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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||7th century BC – 6th century BC – 5th century BC|
|Decades:||530s BC 520s BC 510s BC – 500s BC – 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC|
|Years:||504 BC 503 BC 502 BC – 501 BC – 500 BC 499 BC 498 BC|
|501 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||501 BC
|Ab urbe condita||253|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 25|
|- Pharaoh||Darius I of Persia, 21|
|Ancient Greek era||69th Olympiad, year 4|
|Chinese calendar||己亥年 (Earth Pig)
2196 or 2136
— to —
庚子年 (Metal Rat)
2197 or 2137
|Coptic calendar||−784 – −783|
|Ethiopian calendar||−508 – −507|
|- Vikram Samvat||−444 – −443|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2601–2602|
|Iranian calendar||1122 BP – 1121 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1156 BH – 1155 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2412 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||42–43|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 501 BC.|
The year 501 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Auruncus and Lartius (or, less frequently, year 253 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 501 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Cleisthenes reforms the democracy in Athens.
- Naxos is attacked by the Persian Empire.
- In response to threats by the Sabines, Rome creates the office of dictator.
- Gadir (present-day Cadiz) is captured by Carthage. (approximate date)