Alexander Stirling Calder

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Alexander Stirling Calder
WP Alexander Stirling Calder.jpg
A. Stirling Calder at work on the Star Maiden (1913). Audrey Munson was the model.
Born(1870-01-11)January 11, 1870
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
DiedJanuary 7, 1945(1945-01-07) (aged 74)
Manhattan, New York City
NationalityAmerican
EducationPennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
Académie Julian
Known forSculpture
Notable work
Washington as President
Swann Memorial Fountain
Leif Eriksson Memorial

Alexander Stirling Calder (January 11, 1870 – January 7, 1945) was an American sculptor and teacher. He was the son of sculptor Alexander Milne Calder and the father of sculptor Alexander (Sandy) Calder. His best-known works are George Washington as President on the Washington Square Arch in New York City, the Swann Memorial Fountain in Philadelphia, and the Leif Eriksson Memorial in Reykjavík, Iceland.

Education[edit]

A. Stirling Calder was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of sculptor Alexander Milne Calder and Margaret Stirling. He attended city public schools, and enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Fall 1885, at age 15. He studied under Thomas Eakins for several months, until the teacher's forced resignation in February 1886. Calder remained at PAFA, studying under Thomas Anshutz and James P. Kelly. Two of his sculptures were accepted for PAFA's 1887 annual exhibition, a rare honor for a student.[1]:170

His father designed, and was then in the midst of executing, the extensive sculpture program for Philadelphia City Hall. Calder worked as an apprentice on the project during the summers, and is reported to have modeled an arm for one of the figures. He made his first trip to Europe in Summer 1889, and returned there to study the following year.[1]:170

Calder moved to Paris in Fall 1890, where he studied at the Académie Julian under Henri Michel Chapu. The following year, he was accepted at the École des Beaux-Arts, where he entered the atelier of Alexandre Falguière.[1]:170

Career[edit]

Swann Memorial Fountain (1920–1924), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

In 1892 he returned to Philadelphia and began his career as a sculptor in earnest. His first major commission, won in a national competition, was for a larger-than-life-size statue of Dr. Samuel Gross (1895–97) for the National Mall in Washington, D.C., Samuel Gross. Calder replicated the pose of Dr. Gross from Eakins's 1875 painting The Gross Clinic. That was followed by a set of twelve larger-than-life-size statues of Presbyterian clergymen for the facade of the Witherspoon Building (1898–99) in Philadelphia.[1]:170

In 1906, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full member in 1913.

In Pasadena, he modeled architectural sculpture for the Throop Polytechnic Institute (now the California Institute of Technology). He returned to the east coast in 1910.[1]:171

In 1912, he was named acting-chief (under Karl Bitter) of the sculpture program for the Panama-Pacific Exposition, a World's Fair to open in San Francisco, California, in February 1915. He obtained a studio in NYC and there employed the services of model Audrey Munson who posed for him – Star Maiden (1913–1915) – and a host of other artists. For the Exposition, Calder completed three massive sculpture groups, The Nations of the East and The Nations of the West, which crowned triumphal arches, and a fountain group, The Fountain of Energy. Following Bitter's sudden death in April 1915, Calder completed the Depew Memorial Fountain (1915–1919) in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Leif Eriksson Memorial (1929–1932), Reykjavík, Iceland

Hermon Atkins MacNeil and Calder were commissioned to create larger-than-life-size sculptures for the Washington Square Arch in New York City. George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, Accompanied by Fame and Valor (1914–1916) was sculpted by MacNeil; and George Washington as President, Accompanied by Wisdom and Justice (1917–18) by Calder. These are sometimes referred to as Washington at War and Washington at Peace.[2]

He sculpted a number of ornamental works for "Vizcaya", the James Deering estate outside Miami, Florida. These included the famous Italian Barge (1917–1919), a stone folly in the shape of a boat, projecting into Biscayne Bay.

Two of his major commissions of the 1920s were the Swann Memorial Fountain (1920–1924), and the architectural sculpture program for the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (completed 1931), both in Philadelphia.

