Academic Ranking of World Universities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from ARWU)
Jump to: navigation, search
Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities logo.png
Categories Higher education
Frequency Annual
Publisher Shanghai Ranking Consultancy (since 2009)
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2003-2008)
Country  China
Language Ten languages with English & Chinese
Website www.shanghairanking.com

Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is an annual publication of university rankings by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy.[1] The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiaotong University in 2003, the first global ranking with multifarious indicators,[2] after which a board of international advisories was established to provide suggestions.[3][4] The publication now comprises the world's overall and subject league tables, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking. ARWU is regarded as one of the most widely observed university measures.[5][6][7][8] It is praised for its objective methodology but draws some condemnation for undermining humanities and quality of instruction.[5][7][9]

Global rankings[edit]

Overall[edit]

Methodology[edit]

ARWU methodology[10]
Criterion Indicator Code Weighting Source
Quality of education
Alumni
  • 10%
Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists[Note 1]
Quality of faculty
  • Staff as Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists
  • Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories
Award
HiCi
  • 20%
  • 20%
Official websites of Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists[Note 1]
Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers[Note 1]
Research output
  • Papers published in Nature and Science[* 1]
  • Papers indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded and Social Science Citation Index
N&S
PUB
  • 20%
  • 20%
Citation index
Per capita performance
  • Per capita academic performance of an institution
PCP
  • 10%
--
*
  1. ^ Not applicable to institutions specialized in humanities and social sciences whose N&S scores are relocated to other indicators.

Reception[edit]

ARWU is praised by several media and institutions for its methodology and influence. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities."[11] In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities".[12] EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were carefully evaluated using several indicators of research performance."[13] Chancellor of Oxford University, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks fairly solid ... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." and "The SJTU rankings were reported quickly and widely around the world… (and they) offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." respectively.[14] Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's 'consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency' as significant strengths.[15]

Criticism[edit]

Like all the other rankings, ARWU has criticism as well. It is condemned for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities.[5][7][16][17] A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng.[18] A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced.[19] In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Their main conclusions are that the criteria used are not relevant; that the aggregation methodology has a number of major problems; and that insufficient attention has been paid to fundamental choices of criteria.[20] The ARWU researchers themselves, N.C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be precisely measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial. They suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood clearly before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticised by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour[ing] Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions". For instance, ARWU is repeatedly criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system.[9][21]

Results[edit]

