1631 in science
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- Mount Vesuvius erupts for the only time this century.
- William Oughtred publishes Clavis Mathematicae, introducing the multiplication sign (×) and proportion sign (::).
- Some of Thomas Harriot's writings on algebra are published posthumously as Artis Analyticae Praxis.
- Richard Lower, English physician who performed the first direct blood transfusion (died 1691)
- approx. date – William Ball, English astronomer (died 1690)
- October 20 – Michael Maestlin, German astronomer and mathematician (born 1550)
- December 10 – Sir Hugh Myddelton, Welsh-born goldsmith and hydraulic engineer (born c. 1560)