He was one of a dozen sculptors invited to compete in Oklahoma's Pioneer Woman statue competition in 1926-27,[3] which was won by Bryant Baker. In 1927, he was also commissioned by the Berkshire Museum to sculpt the woodwork and fountain of the Museum's Ellen Crane Memorial Room in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

In 1929, he won the national competition for a monumental statue of Leif Eriksson, to be given by the United States to Iceland in commemoration of the 1000th anniversary of the Icelandic Parliament. Standing before the Hallgrímskirkja, the Lutheran cathedral in Reykjavík, and facing west toward the Atlantic Ocean and Greenland, the Leif Eriksson Memorial (1929–1932) has become as iconic for Icelanders as the Statue of Liberty is for Americans.

Teacher[edit]

Throughout his career, Calder frequently worked as a teacher. He was instructor in modeling at the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art from 1899 to 1904.[4] He taught at the National Academy of Design's evening school, 1910–11, and alongside Hermon Atkins MacNeil at NAD, 1911-12. He taught modeling at the Art Students League of New York, 1918-22.[1]:171 He was never on PAFA's faculty, but may have occasionally lectured there, where his friend Charles Grafly was instructor in sculpture.[1]:171, n. 4

Personal[edit]

Calder married portrait painter Nanette Lederer on February 22, 1895, and they lived in Philadelphia for the first decade of their marriage. They had two children: Margaret Calder Hayes (1896–1988) and Alexander "Sandy" Calder III (1899–1976).[1]:171 Calder contracted tuberculosis in 1905, and he and his wife moved to Arizona for a year, leaving the children with friends (to protect them). Once he recovered his health, the family was reunited in 1906, and settled in Pasadena, California.[5] They moved back east in 1910, and settled in Croton-on-Hudson, New York.[1]:171

Calder died of funnel chest syndrome in 1945, a disease he developed while working on his final sculpture, Sicilian Nectar. He is buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. His memoir, Thoughts of A. Stirling Calder on Art and Life (1947), was published posthumously.

Selected works[edit]

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Title Image Year Location/GPS Coordinates Material Height Notes
Dr. Samuel D. Gross Memorial[6] Statue of Samuel D. Gross.jpg 1895–1897 Thomas Jefferson University,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
39°56′53″N 75°09′30″W / 39.94794167°N 75.15820278°W / 39.94794167; -75.15820278 (Dr. Samuel D. Gross Memorial)
bronze 111 in (280 cm)
Samuel D Gross LOC 00109v (cropped).jpg
Posthumous portrait of Dr. Gross, based on Thomas Eakins's 1875 painting.

From 1897 to 1970, the statue stood on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.:
Bust of Major General John F. Hartranft[7] Hartranft Smith Arch.JPG 1898 Smith Memorial Arch,
West Fairmount Park,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
39°58′39″N 75°12′24″W / 39.9775°N 75.206667°W / 39.9775; -75.206667 (Smith Memorial Arch)
bronze 36 in (91 cm) Gen. Hartranft was a U.S. Medal of Honor recipient for the First Battle of Bull Run.
Class of 1892 Drinking Fountain[8]
(The Scholar and the Football Player)
1900 Quadrangle Dormitories,
University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
39°57′03″N 75°11′50″W / 39.950806°N 75.197306°W / 39.950806; -75.197306 (Quadrangle Dormitories),
bronze 21 in (53 cm)
University of Pennsylvania- its history, traditions, buildings and memorials- also a brief guide to Philadelphia (1918) (14578112798).jpg
Located under the arch at the top of the North Steps.
Overmantel frieze: The Boar Hunt Fireplace in Keil Hall - Mercersburg Academy (Chambersburg, PA.).jpg c.1900 Keil Hall,
Mercersburg Academy,
Mercersburg, Pennsylvania
39°49′37″N 77°53′57″W / 39.8270°N 77.8991°W / 39.8270; -77.8991 (Boar Hunt)
carved oak Modeled by Calder, carved by John J. Maene.
Sewell Cross[9]
Major General William Joyce Sewell Monument
Sewell Memorial, The World's Work, Sept 1910, p.13386.jpg 1901 Harleigh Cemetery,
Camden, New Jersey
39°55′26″N 75°05′23″W / 39.923889°N 75.089722°W / 39.923889; -75.089722 (Harleigh Cemetery)
green granite 20 ft (6.1 m) Modeled by Calder, carved by Leland & Hall Company.