Academic Ranking of World Universities (500) - Top 50[Note 2]
Institution 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
United StatesHarvard University[22] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
United StatesStanford University[23] 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2
United StatesMassachusetts Institute of Technology[24] 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 4 3 3
United StatesUniversity of California, Berkeley[25] 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 4 4 3 4 4
United KingdomUniversity of Cambridge[26] 5 3 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5
United StatesPrinceton University[27] 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6
United StatesCalifornia Institute of Technology[28] 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7
United StatesColumbia University[29] 10 9 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8
United StatesUniversity of Chicago[30] 11 10 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
United KingdomUniversity of Oxford[31] 9 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 10
United StatesYale University[32] 8 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11
United StatesUniversity of California, Los Angeles[33] 15 16 14 14 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12
United StatesCornell University[34] 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13
United StatesUniversity of California, San Diego[35] 14 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 14 14 14
United StatesUniversity of Washington[36] 16 20 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15
United StatesThe Johns Hopkins University[37] 24 22 19 20 19 20 19 18 18 17 17 17 16
United StatesUniversity of Pennsylvania[38] 18 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 15 16 17
United KingdomUniversity College London[39] 20 25 26 26 25 22 21 21 20 21 21 20 18
United StatesUniversity of California, San Francisco[40] 13 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 18
SwitzerlandSwiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich[41] 25 27 27 27 27 24 23 23 23 23 20 19 20
JapanThe University of Tokyo[42] 19 14 20 19 20 19 20 20 21 20 21 21 21
United StatesUniversity of Michigan[43] 21 19 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 22 22
United KingdomImperial College London[44] 17 23 23 23 23 27 26 26 24 24 24 22 23
United StatesUniversity of Wisconsin - Madison[45] 27 18 16 16 17 17 17 17 19 19 19 24 24
CanadaUniversity of Toronto[46] 23 24 24 24 23 24 27 27 26 27 28 24 25
JapanKyoto University[47] 30 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 27 26 26 26 26
United StatesNew York University[48] 55 32 29 29 30 31 32 31 29 27 27 27 27
United StatesNorthwestern University[49] 29 30 31 33 29 30 30 29 30 30 30 28 28
United StatesUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign[50] 45 25 25 25 26 26 25 25 25 25 25 28 29
United StatesUniversity of Minnesota[51] 37 33 32 32 33 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 30
United StatesDuke University[52] 32 31 32 31 32 32 31 35 35 36 31 31 31
United StatesWashington University in St. Louis[53] 22 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 32 32
United StatesRockefeller University[54] 28 29 30 30 30 32 32 34 33 32 34 33 33
United StatesUniversity of Colorado at Boulder[55] 31 34 35 34 34 34 34 32 32 33 33 34 34
DenmarkUniversity of Copenhagen[56] 65 59 57 56 46 45 43 40 43 44 42 39 35
FrancePierre and Marie Curie University[57] 65 41 46 45 39 42 40 39 41 42 37 35 36
United StatesThe University of Texas at Austin[58] 47 40 36 39 38 39 38 38 35 35 36 39 37
United StatesUniversity of California, Santa Barbara[59] 26 35 34 35 35 36 35 32 33 34 35 41 38
United StatesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill[60] 52 56 55 59 58 38 39 41 42 41 43 36 39
CanadaUniversity of British Columbia[61] 35 36 37 36 36 35 36 36 37 39 40 37 40
United KingdomThe University of Manchester[62] 89 78 53 50 48 40 41 44 38 40 41 38 41
FranceUniversity of Paris-Sud[63] 72 48 61 64 52 49 43 45 40 37 39 42 41
United StatesUniversity of Maryland, College Park[64] 75 57 47 37 37 37 37 36 38 38 38 43 43
AustraliaThe University of Melbourne[65] 92 82 82 78 79 73 75 62 60 57 54 44 44
United StatesThe University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas[66] 34 36 38 38 39 41 48 49 51 48 46 45 44
GermanyHeidelberg University[67] 58 64 71 66 65 67 63 63 62 62 54 49 46
United KingdomThe University of Edinburgh[68] 43 47 47 52 53 55 53 54 53 51 51 45 47
SwedenKarolinska Institutet[69] 39 46 45 48 53 51 50 42 44 42 44 47 48
United StatesUniversity of Southern California[70] 40 48 50 47 50 50 46 46 46 46 47 51 49
United StatesUniversity of California, Irvine[71] 44 55 47 44 45 46 46 46 48 45 45 47 50

Alternative[edit]

As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Fields Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Shanghai institute created an alternative ranking excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance. The weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%.

