Amhara Region coup d'état attempt

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2019 Amhara Region coup d'état attempt
Amhara Region coup d'état attempt is located in Ethiopia
Bahir Dar
Bahir Dar
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Amhara Region coup d'état attempt (Ethiopia)
Date22 June 2019
Location
Result Coup attempt failed, but regional head and chief of staff of the armed forces killed
Belligerents

Motives: Amhara Internal Self-Determination

Ideology: Amhara Ethnic Nationalism

Factions of the Amhara Region's Peace and Security Bureau

Motives: Quelling a Coup D'état Attempt

Ideology: Multicultural Ethiopian Nationalism

Ethiopia Government of Ethiopia

  • Ethiopian National Defense Force
  • Ethiopian Federal Police

Amhara Regional state government

Pan-Ethiopian nationalists (including ethnic Amhara supports of Ethiopian national identity).
Commanders and leaders
Brig. Gen. Asaminew Tsige 
(Director of the Peace and Security Bureau)
Abiy Ahmed
(Prime Minister of Ethiopia)
Lemma Megersa
(Minister of Defense)
Gen. Se'are Mekonnen 
(Chief of the General Staff of the Ethiopian National Defense Force)
Maj. Gen. Gizae Aberra 
(Aide-de-camp to the Chief of the General Staff)
Ambachew Mekonnen 
(Chief Administrator of the Amhara Region)
Casualties and losses
"Dozens" of fatalities[1]
Amhara Flag

The 2019 Amhara Region coup d'état attempt consisted of coordinated assassinations of Amhara Region's high degree officials and the Generals of Ethiopian National Defense Force in Addis Ababa on 22 June 2019. Factions of the security forces of Amhara Region, Ethiopia attempted a coup d'état against the regional government, during which Amhara Region Chief Administrator Ambachew Mekonnen was killed. A bodyguard siding with the Amhara nationalist factions assassinated General Se'are Mekonnen, the Chief of the General Staff of the Ethiopian National Defense Force, as well as his aide Major General Gizae Aberra. The Prime Minister's Office accused Brigadier General Asaminew Tsige, head of the Amhara region security forces, of leading the plot. Asaminew was later shot dead after escaping.

Background[edit]

Ethiopia has historically faced ethnic conflicts, and the government established a system of ethnic federalism under the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia, establishing the Amhara Region as a subnational region where the population is predominantly made up of the Amhara people. The traditional districts of Wolkait and Raya Azebo had been part of the provinces of Begemder and Wollo respectively, but they were joined to the Tigray Region, since they had a substantial Tigrayan population.[2]

The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) and the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM) (renamed the Amhara Democratic Party, ADP) had been accused of "disciplining the Amhara people instead of representing them".[3][4] Despite these grievances, Amhara ethnic nationalism remained a marginal force during the first two decades of the EPRDF-led order. Amhara political elites continued to place their stock in multi-cultural pan-Ethiopian nationalism and largely rejected ethnic self-identification in favour of a purely Ethiopian multi-ethnic national identity.[5] Accordingly, the region voted overwhelmingly for the Coalition for Unity and Democracy and United Ethiopian Democratic Forces opposition alliances in the 2005 general elections, which had run on decisively pan-Ethiopian multicultural platforms.[6]

Abiy Ahmed's rise to power encouraged the belief that the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) was in decline and motivated Amhara nationalists to push for the "return" of the "lost" regions in the Tigray Region. This was strongly resisted under the leadership of Debretsion Gebremichael.[7]

In March 2019, Amhara regional chief administrator Gedu Andargachew resigned for unstated reasons, but warned of the rising danger of "narrow nationalism" in his farewell speech. Ambachew Mekonnen replaced him.[8] To this end, he appointed retired general and former political prisoner Asaminew Tsige as head of the regional security forces.[9] Asaminew delivered an "incendiary" speech in June at the graduation of members of the security forces, reportedly full of Amhara nationalist invective.[10]

Events[edit]

Gen. Se'are (right, in peaked cap) with Prime Minister Abiy (second from right) in February 2019.