Gen. Sewell was a U.S. Medal of Honor recipient for the Battle of Chancellorsville.

Calder was awarded PAFA's 1905 Walter Lippincott Prize for the Sewell Cross.[1]:171
Man Cub: "Sandy" Calder at Age 3 Man Cub MET 22.89.jpg 1901–02 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
plaster
(original lost)
45 in (110 cm) PAFA purchased Calder's plaster original in 1905, and used it to make a 1906 bronze cast.[10]
The plaster was either returned to Calder or lost (by 1941).[1]:172
A 1922 bronze cast is at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.[11]
Sundial[12] Calder sundial Hort Center.JPG 1903-1905 Fairmount Park Horticultural Center,
West Fairmount Park,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
39°58′59″N 75°12′45″W / 39.983150°N 75.212600°W / 39.983150; -75.212600 (Calder Sundial)
marble 56.5 in (144 cm) Located in the Sunken Gardens:
2008-Subaru-Cherry-Blossom-Festival-of-Greater-Philadelphia-1.jpg
Missouri: The Queen of Rivers[13] The World almanac and encyclopedia (1904) (14598348608).jpg 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
St. Louis, Missouri
plaster Calder won a silver medal for his sculpture at the 1904 World's Fair.[1]:170
Philippe Francois Renault[14] Calder Renault 1904 SAAM-J0050225.jpg plaster
Calder Cross[15]
William Hickman Harte Memorial Cross
Sterling Calder Celtic Cross.JPG c.1905 Chippiannock Cemetery,
Rock Island, Illinois
41°28′54″N 90°34′40″W / 41.481667°N 90.577778°W / 41.481667; -90.577778 (Harte Monument)
granite 102 in (260 cm) William Hickman Harte was a Union naval officer who died following the June 17, 1862
sinking of the USS Mound City in the Battle of Saint Charles. Harte's son located his
Arkansas grave, and commissioned this cenotaph for his home town cemetery.[16]
Henry Charles Lea Monument[17] Henry Charles Lea monument, Laurel Hill Cemetery.jpg 1911 Laurel Hill Cemetery,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
40°00′15″N 75°11′25″W / 40.0042°N 75.1902°W / 40.0042; -75.1902 (Henry Charles Lea Monument)
bronze
HC Lea grave LH Philly.jpg
Henry Charles Lea was a noted historian.
The seated figure is Clio, the Muse of History:
Stretching Girl[18] c.1911 National Academy of Design,
Manhattan, New York City
bronze 36 in (91 cm) Calder's NAD diploma piece, presented following his election as an Academician in 1913.[19]
Robert Henri painted Calder's NAD diploma portrait.[19]

Another bronze cast is at the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Bentonville, Arkansas.[20]
An American Stoic: Portrait of Najinyankte[21][22] 1912 Rhode Island School of Design Museum,
Providence, Rhode Island
bronze 28 in (71 cm) A standing Sioux man wrapped in a blanket.
Star Maiden[23] StarASC.jpg 1913–1915 Oakland Museum,
Oakland, California
bronze 51 in (130 cm)
The story of the exposition; being the official history of the international celebration held at San Francisco in 1915 to commemorate the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the construction of the (14579801637).jpg
The Star Maidens were balustrade figures surrounding the Court of the Universe:
Fountain of Energy (destroyed) Calder Fountain of Energy SAAM-J0050248.jpg

Perry Energy sculpturemuralso00panarich 0006.jpg

Fountain energy.jpg

Panama-Pacific International Exposition – Opening day.jpg
1913–1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition,
San Francisco, California
staff
Fountain of Energy Stirling Calder 1915.jpg
"Energy, the Lord of the Isthmian Way, rides grandly upon the earth. His
outstretched arms have severed the lands and let the waters pass. Upon
his mighty shoulders stand Fame and Glory, heralding the coming of a
conquerer. Energy, the Power of the Future, the Superman, approaches."[24]