Alternative Ranking (500) - Top 100[Note 2][72]
Institution 2014
United StatesHarvard University 1
United StatesStanford University 2
United StatesUniversity of California-Berkeley 3
United StatesMassachusetts Institute of Technology 4
United StatesCalifornia Institute of Technology 5
United KingdomUniversity of Oxford 6
United StatesUniversity of California, San Diego 7
United KingdomUniversity of Cambridge 8
United StatesYale University 9
United StatesUniversity of Washington 10
United StatesUniversity of California, Los Angeles 11
United StatesColumbia University 12
United StatesUniversity of Michigan 13
JapanThe University of Tokyo 14
United StatesUniversity of California, San Francisco 15
United StatesUniversity of Pennsylvania 16
CanadaUniversity of Toronto 17
United StatesCornell University 18
United StatesThe Johns Hopkins University 19
United StatesPrinceton University 20
United KingdomUniversity College London 21
United StatesDuke University 22
SwitzerlandSwiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich 23
United KingdomImperial College, London 24
United StatesNorthwestern University 25
United StatesUniversity of Minnesota 26
United StatesUniversity of Chicago 27
United StatesUniversity of Wisconsin - Madison 28
United StatesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 29
United StatesWashington University in St. Louis 30
United StatesUniversity of California, Davis 31
United StatesNew York University 32
CanadaUniversity of British Columbia 33
United StatesThe University of Texas at Austin 34
United StatesPennsylvania State University 35
JapanKyoto University 36
United StatesUniversity of Colorado at Boulder 37
United StatesUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 38
AustraliaThe University of Melbourne 39
DenmarkUniversity of Copenhagen 40
United StatesThe Ohio State University 41
United StatesUniversity of Maryland, College Park 42
United StatesUniversity of Pittsburgh 43
United StatesRutgers University 44
FrancePierre and Marie Curie University 45
JapanOsaka University 46
United KingdomThe University of Manchester 47
United StatesUniversity of California, Irvine 48
United StatesUniversity of California, Santa Barbara 49
United StatesUniversity of California, Santa Cruz 50
GermanyTechnische Universität München 51
GermanyUniversity of Munich 52
United StatesVanderbilt University 53
SwitzerlandUniversity of Zurich 54
United KingdomKing's College London 55
NetherlandsUtrecht University 56
United StatesUniversity of California, Davis 57
SwitzerlandUniversity of Geneva 58
NorwayUniversity of Oslo 58
United StatesPennsylvania State University 60
United StatesCarnegie Mellon University 61
United StatesPurdue University 61
SwedenUppsala University 61
CanadaMcGill University 64
United StatesRutgers University 64
United KingdomUniversity of Bristol 66
IsraelHebrew University of Jerusalem 67
United StatesOhio State University 67
FinlandUniversity of Helsinki 67
United StatesUniversity of Pittsburgh 70
BelgiumGhent University 71
FranceEcole Normale Superieure 72
DenmarkAarhus University 73
United StatesBoston University 73
United StatesBrown University 75
NetherlandsUniversity of Groningen 75
JapanNagoya University 77
SwedenUniversity of Stockholm 77
IsraelTechnion – Israel Institute of Technology 77
AustraliaAustralian National University 77
AustraliaUniversity of Queensland 77
NetherlandsLeiden University 82
United StatesUniversity of Florida 83
United StatesRice University 84
JapanOsaka University 85
RussiaMoscow State University 86
AustraliaUniversity of Western Australia 87
SwitzerlandUniversity of Basel 87
FranceUniversity of Strasbourg 87
BelgiumKU Leuven 90
United StatesUniversity of Arizona 90
United KingdomUniversity of Warwick 92
United StatesArizona State University 93
United StatesUniversity of California, Santa Cruz 93
United StatesUniversity of Utah 93
CanadaMcMaster University 96
GermanyUniversity of Bonn 97
NetherlandsVU University Amsterdam 98
United StatesMichigan State University 99
United StatesTexas A&M University 100

Subject[edit]

There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects. The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, and the number of highly cited scholars.

Broad fields[73] Specific subjects[74]
Natural sciences and mathematics Mathematics
Computer science and engineering Physics
Life and agricultural sciences Chemistry
Clinical medicine and pharmacy Computer science
Social sciences Economics and business

Regional rankings[edit]

Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched.

Greater China[edit]

Methodology[edit]

Methodology of Greater China Rankings[75][Note 2]
Criterion Indicator Weight
Education
  • Percentage of graduate students
  • Percentage of non-local students
  • Ratio of academic staff to students
  • Doctoral degrees awarded
  • Alumni as Nobel Laureates & Fields Medalists
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
Research
  • Annual research income
  • Nature & Science Papers
  • SCIE & SSCI papers
  • International patents
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
  • 10%
Faculty
  • Percentage of academic staff with a doctoral degree
  • Staff as Nobel Laureates and Fields Medalists
  • Highly cited researchers
  • 5%
  • 10%
  • 10%
Resources
  • Annual budget
  • 5%

Results[edit]

Greater China Rankings (100) - Top 10[Note 2][76]
Institution 2011 2012 2013 2014
ChinaTsinghua University 1 1 1 1
TaiwanNational Tsing Hua University 4 3 3 2
TaiwanNational Taiwan University 1 2 2 3
Hong KongThe Hong Kong University of Science & Technology 5 4 7 4
ChinaPeking University 7 7 5 5
Hong KongThe University of Hong Kong 3 6 4 6
Hong KongThe Chinese University of Hong Kong 6 5 6 7
ChinaUniversity of Science & Technology of China 9 11 10 8
TaiwanNational Chiao Tung University 8 8 8 9
ChinaZhejiang University 10 9 9 10

