|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|237 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||237 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||517|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 87|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy III Euergetes, 10|
|Ancient Greek era||135th Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||癸亥年 (Water Pig)|
2460 or 2400
— to —
甲子年 (Wood Rat)
2461 or 2401
|Coptic calendar||−520 – −519|
|Ethiopian calendar||−244 – −243|
|- Vikram Samvat||−180 – −179|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2864–2865|
|Iranian calendar||858 BP – 857 BP|
|Islamic calendar||884 BH – 883 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2148 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||75/76 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||306–307|
−110 or −491 or −1263
— to —
−109 or −490 or −1262
Year 237 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caudinus and Flaccus (or, less frequently, year 517 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 237 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Hamilcar Barca's success in defeating the mercenaries results in a growth in his strength as leader of Carthage's popular party and support for his proposed invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. However, as spokesman for the landed nobility, Hanno opposes the policy of foreign conquest pursued by Hamilcar Barca.
- Nevertheless, Hamilcar Barca leads a Carthaginian army in an invasion of the Iberian Peninsula with the aim of building a base from which war with Rome can be renewed. By skillful generalship and able diplomacy, Hamilcar extends Carthaginian dominion over many Spanish tribes.
- Lü Buwei is deposed as the Prime Minister of Qin.
- The Qin official and philosopher Li Si persuades the king, Ying Zheng, not to expel foreign officers with his "Petition against the Expulsion of Guest Officers" (Jianzhuke Shu).
- Xun Zi, Confucian philosopher who has contributed to one of the Hundred Schools of Thought (b. c. 310 BC)