List of coups and coup attempts

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General Bonaparte during the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire in Saint-Cloud, detail of painting by François Bouchot, 1840

A coup d'état, often abbreviated to coup, is the overthrow of a government by non-democratic means. This is a chronological list of coups and coup attempts, from ancient times to the present.

BCE[edit]

1–999[edit]

Nero was the target of many plots. Here a plaster bust conserved at the Pushkin Museum, Moscow.
As-Saffah is proclaimed as the first Abbasid caliph, from Balami's Tarikhnama

1000–1699[edit]

General Yi Seong-gye, later crowned Taejo of Joseon.

1700–1799[edit]

Patrona Halil rebellion; painting by Jean Baptiste Vanmour.

1800–1899[edit]

Execution of Claude François de Malet and his co-conspirators on 29 October 1812 following the Malet coup in France.
The Empire of Brazil ended in a coup d'état which formed a republic.

1900–1919[edit]

1903[edit]

1905[edit]

1908[edit]

1909[edit]

  • Goudi coup in Greece: A secret society of military officers called the Military League issued a pronunciamiento, resulting in the replacement of Prime Minister Dimitrios Rallis government and various reforms.
  • 31 March Incident in the Ottoman Empire: Shortly after the Young Turk Revolution, members of the military convened on Sultan Ahmet Square to demand reestablishment of Sharia. After a brief period of rival groups claiming to represent the legitimate government, the uprising was suppressed and the former government was ultimately restored.

1910[edit]

1912[edit]

1913[edit]

Citizens throng around The Citadel (La ciudadela) building during La decena tragica in 1913.

1916[edit]

1917[edit]

1918[edit]

1919[edit]

1920–1929[edit]

Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. Ludendorff is fifth from the left, with Hitler to the right. Ernst Röhm is to the right and in front of Hitler. Note that only two of the defendants, Hitler and Frick, were dressed in civilian clothing.

1920[edit]

1921[edit]

1922[edit]

Benito Mussolini and Fascist Blackshirts during the March on Rome in 1922. Mussolini stayed out of most of the march.

1923[edit]

1924[edit]

1925[edit]

1926[edit]

Józef Piłsudski and other leaders of the May Coup (1926) on Poniatowski Bridge in Warsaw.

1928[edit]

1929[edit]

1930–1939[edit]

1930[edit]

1931[edit]

  • March Incident in Japan: The radical, ultranationalist Sakurakai secret society attempted to start large-scale riots in Tokyo, which instigators hoped would lead to martial law and then a coup d'état by the Imperial Japanese Army. Two attempts to start riots failed, and the leaders of the plot were arrested.
  • October Incident in Japan: The Sakurakai again plotted a coup, this time to be instigated by assassinations of key statesmen and officials. The plot was foiled by some of the plotters abandoning the effort, and leaks that reached the War Minister of Japan.
  • 1931 Salvadoran coup d'état: On 2 December, Arturo Araujo was overthrown by Maximiliano Hernández Martínez.

1932[edit]

March in support of the proclamation of the Socialist Republic of Chile, in front of La Moneda Palace (12 June 1932).

1933[edit]

1934[edit]

1935[edit]

1936[edit]

1st Lt. Niu Yoshitada and his rebel troops in the 26 February Incident of 1936.

1937[edit]

  • France: A Cagoulard plot to install a pro-Nazi government was foiled by French police.
  • Bolivia: Dissatisfied with the speed of new reforms, Germán Busch led a popular movement which secured the resignation of David Toro.
  • Brazil: President Getúlio Vargas, governing democratically since 1934, launched a self-coup and became the Dictator of the Brazilian Estado Novo ("New State").

1938[edit]

  • Romania: King Carol II of Romania launched a self-coup, which abolished parliamentary democracy in favor of a royal dictatorship.
  • Brazil: Vargas forces detected the attempted Integralista coup, leading to a shootout with insurgents at the Guanabara Palace.

1939[edit]

1940–1949[edit]

1940[edit]

1941[edit]

1942[edit]

1943[edit]

1944[edit]

The conference room where Hitler survived the 20 July plot of 1944 after the explosion.

