ACD (gene)

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ACD
Protein ACD PDB 2i46.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases ACD, PIP1, PTOP, TINT1, TPP1, adrenocortical dysplasia homolog, shelterin complex subunit and telomerase recruitment factor
External IDs MGI: 87873 HomoloGene: 23391 GeneCards: ACD
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ACD 204617 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001082486
NM_001082487
NM_022914

NM_001012638
NM_001348349

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001075955
NP_001075956
NP_075065

NP_001012656.1
NP_001012656
NP_001335278

Location (UCSC) Chr 16: 67.66 – 67.66 Mb Chr 8: 105.7 – 105.7 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Adrenocortical dysplasia protein homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACD gene.[3][4][5]

Function[edit]

This gene encodes a protein that is involved in telomere function. This protein is one of six core proteins in the telosome/shelterin telomeric complex, which functions to maintain telomere length and to protect telomere ends. Through its interaction with other components, this protein plays a key role in the assembly and stabilization of this complex, and it mediates the access of telomerase to the telomere. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene, which is also referred to as TPP1, is distinct from the unrelated TPP1 gene on chromosome 11, which encodes tripeptidyl-peptidase I.[5]

TPP1 is a component of the telomere-specific shelterin complex, which facilitats the replication of the double-stranded telomeric DNA tracts and protects the telomeric end from unregulated DNA repair activities. TPP1 mainly functions as a regulator of telomerase recruitment, activation, and regulation.[6] Although TPP1 was originally described as a bridging factor between TRF1 and TRF2, which participate in a pathway with POT1 as a negative regulator of telomerase-dependent telomere length control, [7] more recent studies suggest that TPP1 could directly promotes telomerase activity at the telomere.[8] A part of the TPP1 oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold named TEL patch that interacts with the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT, has been proven essential for telomerase activation.[9] What’s more, TPP1 has been demonstrated the only pathway required for recruitment of telomerase to chromosome ends, and it also defines telomere length homeostasis in hESCs.[9]

Interactions[edit]

ACD (gene) has been shown to interact with POT1[3][4][10] and TINF2.[3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b c Ye JZ, Hockemeyer D, Krutchinsky AN, Loayza D, Hooper SM, Chait BT, de Lange T (July 2004). "POT1-interacting protein PIP1: a telomere length regulator that recruits POT1 to the TIN2/TRF1 complex". Genes Dev. 18 (14): 1649–54. doi:10.1101/gad.1215404. PMC 478187Freely accessible. PMID 15231715. 
  4. ^ a b c Liu D, Safari A, O'Connor MS, Chan DW, Laegeler A, Qin J, Songyang Z (July 2004). "PTOP interacts with POT1 and regulates its localization to telomeres". Nat Cell Biol. 6 (7): 673–80. doi:10.1038/ncb1142. PMID 15181449. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ACD adrenocortical dysplasia homolog (mouse)". 
  6. ^ Karlseder J (September 2014). "Modern genome editing meets telomeres: the many functions of TPP1". Genes & Development. 28 (17): 1857–8. doi:10.1101/gad.250316.114. PMC 4197952Freely accessible. PMID 25184673. 
  7. ^ Hockemeyer D, Palm W, Else T, Daniels JP, Takai KK, Ye JZ, Keegan CE, de Lange T, Hammer GD (August 2007). "Telomere protection by mammalian Pot1 requires interaction with Tpp1". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 14 (8): 754–61. doi:10.1038/nsmb1270. PMID 17632522. 
  8. ^ Nandakumar J, Bell CF, Weidenfeld I, Zaug AJ, Leinwand LA, Cech TR (December 2012). "The TEL patch of telomere protein TPP1 mediates telomerase recruitment and processivity". Nature. 492 (7428): 285–9. doi:10.1038/nature11648. PMC 3521872Freely accessible. PMID 23103865. 
  9. ^ a b Sexton AN, Regalado SG, Lai CS, Cost GJ, O'Neil CM, Urnov FD, Gregory PD, Jaenisch R, Collins K, Hockemeyer D (September 2014). "Genetic and molecular identification of three human TPP1 functions in telomerase action: recruitment, activation, and homeostasis set point regulation". Genes & Development. 28 (17): 1885–99. doi:10.1101/gad.246819.114. PMC 4197946Freely accessible. PMID 25128433. 
  10. ^ Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP, Vidal M (October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173–8. doi:10.1038/nature04209. PMID 16189514. 
  11. ^ Takai KK, Hooper S, Blackwood S, Gandhi R, de Lange T (January 2010). "In vivo stoichiometry of shelterin components". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (2): 1457–67. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.038026. PMC 2801271Freely accessible. PMID 19864690. 
  12. ^ Nandakumar J, Bell CF, Weidenfeld I, Zaug AJ, Leinwand LA, Cech TR (December 2012). "The TEL patch of telomere protein TPP1 mediates telomerase recruitment and processivity". Nature. 492 (7428): 285–9. doi:10.1038/nature11648. PMC 3521872Freely accessible. PMID 23103865. 
  13. ^ Hockemeyer D, Palm W, Else T, Daniels JP, Takai KK, Ye JZ, Keegan CE, de Lange T, Hammer GD (August 2007). "Telomere protection by mammalian Pot1 requires interaction with Tpp1". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 14 (8): 754–61. doi:10.1038/nsmb1270. PMID 17632522. 
  14. ^ a b c O'Connor MS, Safari A, Xin H, Liu D, Songyang Z (August 2006). "A critical role for TPP1 and TIN2 interaction in high-order telomeric complex assembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (32): 11874–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605303103. PMC 1567669Freely accessible. PMID 16880378. 
  15. ^ Zaug AJ, Podell ER, Nandakumar J, Cech TR (March 2010). "Functional interaction between telomere protein TPP1 and telomerase". Genes & Development. 24 (6): 613–22. doi:10.1101/gad.1881810. PMC 2841338Freely accessible. PMID 20231318. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Wang F, Podell ER, Zaug AJ, Yang Y, Baciu P, Cech TR, Lei M (2007). "The POT1-TPP1 telomere complex is a telomerase processivity factor.". Nature. 445 (7127): 506–10. doi:10.1038/nature05454. PMID 17237768.