Early in the evening of 22 June, witnesses claimed to have seen and heard explosions at the Regional Police Commission headquarters, the offices of the regional legislature and seat of the regional administration.[11] Shortly after, observers—including the United States Embassy—reported gunfire in Addis Ababa.[12] The Prime Minister's Office said that a "hit squad" reporting to Brigadier Genenal Asaminew Tsige, Chief of the Amhara Region Peace and Security Bureau, had burst into a meeting of the regional cabinet and opened fire.[13] According to Reuters, the meeting's agenda concerned Asaminew's attempts to openly recruit ethnic militias.[10]

In a statement shortly after midnight on 23 June, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that General Se'are Mekonnen, Chief of Staff of the Ethiopian National Defense Force, had been attacked by "people in his close entourage" who had been "bought by hired elements".[12] The next morning, Radio Dimtsi Weyane reported that Se'are and his aide Major General Gizae Aberra had died from their wounds. The Amhara Mass Media Agency likewise reported that Amhara Region Chief Administrator Ambachew Mekonnen had been killed along with adviser Ezez Wassie.[14] Amharra Region Attorney General Megbaru Kebede was also seriously injured[11] and died on 24 June.[15]

Asaminew remained at large for 36 hours after the attempt. The state media confirmed that he was shot dead by police near Bahir Dar on 24 June,[16] while several of his alleged co-conspirators have been detained.[10]

Conflicting details regarding the bodyguard who assassinated General Se'are Mekonnen were given from the government.[17] Initial reports indicated that the suspect was arrested. However, on 24 June 2019, police said the suspect had committed suicide in order to avoid arrest.[17]

Aftermath[edit]

Following the coup attempt, internet access was shut down nationwide.[18][19][20] Ethiopia remained offline two days later with no official explanation.[21][22] Prime Minister Abiy called for unity against the "forces of evil" and flags flew at half-mast on Monday as the government declared a national day of mourning.[10][23] The United States Embassy advised people to shelter in place, and a wide range of international leaders condemned the coup attempt.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Endashaw, Dawit; Lewis, David (26 June 2019). "'Dozens' killed in foiled Ethiopia coup attempt: regional government". Reuters. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  2. ^ Borrago, Teshome (10 December 2018). "What is the point in Amhara nationalism?". Ethiopia Insight. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  3. ^ Amanuel, Tesfaye (4 May 2018). "The Birth of Amhara Nationalism". Addis Standard. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  4. ^ Menberework, Binyam (10 April 2018). "ANDM and OPDO turned against their master but both follow diverging paths". Addis Standard. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  5. ^ Michael, Mackonen (November 2008). "Who is Amhara?". African Identities. 6 (4): 393–404. doi:10.1080/14725840802417943.
  6. ^ Siegfried, Pausewang (2009). "Political Conflicts in Ethiopia – in View of the Two-Faced Amhara Identity" (PDF). Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies: 549–60. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  7. ^ Pilling, David (27 March 2019). "Ethiopian ethnic rivalries threaten Abiy Ahmed's reform agenda". Financial Times. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  8. ^ Gedu Andargachew resigns; replaced by Ambachew Mekonen
  9. ^ "Gedu Andargachew Resigns; Ambachew Mekonnen Elected Chief Administrator of Amhara Region". Ezega. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d "Ethiopia army chief shot dead in 'coup bid' attacks". BBC World News. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  11. ^ a b "A coup plot in Bahir Dar? What we know now". Ethiopia Observer. 22 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Ethiopia's military chief of staff attacked: Abiy Ahmed". Ethiopia Observer. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  13. ^ Pilling, David (23 June 2019). "Ethiopia hit by assassinations and 'coup' attempt". Financial Times. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  14. ^ "President of the Amhara region killed". Ethiopia Observer. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  15. ^ "Ethiopia: Amhara attorney general dies after coup effort". DW. 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Alleged Ethiopian coup mastermind shot dead after 36-hour manhunt". i24 News. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  17. ^ a b "Ethiopia 'coup ringleader killed'". BBC. 25 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  18. ^ "Internet shutdown in Ethiopia amid reports of attempted coup". NetBlocks. 22 June 2019.
  19. ^ "Ethiopia army chief killed amid failed coup attempt". Deutsche Welle. 23 June 2019.
  20. ^ "Ethiopia cuts internet after army chief of staff shot". News 24. AFP. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Ethiopia internet shutdown continues following reported coup attempt". NetBlocks. 24 June 2019.
  22. ^ "Assassinations Challenge Ethiopian Premier's Reform Agenda: Q&A". Bloomberg. 24 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Ethiopia failed coup: Fifth death, national mourning, mastermind killed"". Africanews. 24 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Assassinations in Ethiopia amidst regional 'coup' attempt, condemned by UN chief". UN News. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.