1945[edit]

1946[edit]

1947[edit]

1948[edit]

1949[edit]

1950–1959[edit]

1951[edit]

1952[edit]

1953[edit]

1954[edit]

1955[edit]

1956[edit]

1957[edit]

1958[edit]

1959[edit]

1960–1969[edit]

1960[edit]

1961[edit]

1962[edit]

1963[edit]

1964[edit]

1965[edit]

1966[edit]

1967[edit]

1968[edit]

1969[edit]

1970–1979[edit]

1970[edit]

1971[edit]

  • 1971 Turkish military memorandum: The Chief of the General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces delivered a memorandum demanding the formation of a "strong and credible government, which will neutralise the current anarchical situation".
  • 1971 Ugandan coup d'état: A military coup led by General Idi Amin overthrew the government of President Milton Obote while he was abroad, and installed Amin as dictator.
  • Thailand: Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn launched a self-coup against his own government, dissolving parliament and appointing himself Chairman of the National Executive Council.
  • 1971 Sudanese coup d'état: Major Hashem al Atta leads a short-lived coup against the government of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and President Jaafar Nimeiry. Several days later, Nimeiry loyalists enacted a counter-coup, toppling Atta's government and executing him.
  • Project 571 in China: An alleged coup plot was developed against the Chinese leader Mao Zedong by the supporters of Lin Biao, then Vice-Chairman of the Communist Party of China. Any attempts that may have been made at the coup ultimately failed.
  • Morocco: A coup attempt was organized by General Mohamed Medbouh and Colonel M'hamed Ababou and carried out by cadets during a diplomatic function at King Hassan II's summer palace in Rabat. The King and important guests were detained, and plotters took control of Rabat's radio station to say that the king had been killed and a republic had been founded. Royalist troops regained the palace and ended the coup attempt.
  • Bolivia: General Hugo Banzer overthrew President Juan José Torres and established a military dictatorship.

1972[edit]

1973[edit]

1974[edit]

1975[edit]

1976[edit]

1977[edit]

1978[edit]

1979[edit]

1980–1989[edit]

1980[edit]

1981[edit]

1982[edit]

1983[edit]

1984[edit]

1985[edit]

1986[edit]

1987[edit]

1988[edit]

1989[edit]

1990–1999[edit]

1990[edit]

1991[edit]

1992[edit]

1993[edit]

1994[edit]

1995[edit]

1996[edit]

1997[edit]

1998[edit]

1999[edit]

2000–2009[edit]

2000[edit]

2001[edit]

2002[edit]

  • Ivory Coast (also known as Côte d'Ivoire): A coup may have been attempted on 19 September, the first night of the First Ivorian Civil War. Former president Robert Guéï was killed; state government claimed it had happened as he attempted to lead a coup, but it was widely claimed that Guéï and fifteen others had been murdered in his home and his body moved.
  • 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt: President Hugo Chávez was ousted from office for 47 hours before being restored to power with the help of popular support (mostly labor unions) and members of the military.

2003[edit]

2004[edit]

2005[edit]

2006[edit]

Tanks in Bangkok's street in 2006

2007[edit]

2008[edit]

2009[edit]

  • Coup in Madagascar the army seized one of the presidential palaces on 16 March 2009, at which president Marc Ravalomanana was not present. The proposal offered by the president for a referendum to solve the crisis was rejected. On 17 March 2009, Marc Ravalomanana resigned under pressure from the military.
  • In Honduras, the army seized one of the presidential palaces on 28 June 2009, kidnapped president Manuel Zelaya Rosales due to his endeavor for an unconstitutional reelection and extradited him from the country. The 23-nation Rio Group & the United Nations General Assembly condemned the coup d'état.[41][42]
  • On 24 April 2009, the Ethiopian government claimed, through the Ethiopian News Agency, that it had foiled a coup attempt led by members of Ginbot 7 to overthrow the government.[43] Ginbot 7 described the allegation that it had attempted a coup as a "baseless accusation" that fitted a pattern of distraction and scapegoating by the government.[44]

2010–2019[edit]

2010[edit]

2011[edit]

2012[edit]

2013[edit]

2014[edit]

2015[edit]

2016[edit]

2017[edit]

  • A right-wing coup d'état plot was foiled in Austria in April. The leader Monika Unger and others were arrested after they tried to organise an army-led coup.[58]
  • On 21 June 2017, Prince Mohammed bin Salman ousted and succeeded Saudi Crown Prince and de facto leader Muhammad bin Nayef in what was described as a "palace coup".[59][60]
  • 2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état: Harare, Zimbabwe. In the early hours of 15 November 2017, an army spokesman announced the military takeover of government. This was after the army had seized control of the state run television broadcasting station. During the night before they had stormed the president's private residence and placed the head of state, President Robert Gabriel Mugabe under house arrest. The military police also captured and detained some cabinet ministers whom they labelled criminals around the president. It would succeed with the resignation of Mugabe on 21 November 2017.[61]
  • In December an attempted coup against the government in Equatorial Guinea.[62]

