Al-Azraq Treaty of 1245

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The Al-Azraq Treaty of 1245 was a treaty between the Christian King James I of Aragon and the Muslim commander Mohammad Abu Abdallah Ben Hudzail al Sahuir popularly known as Al-Azraq in 1245 in the Iberian Peninsula.

The Treaty[edit]

The treaty was made in two versions, one in Arabic and the other in Spanish.

Arabic version[edit]

This is a noble decree, enjoined by the Exalted Prince, the Heroic, the Most Fortunate, he whose beneficence is hoped for and sought, the Infante Don Alfonso, son of the Exalted King, the Divinely Assisted, the ruler of Aragon, upon the Most Illustrious Vizier, the Noble, the Highest, the Most Eminent, the Most Exalted Abu `Abd Allah ibn Hudhayl--may God honor him!
Wherefore the above-mentioned Exalted Prince makes an agreement with him for three years from the present date, which is stated at the end of the decree, that his the Vizier's property and retainers shall remain in his castles, and that the above-mentioned Vizier shall give to the above-mentioned Exalted Prince two castles, namely Pop and Tarbena, which he shall now hand over to him. The rest of the castles shall remain in the possession of the above-mentioned Vizier, namely Castell, Cheroles, Margarida, Alcala, Perpunchent, and Gallinera, until the end of three years. But the above-mentioned Vizier shall hand them over to the above-mentioned Prince when the three years have expired, except for the castle of Alcala with its revenues and the revenues of the villages of Perpunchent, which shall remain henceforth in the perpetual possession of the above-mentioned Vizier and his descendants for the duration of the reign of the Exalted Prince.
Furthermore, the Exalted Prince shall give to the above-mentioned Vizier the revenues of Ebo and Tollos for the duration of the three years. When he the Vizier hands over to him the Prince the above-mentioned castles, namely Margarida, Castell, Cheroles, and Gallinera, he the Vizier shall also hand over to him the Prince Ebo and Tollos.
The Exalted Prince also agrees to give to the qa'id leader Abu Yahya b. Abu shaq, the ruler of Castell, the villages of and Petracos to be his perpetually for the duration of the reign of the Prince, both for himself and his descendants.
It is further agreed that the Vizier shall give to the Exalted Prince from the four castles, which he shall hand over to him when three years have elapsed i.e. Margarida, Castell, Cheroles, and Gallinera, half of the tithe; and whatever castles the Vizier obtains the ruler of Aragon, either by force or by capitulation,(31) the Vizier shall have half of the revenue from these castles for the duration of three years. But when the three years expire, he the Vizier shall hand them i.e. the castles which he has obtained over to him the Prince along with the four other castles i.e. Margarida, Castell, Cheroles, and Gallinera.
Written on the fifteenth of the month of Dhu Qa`dah in the year 642 15 April 1245.

Spanish Version[edit]

First part stating agreement of al-Azraq[edit]

Let it be known to all present and future: that I Abu `Allah ibn Hudhayl, vizier and lord of Alcala, make myself your vassal, lord Don Alfonso, the elder son of the king of Aragon, and that I give you eight castles--one called Pop and the other Tarbena, and Margarida, Cheroles, Castell, Alcala, Gallinera, and Perpunchent.
These aforesaid castles I give you with their villages, and with districts, and with pastures, and with as much as belongs to them. And of the aforesaid castles, I give you lord Don Alfonso two castles immediately, Pop and Tarbena; and I retain for myself Alcala and Perpunchent, as an estate for me and for my children and for my family-line, to do with them entirely according to my will. And the other four castles--Margarida, Cheroles, Castell, and Gallinera--these I keep for three years in such accord that you lord Don Alfonso have half the revenues and I the other half; and those three years having passed, that I give you the castle flee and quit, without any litigation, with all their districts and with all their rights just as is said above.
And besides, I make this agreement with you, lord: that of as many castles as I can win from here on through the three years, I give you half the revenues; and the three years having passed, that I give you the castles that I will gain, along with the other four, just as is said above.

Second part stating agreement of Alfonso[edit]

And I Don Alfonso by the grace of God prince, elder son of the king of Aragon, receive you Abu `Abd Allah ibn Hudhayl, vizier and lord of Alcala, as my cherished and much esteemed and very honored and loyal vassal. And I grant and give to you two castles, Alcala and Perpunchent, as an estate for you and all your family-line, to give, sell, pledge, or use entirely according to your will.
And I give you the revenues of the two villages Ebo and Tollos for those three years, and after the three years that you release to me those two villages, with the other castles.
Furthermore I swear and contract and grant that all these agreements hold, just as is written above, but in such wise that you be my vassal for the castle of Alcala and for that which I give you.
Given at Pouet, the sixteenth day of April, in the era 1282 [16 April 1244].(32)
Witnesses of this event:
the lord William Hugo
the lord Gonbald, knight
the lord Peter Maza
the lord Peter Sanchez [de] Gurren
the lord Raimon de Montpellier
Signed by Prince Alfonso, first-born of the illustrious king of Aragon. I [ ... ], by order of the same, wrote this charter and put my [notarial] sign, at the place [and on the] day and era recorded above.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]