(84922) 2003 VS2

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(84922) 2003 VS2
84922-2003vs2 hst.jpg
Hubble Space Telescope image of 2003 VS2 taken in 2005
Discovered byNEAT (644)
Discovery date14 November 2003[1]
MPC designation(84922) 2003 VS2
Orbital characteristics[1][3]
Epoch 13 January 2016 (JD 2457400.5)
Uncertainty parameter 3
Observation arc8830 days (24.18 yr)
Earliest precovery date17 September 1991
Aphelion42.413 AU (6.3449 Tm)
Perihelion36.456 AU (5.4537 Tm)
39.435 AU (5.8994 Tm)
247.64 yr (90451.3 d)
4.75 km/s
0° 0m 14.328s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
Mean density
≈1.4 g/cm3[5]
7.4175285±0.00001 h[7]
7.41±0.02 h[8]
Temperature≈44 K
(moderately red) B−V= 0.93±0.02
V−R= 0.59±0.02[6]
4.73±0.02[11] 4.2[1]

(84922) 2003 VS2 is a trans-Neptunian object discovered by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking program on November 14, 2003.[2] Like Pluto, it is in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune,[3][4] giving it the orbital properties of a plutino. Mike Brown's website lists it as "likely" a dwarf planet.[12] However, Brown assumed that VS2 was much bigger than it really is, and the light-curve analysis has questioned whether it would truly be in the hydrostatic equilibrium.[13]

Orbit and rotation[edit]

Like Pluto, (84922) 2003 VS2 is locked in the 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Neptune, although its orbit is significantly less eccentric than Pluto's. It also has slightly smaller orbital inclination.[1]

(84922) 2003 VS2 has a significant light-curve amplitude of 0.21±0.01. The most likely value of the rotation period is 7.41±0.02 h.[8]

Physical characteristics[edit]

(84922) 2003 VS2 has a moderately red surface with a moderately red color indexes B−V=0.93, V−R=0.59.[11] Its geometrical albedo is about 15%.[6]

In 2007, its diameter was initially estimated by the Spitzer Space Telescope at 725±200 km.[10] However, in 2012, this was reduced to 523.0+35.1
after new Herschel Space Telescope observations.[6] In 2019, 2003 VS2 was found to be ellipsoidal in shape based on stellar occultations that occurred in 2013 and 2014 [5]; the light curve derived from the occultations suggests that this plutino is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and hence not a dwarf planet. [14] The dimensions of 2003 VS2 are estimated at 627.6 km × 531 km × 494.6 km, with a volume-equivalent diameter 548.3+29.5
.[5] Assuming a Pluto-like density of 2 g/cm3, one can obtain a mass estimate of about 1.5×1020 kg.

2003 VS2 (apparent magnitude 19.8) as viewed with a 24" telescope
Colours of the TNOs plus Phoebe, Pholus, Triton and Mars. Mars and Triton are not to scale.

See also[edit]

  • Sedna, another large trans-Neptunian object discovered the same day (November 14, 2003)


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 84922 (2003 VS2)" (2008-02-05 last obs). Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  2. ^ a b Marsden, Brian G. (2003-11-16). "MPEC 2003-W02 : 2003 VS2". IAU Minor Planet Center. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
  3. ^ a b c Buie, Marc W. (2008-02-05). "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 84922". SwRI (Space Science Department). Retrieved 2008-07-23.
  4. ^ a b "MPEC 2006-X45 : Distant Minor Planets". Minor Planet Center & Tamkin Foundation Computer Network. 2006-12-21. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Benedetti-Rossi, Gustavo; Santos-Sanz, P.; Ortiz, J. L.; Assafin, M.; Sicardy, B.; Morales, N. (2019). "The trans-Neptunian object (84922) 2003 VS2 through stellar occultations". The Astronomical Journal. 158 (4). arXiv:1908.06645. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab3b05.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Mommert, Michael; Harris, A. W.; Kiss, C.; Pál, A.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, T. G.; Peixinho, N.; Lellouch, E.; Szalai, N.; Henry, F.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Hartogh, P.; Mueller, M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Protopapa, S.; Rengel, M.; Thirouin, A. (May 2012). "TNOs are cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region—V. Physical characterization of 18 Plutinos using Herschel-PACS observations". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 541: A93. arXiv:1202.3657. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A..93M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118562.
  7. ^ Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Groussin, O.; Lacerda, P.; Muller, T.G.; Ortiz, J.L.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Stansberry, J.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Thirouin, A. (August 2017). ""TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region XII. Thermal light curves of Haumea, 2003 VS2 and 2003 AZ84 with Herschel/PACS". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 604 (A95): 19. arXiv:1705.09117. Bibcode:2017A&A...604A..95S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201630354.
  8. ^ a b Sheppard, Scott S. (August 2007). "Light Curves of Dwarf Plutonian Planets and other Large Kuiper Belt Objects: Their Rotations, Phase Functions, and Absolute Magnitudes". The Astronomical Journal. 134 (2): 787–798. arXiv:0704.1636. Bibcode:2007AJ....134..787S. doi:10.1086/519072.
  9. ^ "AstDys (84922) 2003VS2 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  10. ^ a b Stansberry, John; Grundy, Will; Brown, Mike; Cruikshank, Dale; Spencer, John; Trilling, David; Margot, Jean-Luc (2008). "Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope" (PDF). In Barucci, M. Antonietta; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Cruikshank, Dale P. (eds.). The Solar System Beyond Neptune. University of Arizona press. pp. 161–179. arXiv:astro-ph/0702538. Bibcode:2008ssbn.book..161S. ISBN 978-0-8165-2755-7.
  11. ^ a b Tegler, Stephen C. (2007-02-01). "Kuiper Belt Object Magnitudes and Surface Colors". Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  12. ^ Brown, Michael E. "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? (updates daily)". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  13. ^ Tancredi, Gonzalo (2009). "Physical and dynamical characteristics of icy "dwarf planets" (plutoids)". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium S263. 5: 173–185. Bibcode:2010IAUS..263..173T. doi:10.1017/S1743921310001717. (Dwarf Planet & Plutoid Headquarters)
  14. ^ https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019EPSC...13..435B/abstract

External links[edit]