David would eventually be nominated for and win a 2011 GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Comic Book for this second run on the title.
In December 2009, the series resumed its original numbering with issue #200, with 149 issues of the first volume plus 50 issues of the third volume constituting the previous 199 issues.
The series ended with issue #262 in September 2013.
All-New X-Factor is a new version of the comic book series, written by Peter David, scheduled to begin in January 2014.
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|Essential X-Factor Vol. 1||X-Factor #1-16, Annual #1; The Mighty Thor #373-374; Power Pack #27 (b&w)||November 2005||0-7851-1886-1|
|Essential X-Factor Vol. 2||X-Factor #17-35, Annual #2 (b&w)||January 2007||0-7851-2099-8|
|Essential X-Factor Vol. 3||X-Factor #36-50||December 2009||0-7851-3078-0|
|Essential X-Factor vol. 4||X-Factor #51-59, Annual #4-5; X-Factor: Prisoner of Love; Marvel Fanfare #50; material from Fantastic Four Annual # 23, New Mutants Annual #6, Uncanny X-Men Annual #14||February 2012||978-0785162858|
|Essential X-Factor vol. 5||X-Factor #60-70, Annual #6; Uncanny X-Men #270-272, 280; material from Uncanny X-Men Annual #15, New Mutants #95-97, material from New Mutants Annual #7||December 2012||978-0785163534|
|X-Men: Phoenix Rising||Avengers #263; Fantastic Four #286; X-Factor #1; and Classic X-Men #8 and #43||June 2009||0-7851-3948-6|
|X-Men: Mutant Massacre||X-Factor #9-11; Uncanny X-Men #210-213; New Mutants #46; Thor #373-374; Power Pack #27||October 2001||0-7851-0224-8|
|X-Men: Mutations||X-Factor #15, 24-25; Amazing Adventures vol. 2, #11, 17; Uncanny X-Men #256-258||October 1996||0-7851-0197-7|
|X-Men: The Fall of the Mutants||X-Factor #24-26; Uncanny X-Men #224-226; New Mutants #59-61||February 2002||0-7851-0825-4|
|X-Men: Inferno (Hardcover)||X-Factor #33-40; Uncanny X-Men #239-243; X-Terminators #1-4; New Mutants #71-73; X-Factor Annual #4||June 2009||978-0785137771|
|X-Men: Inferno||X-Factor #36-39; Uncanny X-Men #239-243; New Mutants #71-73||December 1996||0-7851-0222-1|
|Acts of Vengeance Crossovers Omnibus||X-Factor #49-50; Wolverine (1988) #19-20; Uncanny X-Men #256-258; Fantastic Four (1961) #334-336; Dr. Strange, Sorcerer Supreme (1988) #11-13; Incredible Hulk (1968) #363; Punisher (1987) #28-29; Punisher War Journal (1988) #12-13; Marc Spector: Moon Knight (1989) #8-10; Daredevil (1964) #275-276; Power Pack (1984) #53; Alpha Flight (1983) #79-80; New Mutants (1983) #84-86; Damage Control (1989) #1-4; and Web of Spider-Man #64-65||August 2011||978-0-7851-4488-5|
|X-Men: X-Tinction Agenda||X-Factor #60-62; Uncanny X-Men #270-272; New Mutants #95-97||December 1998||0-7851-0053-9|
|X-Men: X-Tinction||X-Factor #60-62; Uncanny X-Men #235-238 & #270-272; New Mutants (1983) #94-96||August 2011||978-0785155317|
|X-Men by Chris Claremont and Jim Lee Vol. 2||X-Factor #63-70; Uncanny X-Men #273-280; X-Men (1991) #1-9 + material from #10-11; Ghost Rider (1990) #26-27||January 2012||978-0785159056|
|X-Factor: Visionaries Peter David Vol. 1||X-Factor #71-75||December 2005||0-7851-1872-1|
|X-Factor: Visionaries Peter David Vol. 2||X-Factor #76-78; Incredible Hulk #390-392||March 2007||0-7851-2456-X|
|X-Factor: Visionaries Peter David Vol. 3||X-Factor #79-83, Annual #7||October 2007||0-7851-2457-8|
|X-Factor: Visionaries Peter David Vol. 4||X-Factor #84-89, Annual #8||June 2008||0-7851-2745-3|
|X-Men: X-Cutioner's Song||X-Factor #84-86; Uncanny X-Men #294-296; X-Men #14-16; X-Force #16-18||May 1994||0-7851-0025-3|
|X-Men: Fatal Attractions||X-Factor #92; X-Force #25; Uncanny X-Men #304; X-Men #25; Wolverine #75; Excalibur #71||August 2000||0-7851-0748-7|
|X-Men: Fatal Attractions||X-Factor #87-92; Uncanny X-Men #298-305 & 315; X-Men Unlimited #1-2; X-Force #25; X-Men vol. 2 #25; Wolverine #75; Excalibur #71||April 2012||978-0785162452|
|The Origin of Generation X: Tales of the Phalanx Covenant||X-Factor #106; Uncanny X-Men #316-317; X-Men vol. 2, #36-37; X-Force #38; Excalibur #82; Wolverine vol. 2, #85; Cable #16; Generation X #1||June 2001||0-7851-0216-7|
|X-Men: Legion Quest||X-Factor #109; Uncanny X-Men #320-321; X-Men vol. 2, #40-41||March 1996||0-7851-0179-9|
|X-Men: Prelude to the Age of Apocalypse||X-Factor #108-109; Uncanny X-Men #319-321; X-Men (vol. 2) #38-41; Cable #20; X-Men: Age of Apocalypse Ashcan Edition||May 2011||978-0-7851-5508-9|
