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|510 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1263|
|Balinese saka calendar||431–432|
|Chinese calendar||己丑年 (Earth Ox)|
3206 or 3146
— to —
庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
3207 or 3147
|- Vikram Samvat||566–567|
|- Shaka Samvat||431–432|
|- Kali Yuga||3610–3611|
|Iranian calendar||112 BP – 111 BP|
|Islamic calendar||115 BH – 114 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1402 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||821/822 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1052–1053|
636 or 255 or −517
— to —
637 or 256 or −516
Year 510 (DX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Severinus without colleague (or, less frequently, year 1263 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 510 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Battle of Llongborth (possibly Langport or Portsmouth): Budic II, king of Brittany seeks, after the battle, refuge at the court of Aergol Lawhir in Dyfed (Wales).
- King Theodoric the Great razes the Frankish siege at Arles; the city is heroically defended by its inhabitants, assisted by the Ostrogothic general Theudis. The Ostrogoths overrun Provence (Southern Gaul) and consolidate their gains in the region.
- Theodoric the Great appoints his friend Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, Roman philosopher, to the rank of consul of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
- The Sasanian Persians conquer the independent kingdom of Caucasian Albania, a state converted to Christianity in the 4th century by Armenian missionaries (approximate date).
- Aredius, abbot and saint (approximate date)
- Gildas, Celtic monk (approximate date)
- Xiao Ming Di, emperor of Northern Wei (d. 528)
- Xiao Wu Di, emperor of Northern Wei (d. 535)
- Yifu, empress of Western Wei (d. 540)
- January 1 – Eugendus, abbot of Condat Abbey
- Drest II, king of the Picts (approximate date)
- Hashim, great-grandfather of Muhammad (approximate date)
- Tato, king of the Lombards (approximate date)