Calder EasternHemisphere Todd vol.1 opp. p.194.jpg
The globe featured a large reclining female figure with the head of a lioness,
The Eastern Hemisphere, and a large reclining male figure with the head of
a bull, The Western Hemisphere:
4 sculpture groups were clustered around the globe:
The Atlantic Ocean, The Pacific Ocean, The North Sea, The South Sea
Fountain energy atlantic.jpgPacificASC.jpgFountain energy northsea.jpgCalder South Sea Fountain of Energy PPIE 1915.jpg
12 Nerieds riding dolphins were spread around the pool's perimeter:
Calder Nereid Riding Dolphin 1.jpgCalder Nereid Riding Dolphin 2.jpg
The Nations of the East[25] (destroyed) Nationa of the East.jpeg

Calder Arch Rising Sun Story of Expo vol.2 p.139.jpg
1913–1915 atop The Arch of the Rising Sun,
Panama-Pacific International Exposition,
San Francisco, California
staff
The Nations of the West[26] (destroyed) The Nations of the West - Project Gutenberg eText 16960.jpg

Todd Story of Exposition vol.2 opp. p.142.jpg
1913–1915 atop The Arch of the Setting Sun,
Panama-Pacific International Exposition,
San Francisco, California
staff
Calder Enterprise American Architect Dec 1920 p.779.jpg
Crowning figure: Enterprise
Todd Story of Exposition vol.2 opp. p.70.jpg
Central figure: The Mother of Tomorrow
Depew Memorial Fountain DePewFountainASC.jpg 1915–1917 University Park,
Indianapolis, Indiana
39°46′19″N 86°09′25″W / 39.771944°N 86.156944°W / 39.771944; -86.156944 (Depew Memorial Fountain)
bronze Crowning figure:
90 in (230 cm)
Depew Memorial Fountain - Maquette.jpg
Calder completed this commission following sculptor Karl Bitter's 1915 death.

Bitter's 1915 maquette for the fountain:
George Washington as President,
Accompanied by Wisdom and Justice
[2]
Washington in Peace Calder.jpg 1917–18 Washington Square Arch,
Washington Square,
Manhattan, New York City
40°43′52″N 73°59′53″W / 40.73099°N 73.99805°W / 40.73099; -73.99805 (Washington Square Arch)
marble 12 ft (3.7 m)
The Washington Square Arch, Greenwich Village, NY (5).jpg
Sometimes called Washington at Peace.
Hermon Atkins MacNeil modeled Washington at War (1914–16).
The pair flank the north side of the arch.
The Great Stone Barge[27][28]
(Delights and Terrors of the Sea)
Coco Grove FL Vizcaya barge02.jpg 1917–1919 "Villa Vizcaya" (James Deering estate),
Coconut Grove, Florida
25°44′38″N 80°12′37″W / 25.743753°N 80.210232°W / 25.743753; -80.210232 (Italian Barge, Villa Vizcaya)
limestone
American Architect Feb 28, 1917 p.147.jpg
Calder's barge sculptures were criticized for being "excessively erotic."[29]

The eroded sculptures were used to cast concrete replicas in 1981.[30]
Garden sculpture Calder Vizcaya AmericanArchitect Dec1920 p.730.jpg Vizcaya - panoramio (13).jpgBusts - Vizcaya Museum and Gardens - Miami, Florida - DSC08625.jpgShepherd group - Vizcaya Museum and Gardens - Miami, Florida - DSC08703.jpgGate - Vizcaya Museum and Gardens - Miami, Florida - DSC08283.jpgVilla Vizcaya - IMG 8050.JPG
The Little Dear with the Tiny Black Swan
(Leda and the Swan)[31]
Calder Little Dear 1921 SAAM-J0050084.jpg 1918-1921 Denver Art Museum,
Denver, Colorado
bronze 28 in (71 cm) A 60.25 in (153.0 cm) version is a promised gift to Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art.[32]
Swann Memorial Fountain[33]
(Fountain of Three Rivers)
Logan Square in Phila..JPG 1920–1924 Logan Circle,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
39°57′29″N 75°10′15″W / 39.95795°N 75.170819°W / 39.95795; -75.170819 (Swann Memorial Fountain)
bronze Central figures:
11 ft (3.4 m)
Swann Fountain Delaware.JPG
Wilson Eyre, architect.