Macedonia[edit]

Methodology[edit]

Methodology of rankings of Macedonian higher educational institutions[77][Note 3]
Criterion Indicator Weight
Teaching and learning
  • Percentage of incoming students who participated in state matura examination
  • Average score of incoming students in state matura examination
  • Percentage of foreign students
  • Academic staff / undergraduate students ratio
  • Proportion of academic staff with the highest degree
  • Proportion of academic staff with 1 year or above foreign work experience
  • Proportion of students with academic scholarships from Ministry of Education and Science
  • Institutional income per student
  • Spending on library resources per student
  • Spending on IT infrastructure and equipment per student
  • Proportion of undergraduates who graduated within regular time
  • Proportion of undergraduates with 3 months or above foreign study/practical experience under the state-level agreements
  • Employment rate of undergraduates
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 5%
  • 4%
  • 8%
  • 6%
  • 6%
  • 2%
  • 1%
  • 1%
  • 1%
  • 2%
  • 4%
Research
  • Total research income per academic staff
  • Research income from the Ministry of Education & Science per academic staff
  • Papers published in peer reviewed journals per academic staff
  • Papers indexed by Web of Science per academic staff
  • Books published per academic staff
  • Numbers of doctorates granted per academic staff
  • 4%
  • 6%
  • 6%
  • 10%
  • 4%
  • 6%
Social service
  • Research income from industry per academic staff
  • Patents issued per academic staff
  • 6%
  • 8%

Results[edit]

Macedonian HEIs Rankings (20) - Top 10[Note 2][78][79]
Institution 2011-12 2013-14
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje 1 1
Goce Delčev University of Štip 3 2
South East European University 2 3
University of Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostle" 5 4
University "Ss. Kliment Ohridski" – Bitola 4 5
University American College Skopje 10 6
International Balkan University 6 7
FON University 11 8
State University of Tetovo 13 9
European University-Republic of Macedonia 7 10

