6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency
6-Pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes malignant hyperphenylalaninemia due to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency. It belongs to the rare diseases. It is a recessive disorder that is accompanied by hyperphenylalaninemia. Commonly reported symptoms are initial truncal hypotonia, subsequent appendicular hypertonia, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity, generalized dystonia, and marked diurnal fluctuation. Other reported clinical features include difficulty in swallowing, oculogyric crises, somnolence, irritability, hyperthermia, and seizures. Chorea, athetosis, hypersalivation, rash with eczema, and sudden death have also been reported. Patients with mild phenotypes may deteriorate if given folate antagonists such as methotrexate, which can interfere with a salvage pathway through which dihydrobiopterin is converted into tetrahydrobiopterin via dihydrofolate reductase. Treatment options include substitution with neurotransmitter precursors (levodopa, 5-hydroxytryptophan), monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and tetrahydrobiopterin. Response to treatment is variable and the long-term and functional outcome is unknown. To provide a basis for improving the understanding of the epidemiology, genotype/phenotype correlation and outcome of these diseases their impact on the quality of life of patients, and for evaluating diagnostic and therapeutic strategies a patient registry was established by the noncommercial International Working Group on Neurotransmitter Related Disorders (iNTD).
- Thöny B; Blau N (1997). "Mutations in the GTP cyclohydrolase I and 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase genes". Hum. Mutat. 10 (1): 11–20. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)10:1<11::AID-HUMU2>3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 9222755.
- Pearl PL; Taylor JL; Trzcinski S; Sokohl A (May 2007). "The pediatric neurotransmitter disorders". J Child Neurol 22 (5): 606–616. doi:10.1177/0883073807302619. PMID 17690069.
- "Patient registry".
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