The female allegorical figures represent the Schuylkill River and the
Wissahickon Creek.
The male Lenni Lenape figure represents the Delaware River.
Naiad with Tragic Mask[34]
Model for a Fountain
Calder Naiad with Tragic Mask SAAM-J0050115.jpg c.1920 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
painted plaster 16.25 in (41.3 cm) A bronze cast is at the Reading Public Museum in Reading, Pennsylvania.[35]
A larger plaster version is at the Montclair Art Museum in Montclair, New Jersey.[36]
Scratching Her Heel[37] Scratching Her Heel MET 270706.jpg 1921 Metropolitan Museum of Art,
Manhattan, New York City
bronze 12 in (30 cm) Another bronze cast is at the Telfair Museum of Art in Savannah, Georgia.[38]
The Last Dryad[39] Calder Last Dryad SAAM-J0050118-000001.jpg 1921 Philadelphia Museum of Art,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
plaster 70.5 in (179 cm)
The Last Dryad by Alexander Stirling Calder - University of California, Berkeley - DSC04911.JPG
A 1926 bronze cast is at the University of California, Berkeley.
Shakespeare Memorial[40]
(Tragedy and Comedy, Hamlet and the Fool)
Shakespeare monument - panoramio.jpg 1923-1926 In front of the Free Library of Philadelphia,
Logan Square,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
39°57′34″N 75°10′16″W / 39.9595°N 75.171°W / 39.9595; -75.171 (Shakespeare Memorial)
bronze 91.5 in (232 cm)
Shakespeare Memorial Philly.JPG
Gilbert McIlvaine, architect

Touchstone and Prince Hamlet:

Another bronze cast is at Brookgreen Gardens.[41]
Head of George Bellows[42] 1925 Conner-Rosenkranz Gallery,
Manhattan, New York City
plaster 14.5 in (37 cm) A bronze cast is at the New York Historical Society.[43]
Our Lady and the Holy Child[44]
(A Study in French Gothic Style)
Calder Our Lady 1926 SAAM-J0050097.jpg 1926 St. Mary's of Redford Church,
Detroit, Michigan
marble 7 ft (2.1 m) Located in a niche behind the High Altar.[45]
Pioneer Woman (Self-Reliant)[46] Calder Pioneer Woman SAAM-S0000367.jpg 1926–27 Woolaroc Museum,
Bartlesville, Oklahoma
36°38′32″N 96°05′45″W / 36.642339°N 96.095964°W / 36.642339; -96.095964 (Woolaroc)
bronze 40 in (100 cm) One of twelve bronze models created by American sculptors for the 1927
Pioneer Woman statue competition. Bryant Baker won the commission.
His heroic-sized Pioneer Woman was dedicated in 1930, in Ponca City, Oklahoma.

Calder received a $10,000 honorarium for his model.[47]
Bust of John James Audubon[48] Calder Audubon 1927 SAAM-S0000369.jpg 1927 Hall of Fame for Great Americans,
Bronx Community College,
Bronx, New York City
40°51′31″N 73°54′52″W / 40.858611°N 73.914444°W / 40.858611; -73.914444 (Hall of Fame for Great Americans)
bronze
Leif Eriksson Memorial[49] Reykjavik-31-Hallgrimskirche-Leifur Eiriksson-2018-gje.jpg
LeifurEiriksson10.JPG
1929–1932 Hallgrímskirkja Cathedral,
Reykjavík, Iceland
bronze 139 in (3.5 m)
Áletrun á styttu af Leifi Eiríkssyni.JPG
Gift of the United States commemorating the 1000th anniversary of the
founding of the Althing, Iceland's parliament.

The statue appeared on a U.S. postage stamp and an Icelandic coin.