2019[edit]

2020–present[edit]

2020[edit]

2021[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  6. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge (1950). "Li Shih-min's coup in A. D. 626. I: The climax of princely rivalry". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 70 (2): 89–95. doi:10.2307/595537. JSTOR 595537.
  7. ^ Ehsan Yar-Shater (1982). Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 165. Uzun Ḥasan successfully resumed the war with the Qara Qoyunlū and in the autumn of 856/1452 seized Āmed in a bloodless coup while Jahāngīr was away on a military expedition in Kurdistan.
  8. ^ "Elizabethan England - The Age of Treason". The Gunpowder Plot Society. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008.
  9. ^ "History of England: In the name of God, go". HistoryWorld. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
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  11. ^ "The Vaccine Riots and the Difficulty of Modernization in Rio de Janeiro". Brown University Library. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  12. ^ "What a 1904 Vaccine Effort Can Teach Brazil Today". U.S. News. 7 December 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  13. ^ a b c Riddell, Fern (2018). Death in Ten Minutes: The forgotten life of radical suffragette Kitty Marion. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4736-6621-4.
  14. ^ a b c Riddell, Fern (2018). Death in Ten Minutes: The forgotten life of radical suffragette Kitty Marion. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-4736-6621-4.
  15. ^ "New Finnish Dictator Is Dubbed 'Kosolini' Because of Resemblance to Italian Duce". The New York Times. 10 August 1930. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  16. ^ "1932 Colonial Building riot". 27 June 2019 – via Wikipedia.
  17. ^ Taylor, Adam; Kaphle, Anup. "Thailand's army just announced a coup. Here are 11 other Thai coups since 1932" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  18. ^ "Thailand coup: A brief history of past military coups". The Straits Times. 22 May 2014.
  19. ^ Dehghan, Saeed Kamali; Norton-Taylor, Richard (8 August 2013). "CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  20. ^ "A Creeping Coup d'Etat in Pakistan". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  21. ^ Cullather, Nick (1999). Secret History: The CIA's classified account of its operations in Guatemala, 1952–1954. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3311-2.
  22. ^ DePalma, Anthony (6 March 2008). "Ramón Barquín, Cuban Colonel, Dies at 93". New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
  23. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (6 March 2008). "Ramón M. Barquín, 93; Led Failed '56 Coup in Cuba". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
  24. ^ Szulc, pg. 78
  25. ^ Szulc, pg. 81
  26. ^ Szulc, pgs. 80-81
  27. ^ The Middle East and North Africa, 2004. Regional surveys of the world (50th ed.). London: Europa. 2004. ISBN 1-85743-184-7.
  28. ^ Szulc, pg. 75
  29. ^ Szulc, pgs. 82-83
  30. ^ Caesar, Judith (24 August 1990). "Dissent in Saudi Arabia". Christian Science Monitor.
  31. ^ Falcoff, Mark (November 2003). "Kissinger & Chile: The Myth That Will Not Die". Commentary.
  32. ^ "Como se dio el tercer Golpe de Estado, en contra del Gobierno del doctor Ramón Ernesto Cruz Ucles". StuDocu (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  33. ^ Pilger, John (23 October 2014). "The British-American coup that ended Australian independence | John Pilger". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  34. ^ "In the 1970s, a Soft Coup Removed Australia's Left-Wing Prime Minister". jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  35. ^ "A Secret Country". johnpilger.com. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  36. ^ Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.25.
  37. ^ Deletant, Dennis (1995). Ceauşescu and the Securitate: Coercion and Dissent in Romania, 1965–1989. M.E.Sharpe. p. 351. ISBN 978-1563246333.
  38. ^ http://educ.ar/educar/site/educar/Alzamientos%20militares%20despu%E9s%20de%201983.html?uri%3Durn%3Akbee%3A38e173e0-0ae9-11dd-888e-00163e000043%26page-uri%3Durn%3Akbee%3Aff9221c0-13a9-11dc-b8c4-0013d43e5fae. Retrieved 12 November 2008. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. ^ Association of Former Intelligence Officers (19 May 2003), US Coup Plotting in Iraq, Weekly Intelligence Notes 19-03
  40. ^ "Second South Pacific Coup". The Guardian. 2 June 2000. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  41. ^ "Coup In Honduras: Army Expels President". CBS/AP. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  42. ^ "General Assembly condemns coup in Honduras". UN News. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  43. ^ "Woyanne claims it has foiled Ginbot 7 activities in Ethiopia", Ethiopian Review