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Official datum sources adopted by ARWU: Nobel Laureate Web, Fields Medalist Web, Thomson Reuters' survey of highly cited researchers & Thomson Reuters' Web of Science.
  2. ^ a b c d e Order shown in accordance with the latest result.
  3. ^ This table shows the latest version which is different from that of the previous year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014. Since 2009 the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has been published and copyrighted by ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. 
  2. ^ "World university rankings: how much influence do they really have?". The Guardian. 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2015. The first international rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities or Shanghai Rankings 
  3. ^ "Shanghai rankings rattle European universities". ABS-CBN Interactive. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2015. France's higher education minister travelled to Jiaotong University's suburban campus last month to discuss the rankings, the Norwegian education minister came last year and the Danish minister is due to visit next month.; The idea for the rankings was born in 1998, when Beijing decreed China needed several world-leading universities. 
  4. ^ "ARWU International Advisory Board". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c "University rankings: which world university rankings should we trust?". The Telegraph. 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015. It is a remarkably stable list, relying on long-term factors such as the number of Nobel Prize-winners a university has produced, and number of articles published in Nature and Science journals. But with this narrow focus comes drawbacks. China's priority was for its universities to 'catch up' on hard scientific research. So if you're looking for raw research power, it's the list for you. If you're a humanities student, or more interested in teaching quality? Not so much. 
  6. ^ Ariel Zirulnick. "New world university ranking puts Harvard back on top". The Christian Science Monitor. Those two, as well as Shanghai Jiao Tong University, produce the most influential international university rankings out there 
  7. ^ a b c Indira Samarasekera & Carl Amrhein. "Top schools don't always get top marks". The Edmonton Journal. There are currently three major international rankings that receive widespread commentary: The Academic World Ranking of Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education Rankings. 
  8. ^ Philip G. Altbach (11 November 2010). "The State of the Rankings". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 27 January 2015. The major international rankings have appeared in recent months — the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings, and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE). 
  9. ^ a b August 29, 2013 (29 August 2013). ""Shanghai Academic Ranking: a French Controversy" by Marc Goetzmann, for ''La Jeune Politique''". Lajeunepolitique.com. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  10. ^ "ARWU – Methodology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  11. ^ "A world of opportunity". The Economics. 8 September 2005. Retrieved 30 January 2015. It is no accident that the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities, the Shanghai index, is produced by a Chinese university. 
  12. ^ "International Group Announces Audit of University Rankings". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2015. ...Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which produces the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities... 
  13. ^ "Chinese study ranks world's top 500 universities". European Research Headlines. 2003. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Rankings and Accountability in Higher Education: Uses and Misuses". United Nations Educational. 2013. p. 26. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  15. ^ Philip G. Altbach (11 September 2010). "The State of the Rankings". INSIDE HIGHER ED. Retrieved 30 January 2015. Nonetheless, AWRU's consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency are significant advantages. 
  16. ^ J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry (1994). "Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching" (PDF). Energy & Environment 18 (2): 13–43. 
  17. ^ "1741-7015-5-30.fm" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  18. ^ Răzvan V. Florian (17 June 2007). "Irreproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  19. ^ Domingo Docampo (1 July 2012). "Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Jean-Charles Billaut, Denis Bouyssou & Philippe Vincke. "Should you believe in the Shanghai ranking?". CCSD. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  21. ^ Spongenberg, Helena (5 June 2014). "EUobserver / EU to test new university ranking in 2010". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  22. ^ "ARWU - Harvard University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  23. ^ "ARWU - Stanford University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  24. ^ "ARWU - Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  25. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Berkeley". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  26. ^ "ARWU - University of Cambridge". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  27. ^ "ARWU - Princeton University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  28. ^ "ARWU - California Institute of Technology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  29. ^ "ARWU - Columbia University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  30. ^ "ARWU - University of Chicago". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  31. ^ "ARWU - University of Oxford". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  32. ^ "ARWU - Yale University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  33. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Los Angeles". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  34. ^ "ARWU - Cornell University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  35. ^ "ARWU - University of California, San Diego". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  36. ^ "ARWU - University of Washington". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  37. ^ "ARWU - The Johns Hopkins University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  38. ^ "ARWU - University of Pennsylvania". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  39. ^ "ARWU - University College London". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  40. ^ "ARWU - University of California, San Francisco". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  41. ^ "ARWU - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  42. ^ "ARWU - The University of Tokyo". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  43. ^ "ARWU - University of Michigan". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  44. ^ "ARWU - Imperial College, London". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  45. ^ "ARWU - University of Wisconsin - Madison". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  46. ^ "ARWU - University of Toronto". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  47. ^ "ARWU - Kyoto University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  48. ^ "ARWU - New York University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  49. ^ "ARWU - Northwestern University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  50. ^ "ARWU - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  51. ^ "ARWU - University of Minnesota, Twin Cities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  52. ^ "ARWU - Duke University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  53. ^ "ARWU - Washington University in St. Louis". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  54. ^ "ARWU - Rockefeller University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  55. ^ "ARWU - University of Colorado at Boulder". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  56. ^ "ARWU - University of Copenhagen". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  57. ^ "ARWU - Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  58. ^ "ARWU - The University of Texas at Austin". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  59. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Santa Barbara". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  60. ^ "ARWU - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  61. ^ "ARWU - University of British Columbia". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  62. ^ "ARWU - The University of Manchester". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  63. ^ "ARWU - University of Paris Sud (Paris 11)". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  64. ^ "ARWU - University of Maryland, College Park". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  65. ^ "ARWU - The University of Melbourne". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  66. ^ "ARWU - The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  67. ^ "ARWU - Heidelberg University". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  68. ^ "ARWU - The University of Edinburgh". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  69. ^ "ARWU - Karolinska Institute". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  70. ^ "ARWU - University of Southern California". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2015. 
  71. ^ "ARWU - University of California, Irvine". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  72. ^ "ARWU - Alternative Ranking ( Excluding Award Factor )". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  73. ^ "Academic Rankings of World Universities in subject fields". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  74. ^ "Academic Rankings of World Universities in specific subjects". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  75. ^ "Greater China Ranking – Methodology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  76. ^ "Greater China Rankings". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  77. ^ "Macedonian HEIs Ranking 2013-2014 – Methodology". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  78. ^ "Macedonian HEIs Ranking 2013-2014". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  79. ^ "Macedonian HEIs Ranking 2011-2012". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 

External links[edit]