Calder's plaster model is at the Smithsonian American Art Museum.[50]

View from the top of Hallgrímskirkja.JPG
A bronze cast is at the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Virginia.[51]

View from the cathedral's tower, looking west to the Atlantic Ocean:
Cruel Nature: Self-Portrait at Age 60[52][53] Calder Cruel Nature 1930 SAAM-J0050231.jpg c.1930 National Portrait Gallery,
Washington, D.C.
terra cotta 12.5 in (32 cm)
Robert Henri: The Painter-Teacher with the
Gift of Friendship
[54][55]
(Posthumous Bust of Robert Henri)
Calder Robert Henri SAAM-J0050172.jpg 1934 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
plaster
(unlocated)[56]
32 in (81 cm) Calder and Henri (1865–1929) had been friends since 1885, when both were first-year
students at PAFA.[1]:174
Calder's widow had a bronze cast made of the bust in 1947, which she donated to PAFA.[1]:174
Posthumous Bust of John Singer Sargent[57] Calder Sargent 1934 SAAM-J0050237.jpg c.1934 Bronx Community College,
Bronx, New York City
plaster
Introspection Calder Introspection 1935 SAAM-J0050044.jpg c.1935 plaster
Continental Post Rider[58] Sculpture "Continental post rider," by Alexander Stirling Calder at the Ariel Rios Federal Building, Washington, D.C LCCN2013634477.tif 1936 William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building,
Washington, D.C.
aluminum 51.5 in (131 cm)
Bust of William Penn[59] Wmpennhofjeh.JPG 1936 Hall of Fame for Great Americans,
Bronx Community College,
Bronx, New York City
40°51′31″N 73°54′52″W / 40.858611°N 73.914444°W / 40.858611; -73.914444 (Hall of Fame for Great Americans)
bronze
Nature's Dance[60][61]
(The Dance of Life)
Calder Dance of Life SAAM-J0050049.jpg 1938 Brookgreen Gardens,
Murrells Inlet, South Carolina
33°31′14″N 79°05′59″W / 33.520556°N 79.099722°W / 33.520556; -79.099722 (Brookgreen Gardens)
Indiana limestone 80 in (200 cm)
Bishop William White[62][63] Bishop William White by Alexander Stirling Calder, Washington Memorial Chapel.jpg 1940 Washington Memorial Chapel,
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
40°06′16″N 75°26′17″W / 40.104528°N 75.437944°W / 40.104528; -75.437944 (Washington Memorial Chapel)
bronze The Right Reverend White was the first bishop of the American Episcopal Church.

Calder's last major commission.
Bust of Winston Churchill[64] Calder Churchill 1943 SAAM-J0050194.jpg 1943 plaster Inscription: "HAVE FAITH, HAVE HOPE, DELIVERANCE IS SURE." JULY 14, 1941.

Architectural sculpture[edit]

  • Six spandrel figures, cast concrete, Throop Polytechnic Institute (now California Institute of Technology), Pasadena, California, 1906–1909, Myron Hart & Elmer Grey, architects.[66]
    • Nature and Art, Energy and Law, Science and Imagination[67]
  • Oakland Civic Auditorium, Oakland, California, 1914, John J. Donovan, architect.[68]
    • The Riches of the Earth – Seven terra cotta, half-domed friezes within the arched entrances.[4]
  • Missouri State Capitol, Jefferson City, Missouri, 1924, Tracy and Swartwout, architects.
    • South Frieze, limestone, 6 ft (1.8 m) x 138 ft (42 m), depicts Missouri history in 13 bas relief panels.[69] The frieze flanks the tops of the central portico's columns and continues behind them.
    • North Frieze, limestone, bas relief panels depict Native Americans and Europeans.[70] The frieze flanks the tops of the central columns and continues inside the curved portico.
  • Four figures of famous actresses, marble, I. Miller Building, Broadway and West 46th Street, Manhattan, New York City, 1927–1929:
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

Medallions[edit]

  • Life as a Dance (c.1938), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Manhattan, New York City[82]

References[edit]