|X-Men: The Complete Onslaught Epic Vol. 2||X-Factor #125-126; Excalibur #100; Fantastic Four #415; Amazing Spider-Man #415; Sensational Spider-Man #8; Spider-Man #72; Green Goblin #12; Punisher #11; Wolverine #104; X-Man #17; X-Men #55; Uncanny X-Men #336; X-Force #58||June 2008||0-7851-2824-7|
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|Madrox: Multiple Choice||Madrox #1-5 (prelude to X-Factor vol. 3)||April 2005||0-7851-1500-5|
|X-Factor: The Longest Night||X-Factor vol. 3, #1-6||March 2007||0-7851-1817-9|
|X-Factor: Life and Death Matters||X-Factor vol. 3, #7-12||February 2007||0-7851-2146-3|
|X-Factor: Many Lives of Madrox||X-Factor vol. 3, #13-17||November 2007||0-7851-2359-8|
|X-Factor: Heart of Ice||X-Factor vol. 3, #18-24||April 2008||0-7851-2360-1|
|X-Men: Messiah Complex||X-Factor vol. 3, #25-27; Uncanny X-Men #492-494; X-Men #205-207; New X-Men #44-46; X-Men: Messiah Complex - Mutant Files||November 2008||0-7851-2320-2|
|X-Factor: The Only Game in Town||X-Factor vol. 3, #28-32; X-Factor: The Quick and the Dead||January 2009||0-7851-2863-8|
|X-Factor: Secret Invasion||X-Factor vol. 3, #33-38; She-Hulk vol. 2, #31||June 2009||0-7851-2865-4|
|X-Factor: Time and a Half||X-Factor vol. 3, #39-45||December 2009||0-7851-3836-6|
|X-Factor: Overtime||X-Factor vol. 3, #46-50; X-Factor: Layla Miller||December 2009||0-7851-3837-4|
|X-Factor: The Invisible Woman Has Vanished||X-Factor #200-203||June 2010||0-7851-4657-5|
|X-Factor: Second Coming||X-Factor #204-206; Nation X: X Factor||September 2010||0-7851-4892-0|
|X-Factor: Happenings in Vegas||X-Factor #207-212||March 2011||0-7851-4658-X|
|X-Factor: Scar Tissue||X-Factor #213-219||June 2011||0-7851-5283-0|
|X-Factor: Hard Labor||X-Factor #220-224||November 2011||0-7851-5285-7|
|X-Factor: Super Unnatural||X-Factor #224.1, 225-228||February 2012||0-7851-6058-2|
|X-Factor: They Keep Killing Jamie Madrox||X-Factor #229-232||June 2012||0-7851-6060-4|
|X-Factor: Together Again for the First Time||X-Factor #233-236||November 2012||0-7851-6063-9|
|X-Factor: The Road to Redemption||X-Factor #237-240||December 2012||0-7851-6413-8|
|X-Factor: Breaking Points||X-Factor #241-245||March 2013||0-7851-6512-6|
|X-Factor: Short Stories||X-Factor #246-249||March 2013||0-7851-6699-8|
|X-Factor: Hell On Earth War||X-Factor #250-256||July 2013||0-7851-6700-5|
|X-Factor: The End of X-Factor||X-Factor #257-262||January 2014||978-0785167013|
In other media
X-Factor appeared in the X-Men episode "Cold Comfort". Its lineup consisted of Forge, Polaris, Multiple Man, Strong Guy, Quicksilver, Havok, and Wolfsbane. Iceman broke into their facility to find his girlfriend Polaris and ran afoul of the X-Men. When it came to a battle against the X-Factor, Forge said it was to test them. In "Family Ties," Quicksilver was again seen as a member of X-Factor and in "The Phalanx Covenant Part 1 & 2" Quicksilver, Forge and Polaris appear as members of X-Factor.
- "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #161". Comic Book Resources. June 26, 2008.
- "Comics of 1986 #30 X-Factor". Revolution Science Fiction. September 12, 2006.
- Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. p. 11. ISBN 1-4165-3141-6.
- Sanderson, Peter (October 1986). "Walt & Louise Simonson". Comics Interview (39) (Fictioneer Books). pp. 42–57.
- In issues such as X-Force #25, 34, 43, 49, 56, and X-Force '99 Annual.
- Melrose, Kevin (July 3, 2009). "Liefeld 'can't wait to someday undo' Shatterstar development". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- Quesada, Joe; Kiel Phegley (July 14, 2009). "Cup O' Joe: Thor, X-Factor, Punisher Max". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "2011 GLAAD Media Awards Nominees". GLAAD.org. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "2011 http://www.glaad.org/releases/032011mediaawards". GLAAD.org. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- Sunu, Steve (August 29, 2009). "Fan Expo: X-Factor Turns 200". Comic Book Resources.
- Ching, Albert. "Peter David Readies The End of X-FACTOR". Newsarama.
- Ultimate War #4
- Brady, Matt (August 22, 2005). "X-ploring the X-Factor with Peter David". Newsarama.
- X-Factor issues on Marvel.com
- X-Factor, X-Factor vol. 2, and X-Factor vol. 3 at the Comic Book DB
- X-Factor, X-Factor vol. 2, and X-Factor vol. 3 at the Grand Comics Database
- X-Factor, X-Factor vol. 2, and X-Factor vol. 3 at UncannyX-men.net