  44. ^ "Official Web Site of GINBOT 7". 18 April 2012. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012.
  45. ^ "Mali junta says "strangers" behind counter-coup". Reuters. 1 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  46. ^ Adama Diarra; Tiemoko Diallo (1 May 2012). "Gunfire erupts in Mali's Bamako, junta claims control". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  47. ^ Straziuso, Jason (22 January 2013). "A day after unrest reported in Eritrea, calm returns. Ambassador denied coup attempt". AP. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  48. ^ "BBC News - Benin foils 'coup attempt' against President Yayi". Bbc.co.uk. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  49. ^ "Centrafrique: revivez la journée du dimanche 24 mars" (in French). 24 March 2013.
  50. ^ "Libyan forces foil coup attempt". Middleeastmonitor.com. 15 April 2013. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013.
  51. ^ "Comores: coup d'État déjoué (autorités)". Lefigaro.fr. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  52. ^ "At least 4 dead in Chad coup attempt: security sources". Reuters. 2 May 2013. Archived from the original on 13 October 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  53. ^ "Two generals, pro-Deby MP arrested for Chad coup plot: prosecutor". Reuters. 2 May 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  54. ^ "BBC News - Libya PM Zeidan's brief kidnap was 'attempted coup'". Bbc.co.uk. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  55. ^ "Burkina Faso 'foils coup plot by forces loyal to Compaore'". BBC News. 21 October 2016.
  56. ^ "Burkina Faso foiled coup attempt in early October, minister says". Reuters. 21 October 2016.
  57. ^ "Au Burkina Faso, le pouvoir affirme avoir déjoué une tentative de coup d'Etat". Le Monde.fr. 21 October 2016.
  58. ^ "Jail Terms for Austrian Far-Right Group Trying to Incite Coup". DW News. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  59. ^ Hubbard, Ben; Mazzetti, Mark; Schmitt, Eric (19 July 2017). "Saudi King's Son Plotted Effort to Oust His Rival". The New York Times.
  60. ^ Reuters
  61. ^ "Zimbabwe's President Mugabe resigns". Bbc.co.uk. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  62. ^ "Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea reopen border after four months". Cameroon Intelligence Report. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  63. ^ "Saudi Arabia detains senior royals for alleged coup plot, including king's brother: sources". Reuters. 7 March 2020.
  64. ^ "Mali Coup: President Quits After Soldiers Mutiny". BBC News. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  65. ^ "Mali Colonel Assimi Goita Declares Himself Junta Leader as Opposition Pledges Support". France 24. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  66. ^ "Sudan: Army Foils Coup Attempt by Retired Officers". Middle East Monitor. 21 October 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  67. ^ "Picking up the Pieces in the Central African Republic". 29 January 2021. The government is deeply aggrieved at the perceived failure of some opposition leaders to clearly distance themselves from the coup attempt mounted by Bozizé
  68. ^ "Coup-Proofing: Russia's Military Blueprint to Securing Resources in Africa". 10 March 2021. These forces, joined by Rwandan troops, MINUSCA, and the country's Russian-trained military, retook three towns and major roads near the capital, successfully repelling the coup and allowing the election to move forward
  69. ^ "Myanmar gov't declares 1-year state of emergency: President's Office - Xinhua | English.news.cn". XinhuaNet. 1 February 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  70. ^ "Myanmar military says it is taking control of the country". AP News. 1 February 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  71. ^ "Armenian prime minister accuses military of attempted coup". 25 February 2021.
  72. ^ "Niger: le gouvernement dénonce une "tentative de coup d'État"". France 24 (in French). 31 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  73. ^ Yayadiomandehero (31 March 2021). "Niger – Coup d'état : Le capitaine GOUROUZA SANI SALEY serait le cerveau de la tentative du coup d'État avorté, il est le chargé de la sécurité de la compagnie aérienne de l'escadrille de Niamey. Il est actuellement recherché par les forces de l'ordre et de sécurité. D'après une source sécuritaire plusieurs de ses éléments ont été arrêtés". Omega Médias (in French). Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  74. ^ "Jordan's former crown prince, others reportedly arrested over alleged coup plot". Times of Israel. 3 April 2021.
  75. ^ Lewis, David (24 May 2021). "Military detain Mali's president, prime minister and defence minister". Reuters. Retrieved 24 May 2021.

Further reading[edit]

  • Szulc, Tad (1965). "Latin America", The New York Times Company, Library of Congress 65-27528

External links[edit]