  • Armstrong, Craven et al., 200 Years of American Sculpture, Whitney Museum of Art, NYC, 1976
  • Bach, Penny Balkin, Public Art in Philadelphia, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1992
  • Calder, A. Sterling, Thoughts of A. Stirling Calder on Art and Life, Privately published, New York, 1947
  • Craven, Wayne, Sculpture in America, Thomas Y Crowell Co, New York 1968
  • Fairmount Park Art Association, Sculpture of a City: Philadelphia's Treasures in Bronze and Stone, Walker Publishing Co., Inc, New York. NY 1974
  • Falk, Peter Hastings, ed., Who was Who in American Art, Sound View Press, Madison Connecticut, 1985
  • Gadzinski, Cunningham, Panhorst et al., American Sculpture in the Museum of American Art of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Museum of American Art of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1997
  • Hayes, Margaret Calder, Three Alexander Calders, Paul S Eriksson Publisher, Middlebury, Vermont, 1977
  • Hoeber, Arthur (September 1910). "Calder – A "Various" Sculptor: A Man Of Craftmanship And Brains". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XX: 13377–13388. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
  • Kvaran and Lockley, A Guide to American Architectural Sculpture unpublished manuscript,
  • Opitz, Glenn B ed., Mantle Fielding's Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors & Engravers, Apollo Book, Poughkeepsie NY, 1986
  • Proske, Beatrice Gilman, Brookgreen Gardens Sculpture, Brookgreen Gardens, South Carolina, 1968

