Al-`Ula old town
Al-ʿUla (also Al Ola, Arabic العلا al-ʿulā; Also Dedan), is a governorate of Medina Region, and a city in north-western Saudi Arabia. Al-‘Ula was historically located on the Incense route. The city lies within the Governorate of 'Ula (محافظة العلا), one of seven in the Medina Region. The city is 110 km southwest of Tayma and 300 km north of Medina. The Governorate of 'Ula covers 29,261 square kilometres (11,298 sq mi). The city (municipality) covers 2,391 square kilometres (923 sq mi). The population of the city is 5,426.
Al-ʿUla was the capital of the ancient Lihyanites (Dedanites). The governorate contains the first UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Saudi Kingdom, called Madain Saleh (Hegra), 22 km north of the city. Madain Saleh was built more than 2,000 years ago by the Nabataeans. Al-‘Ula, the walled city, is packed with mud-brick and stone houses. 
The walled city of Al ‘Ula was founded in 6th century BC, an oasis in the desert valley, with fertile soil and plenty of water. It was located along “Incense Road,” the network of routes that facilitated the trading of spices, silk and other luxury items through Arabia, Egypt and India. Al ‘Ula stands on the site of the biblical city of Dedan, but was founded with the ancient North Arabian Kingdom of Lihyan, which ruled from the 5th to 2nd century BC. The older history of the oasis has been divided into several phases. The Dedanite kingdom spans to the seventh and sixth century BC. Dedan is mentioned in the "Harran Inscriptions". In these it is told how Nabonidus the king of Babylonia made a military campaign to northern Arabia in 552 BC or somewhat later, conquering Tayma, Dedan and Yathrib, the old Medina. It is thought that around the turn to the fifth century BC the kingdom became hereditary.
The next four hundred years, until around 100 BC, were the time of the Kingdom of Lihyan. The Nabataeans were the lords of the region at least until 106 AD when the Romans conquered their capital Petra. The Nabataeans made Hegra, the modern Mada'in Saleh, their second capital. The power center of the region thus shifted to Hegra some 22 km to the north of Al-`Ula.
Prophet Muhammad passed through Al-`Ula in 630 on his campaign to Tabuk. Al-Mabiyat some 20 km away near Mughaira became the next commercial center of the region. It thrived from around 650 until it declined at some time before 1230.
In the 13th century the old city of Al-`Ula was built and many stones of the old Dedanite and Lihyanite ruins were reused. Al-`Ula now became the major settlement of the region again until modern times. Between 1901 and 1908 the Ottomans built a railway across the Hejaz in order to link Damascus to Madinah. The railway had a station in both Madain Saleh and Al-‘Ula where a line was built through the western part of Al-Khuraybah, some twelve kilometers to the north of the old medieval town which is believed to be the site of the old Dedanite and Lihyanite town that is still standing there despite of being in bad shape.
In the 20th century the new town center was established beside the old town and eventually the people left the old buildings. The last family is said to have left in 1983, while the last service in the old mosque was held in 1985. Both the ruins of the medieval town and the site of the Liyhanite settlement now lay within the limits of the modern town.
The most detailed study of the area was made by the French priests, Antonin Jaussen and Savignac, who visited the area three times in the years 1907, 1908 and 1910 respectively. They studied the remains at Dedan and collected a large number of Lihyanite, Minaean, Thamudic and Nabataean inscriptions. Accordingly, it was their work that came to constitute the basis for all further study and research in the history of the area.
The first European traveler of modern times to describe the town was Charles Doughty in 1876. Charles Huber was in Al-`Ula in 1881–82. He returned in 1883 accompanied by Julius Euting. In 1968 a team of archaeologists from the University of London investigated some fifteen inscriptions.
The vertical sandstone cliffs surrounding the valley ample surfaces for rock art, making the governorate one of the richer petroglyph regions in the Kingdom. Ar-Ruzeiqiah is a mountain located in the southern part of the governorate, with a large petroglyph panel displaying hundreds of images, including depictions of hunting scenes with humans and a variety of animals. Ibeexes are the most common species, but camels, horses, and other species can also be found. Mount Ikma also has a large façade with scenes, strange symbols, and inscriptions.
Cities, towns, villages
There are four major municipalities in the Governorate of 'Ula: Al-`Ula, the capital lying to the southwest (population 5,426); Mughira (مغيراء) to the southeast (population 8,952); Abu Raku, to the north (population 2,678); and Al Hajar to the northeast (population 1,707).
Al-‘Ula Heritage Village
Al-‘Ula Heritage Village, also known as Ad-Deerah, is the traditional Arabian village where people of the oasis moved some 8 centuries ago and inhabited until the 20th century. It was built on a higher part of the valley in order to be clear from the floods that can occur during the raining season. At its maximum expansion the town contained over 1000 houses that were built adjacent to one another thereby forming a wall around the town to defend the population. On the west of the town, at the bottom of the cliff is the old souq that was renovated.
Here is the sequence of historical events and the ancient evidences found in the Al-‘Ula governorate:
|Ancient North Arabian Kingdoms (DEDAN)||
|Nabataean Kingdom (HEGRA)||
|Islamic period (QURH, AL-‘ULA)||
To promote tourism and gain more attraction, the Royal Commission on Al-‘Ula is training 200 young Saudis on an ambitious project where tourists will explore one of the greatest profusions of cultural treasures to be found anywhere in the world. Recruited from Al-‘Ula region, the 200 young people, all high-school leavers or in their first year as university students, and split 50-50 between boys and girls are in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia being trained in hospitality, learning new languages, studying farming and water technology and swotting up on the cultural, social and natural history of their home region.
Al-‘Ula has the potential to be one of the most important archaeological destinations for tourists from across the world. Saudi Arabia is collaborating with experts from around the world on the Al-‘Ula development and in April signed a 10-year deal with France that includes provisions for hotels, transport infrastructure and a world-class culture and art museum. A major integrated archaeological survey of Al-‘Ula valley and beyond has been launched by the commission, charged with protecting and regenerating this north-western region. Until a conservation and development plan can be established, some of the sites including the World Heritage Site of Madain Saleh are temporarily closed to the public. It will re-open in 2020 for the visitors. 
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