Airedale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Airedale (disambiguation).
The central Pennines can be easily traversed by low passes: * Airedale to Ribblesdale 144 m (472 ft) near Barnoldswick. * Airedale to Pendle Water 165 m (541 ft) near Colne. * Airedale to Londsdale 166 m (545 ft) near Settle.[1]

Coordinates: 54°01′01″N 1°27′54″W / 54.017°N 1.465°W / 54.017; -1.465 Airedale is a geographic area in Yorkshire, England, corresponding to the river valley of the River Aire (pronounced air).

The valley stretches from the river's origin in Aire Head Springs,[2] Malham which is in the Yorkshire Dales, down past Skipton on to Keighley, Bingley and Shipley through to Leeds and Castleford and on to join the River Ouse at Airmyn.

This valley is of great topographic significance as it provides low-altitude passes through the mid Pennines to the west coast known as the Aire Gap.[3]

History[edit]

The upper Aire valley was formed 12,000 years ago by a retreating glacier. A moraine formed in the Cononley area and the lake stretched as far north as Gargrave. Colonisation by man developed later on, especially during the Iron Age. The peoples that occupied the Aire Valley (and much of north eastern England) were called Brigantes by the Romans.[4]

Transport improved in the 18th and 19th centuries with the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation[5] and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal.[6] The railways arrived from the 1830s onwards and during the twentieth century the roads were vastly improved in the valley.

Description of valley[edit]

Airedale was formerly wholly within the West Riding of Yorkshire, right from Malhamdale, the source of the river, to Airmyn, where the river joins the Ouse.[7] After the Boundary changes of 1974,[8] Airedale starts off in what is now North Yorkshire. Airmyn is now in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

View of Airedale Looking towards north west towards the Malham Hills from Keighley

The upper valley is characterised by the beautiful landscape of the Yorkshire Dales (Malhamdale is just inside the Yorkshire Dales National Park). The part of the dale from Skipton[9] to Knottingley is heavily industrialised and continues in that vein today despite many mill closures.[10] The East Yorkshire section of the dale is flatter and more agricultural than the upper sections. From Aire Springs the river flows past Skipton and Keighley, through Bingley, Saltaire, Shipley and into Leeds. Up until this point the river is essentially swift flowing and fed by streams and becks. Thereafter, the flow through Castleford and Knottingley out to Airmyn is a meandering course through a broad floodplain.[11]

The broad definition of Airedale, is one that encompasses all the immediate areas adjacent to the river Aire and its tributaries. The Aire Catchment Flood Management Plan (CFMP), which takes into account all the becks and streams that feed the river, lists the Worth Valley and most of Bradford City as part of Airedale.[12] Similarly, the Airedale Partnership's Masterplan, which is sponsored by Bradford Council, shows the same boundaries as the Aire CFMP.[13]

Geology[edit]

Strata order of Aire Valley geology

The upper section between Malham and Skipton is largely upfaulted Carboniferous limestone. The middle section between Skipton and Knottingley is peat and gritstone, with steep valley walls crested with moorland prevalent between Skipton and Shipley.[9] The sandstone deposits between Skipton and Leeds have characterised the buildings within this part of Airedale, whilst the deposits of Limestone, Coal, Fireclay and Ironstone fuelled industrial developments.[14]

Tourism[edit]

Airedale is notable for several tourist sites and the World Heritage Site of Saltaire village.[15] Other attractions include The Keighley and Worth Valley Railway, Bingley Five Rise Locks, The Shipley Glen Tramway, East Riddlesden Hall, Rodley Nature Reserve, Kirkstall Abbey, The Royal Armouries (Leeds), St Aidan's Nature Reserve and Fairburn Ings Nature Reserve.

Industry[edit]

Many of the former woollen and cotton mills of the dale have been demolished or converted into housing. The heavy industry east of Leeds is still in existence and two of the three coal fired powers stations in the lower section take their water from the River Aire. Industry that lies alongside the Aire includes Ferrybridge,[16] Eggborough and Drax power stations, Eggborough Saint Gobain glassworks, Stolze and Allied Glass in Knottingley and Kellingley Colliery.

Leeds City Council have an enterprise zone that covers 400 acres of regenerated land along the Aire Valley from the city centre up to junction 45 of the M1. This houses several manufacturing and food companies.[17]

Airedale namings[edit]

The names Aire and Airedale are associated with many things and areas. Most notable in the valley are Airedale General Hospital, Aireborough[18] (a region comprising mostly Wharfedale towns) and Airedale, a suburb of Castleford.

The area also gives its name to the Airedale Terrier the largest of the Terrier breed of dogs. They were first bred in the area in the nineteenth century.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Google Earth Altitudes given by Google Earth maps
  2. ^ "Airedale". Yorkshire Dales National Park. YDNP. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  3. ^ "The Aire Gap". The Yorkshire Dales. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  4. ^ Hodgson, Trevor; Gulliver, David (2000). "A history of Cononley; an Airedale village" (PDF). Lakeland dawn designs. Kiln Hill. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  5. ^ "Aire and Calder Navigation". Canals and River Trust. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  6. ^ "Leeds and Liverpool Canal". Canals and River Trust. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  7. ^ "Yorkshire Map". Yorkshire Ridings Society. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  8. ^ "Sense of Yorkshire identity that defies the boundaries on a bureaucrat’s map". The Yorkshire Post. 24 December 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Skipton". Domesday Reloaded. BBC. 1986. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "Airedale Masterplan" (PDF). Airdeale Partnership. AP. p. 13. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  11. ^ "Aire Catchment" (PDF). Gov. Environmeny Agency. December 2010. p. 4. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  12. ^ "Aire Catchment" (PDF). Gov. Environment Agency. December 2010. p. 5. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  13. ^ "Airedale Corridors" (PDF). Airedale Partnership. AP. p. 10. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  14. ^ "Airedale Corridors" (PDF). Airedale Partnership. AP. p. 11. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  15. ^ "Salts Mill". Bradford and West Yorkshire. BBC. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  16. ^ "Ferrybridge". SSE. SSE. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  17. ^ "Aire Valley Leeds". Leeds city region enterprise zone. LCC. 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  18. ^ "Aireborough Historical Society". Aireborough Historical Society. Retrieved 26 November 2015. 
  19. ^ Rush, James (30 January 2009). "Bingley walk organised for famous breed". Telegraph and Argus. Retrieved 26 November 2015.