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gadzinski, Cunningham, Panhorst et al.
  2. ^ a b Washington Arch: George Washington as President, from SIRIS.
  3. ^ ‘’Exhibition of Models for a Monument to the Pioneer Woman’’ at the Chicago Architectural Exhibition, East Galleries, Art Institute of Chicago, June 25 to August 1, 1927
  4. ^ John William Leonard, ed., Men and Things: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporaries (New York: L. R. Hamersly & Company, 1908), p. 374.
  5. ^ Alexander Calder, An Autobiography with Pictures (Pantheon Books, 1966).
  6. ^ Dr. Samuel Gross, from SIRIS.
  7. ^ Major General John Frederick Hartranft, from SIRIS.
  8. ^ A Drinking Fountain, from SIRIS.
  9. ^ The Sewell Cross, from SIRIS.
  10. ^ Man Cub, from SIRIS.
  11. ^ "Alexander Stirling Calder | Man Cub | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  12. ^ Sundial, from SIRIS.
  13. ^ The Missouri, from SIRIS.
  14. ^ Philippe Francois Renault, from SIRIS.
  15. ^ Calder Cross, from SIRIS.
  16. ^ Minda Powers-Douglas, Chippiannock Cemetery (Arcadia Publishing, 2010), p. 98.[1]
  17. ^ Henry Charles Lea Monument, from SIRIS.
  18. ^ Stretching Girl, from SIRIS.
  19. ^ a b David B. Dearinger, Paintings & Sculpture at the National Academy of Design, Volume 1: 1826–1925 (Hudson Hills Press, 2004), p. 84.
  20. ^ Stretching Girl, from Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art.
  21. ^ Najinyankte, from SIRIS.
  22. ^ An American Stoic, from Bonham's Auction House.
  23. ^ Star Maiden, from SIRIS.
  24. ^ Stella G. S. Perry, The Sculpture and Mural Decorations of the Exposition: A Photo Survey of the Art of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (San Francisco: Paul Elder and Company, Publishers, 1921), p. 16.[2]
  25. ^ The Nations of the East, from SIRIS.
  26. ^ The Nations of the West, from SIRIS.
  27. ^ Stone Barge, from SIRIS.
  28. ^ Woodward, Kellie (2009-10-15). "Vizcaya Museum Shop: The Stone Barge, Alexander Stirling Calder, and the Internet". Vizcayamuseumshop.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  29. ^ Jed Perl, Calder: The Conquest of Time — The Early Years: 1898–1940 (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2017), p. 14.
  30. ^ Delights and Terrors of the Sea, from SIRIS.
  31. ^ Leda and the Swan, from SIRIS.
  32. ^ The Little Dear with the Tiny Black Swan, from Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art.
  33. ^ Swann Memorial Fountain, from SIRIS.
  34. ^ Naiad with Tragic Mask, from PAFA.
  35. ^ Naiad with Mask, from Reading Public Museum.
  36. ^ Naiad with a Mask, from SIRIS.
  37. ^ "Alexander Stirling Calder | Scratching Her Heel | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  38. ^ Scratching Her Heel, from SIRIS.
  39. ^ "Philadelphia Museum of Art – Collections Object : The Last Dryad". Philamuseum.org. 2007-02-17. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  40. ^ Shakespeare Memorial, from SIRIS.
  41. ^ Tragedy and Comedy, from SIRIS.
  42. ^ George Bellows, from SIRIS.
  43. ^ George Wesley Bellows, from SIRIS.
  44. ^ Our Lady and the Holy Child, from SIRIS.
  45. ^ Our Lady and the Holy Child, from Andy Hoxie via Flickr.
  46. ^ Pioneer Woman, from SIRIS.
  47. ^ "Oil Magnate Refuses to Forget Land That Brought Him Wealth: There Were Women Pioneers Too". The Christian Science Monitor. April 6, 1927. p. 5A.
  48. ^ John James Audubon, from SIRIS.
  49. ^ "Reykjavik – Leifur Eiríksson". Vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  50. ^ Leif Ericson, from SIRIS.
  51. ^ Leif Ericson, from SIRIS.
  52. ^ Self-mask, from SIRIS.
  53. ^ A. Stirling Calder Self-Portrait, from National Portrait Gallery.
  54. ^ Robert Henri, from PAFA.
  55. ^ Bust of Robert Henri, from SIRIS.
  56. ^ Model of Bust of Robert Henri, from SIRIS.
  57. ^ Bust of John Singer Sargent, from SIRIS.
  58. ^ Continental Post Rider, from SIRIS.
  59. ^ William Penn, from SIRIS.
  60. ^ Nature's Dance, from SIRIS.
  61. ^ "Brookgreen Gardens South Carolina Sculpture". Tsos.org. 2003-01-03. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  62. ^ [3] Archived March 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ Right Reverend William White, from SIRIS.
  64. ^ Winston Churchill, from SIRIS.
  65. ^ Witherspoon Building Figures, from SIRIS.
  66. ^ A. Stirling Calder, "The Relationship of Sculpture to Architecture," The American Architect, vol. 68, no. 2346 (8 December 1920), p. 778.
  67. ^ Spandrel figures, from SIRIS.
  68. ^ Oakland Auditorium Panels, from SIRIS.
  69. ^ South Frieze, from SIRIS.
  70. ^ Pediment at Missouri State Capitol, from SIRIS.
  71. ^ Ethel Barrymore as Ophelia, from SIRIS.
  72. ^ [https://siris-artinventories.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?session=154842O028308.1526&profile=ariall&source=~!siartinventories&view=subscriptionsummary&uri=full=3100001~!16484~!1&ri=3&aspect=Keyword&menu=search&ipp=20&spp=20&staffonly=&term=Miller&index=.GW&uindex=&oper=&term=Calder,+Alexander+Stirling&index=.AW&uindex=&aspect=Keyword&menu=search&ri=3 Rosa Ponselle as Norma, from SIRIS.
  73. ^ Marilyn Miller as Sunny, from SIRIS.
  74. ^ Mary Pickford as Little Lord Fauntleroy, from SIRIS.
  75. ^ flondo™ (2009-03-26). "Lion's Head Fountain and Pompeian Dancing Satyr | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  76. ^ taurenia (2009-02-18). "Penn Museum Door Lintels | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  77. ^ "The University Of Pennsylvania Museum Of Archaeology and Anthropology | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr. 2007-09-08. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  78. ^ "Museum Gate and Asia Sculpture | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr. 2007-08-04. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  79. ^ "Africa Sculpture | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr. 2007-09-08. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  80. ^ "Image: aaae4.jpg, (800 × 800 px)". philart.net. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
  81. ^ bikehikedive (nugun) [deleted] (2007-09-21). "America Sculpture | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
  82. ^ The Dance of Life, from SIRIS.

External links[edit]