World's fair

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A poster advertising the Brussels International Exposition
"Viking" replica of the Gokstad Viking ship at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair
The palace of the railways and great connexions at the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism

A world's fair, world fair, world exposition, or universal exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large public exhibition. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in varying parts of the world. The next world's fair is Expo 2017 and is to be held in Astana, Kazakhstan.

Since the 1928 Convention Relating to International Exhibitions came into force, the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE; English: International Exhibitions Bureau) has served as an international sanctioning body for world's fairs. BIE-approved fairs are of three types: universal, international, and specialized. They usually last from three weeks to six months.


Further information: List of world's fairs

World's fairs originated in the French tradition of national exhibitions, a tradition that culminated with the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 held in Paris. This fair was followed by other national exhibitions in continental Europe and the United Kingdom.

The best-known 'first World Expo' was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations". The Great Exhibition, as it is often called, was an idea of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband, and is usually considered to be the first international exhibition of manufactured products. It influenced the development of several aspects of society, including art-and-design education, international trade and relations, and tourism.[1] These events have resulted in a remarkable form of Prince Albert's life history, one that continues to be reflected in London architecture in a number of ways, including in the Albert Memorial later erected to the Prince. This expo was the most obvious precedent for the many international exhibitions, later called world's fairs, that have continued to be held to the present time.

Since their inception in 1851, the character of world expositions has evolved. Three eras can be distinguished: the era of industrialization, the era of cultural exchange, and the era of nation branding.[2]

Industrialization (1851–1938)[edit]

The first era could be called the era of "industrialization" and covered, roughly, the period from 1800 to 1938. In these days, world expositions were especially focused on trade, and were famous for the display of technological inventions and advancements. World expositions were the platforms where the state-of-the-art in science and technology from around the world were brought together. The world expositions of 1851 London, 1853 New York, 1862 London, 1876 Philadelphia, 1889 Paris, 1893 Chicago, 1900 Paris, 1901 Buffalo, 1904 St. Louis, 1915 San Francisco, and 1933–34 Chicago were landmarks in this respect.[citation needed] Inventions such as the telephone were first presented during this era. An important part of the image of world's fairs stems from this first era.

Cultural exchange (1939–1987)[edit]

Further information: Technological utopianism

The 1939–40 New York World's Fair diverged from the original focus of the world's fair expositions. From then on, world's fairs adopted specific cultural themes; they forecasted a better future for society. Technological innovations were no longer the primary exhibits at fairs. The theme of the 1939 fair was "Building the World of Tomorrow"; at the 1964–65 New York World's Fair, it was "Peace Through Understanding"; at the 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal, it was "Man and His World". The fairs encouraged effective intercultural communication for the exchange of innovation.

The 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal was promoted under the name Expo 67. Event organizers retired the term world's fair in favor of expo. (The Montreal Expos, a former Major League Baseball team, was named for the 1967 fair.)[3]

Nation branding (1988–present)[edit]

From Expo '88 in Brisbane onwards, countries started to use world expositions more widely and more strongly as a platform to improve their national images through their pavilions. Finland, Japan, Canada, France and Spain are cases in point. A large study by Tjaco Walvis called "Expo 2000 Hanover in Numbers" showed that improving national image was the primary participation goal for 73% of the countries at Expo 2000.[citation needed] In a world where a strong national image is a key asset, pavilions became advertising campaigns, and the Expo a vehicle for 'nation branding'. Apart from cultural and symbolic reasons, organizing countries (and the cities and regions hosting them) also utilize the world exposition to brand themselves. According to branding expert Wally Olins, Spain used Expo '92 and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona in the same year to underline its new position as a modern and democratic country and present itself as a prominent member of the European Union and the global community.[citation needed]

At Expo 2000 Hanover, where countries created their own architecture, the average pavilion investment was about €12 million.[4] Given these costs, governments are sometimes hesitant to participate, because benefits are often assumed not to outweigh the costs. Tangible effects are difficult to measure, but an independent study for the Dutch pavilion at Expo 2000 estimated that the pavilion (which cost around €35 million) generated around €350 million of potential revenues for the Dutch economy. It also identified several key success factors for world-exposition pavilions in general.[5]


St. Louis 1904 World's Fair Boer War program. Battle recreations took 2–3 hours and included several Generals and 600 veteran soldiers from both sides of the war. At the conclusion of the show, the Boer General Christiaan de Wet would escape on horseback by leaping from a height of 35 feet (11 m) into a pool of water.

Presently, there are two types of world expositions: registered and recognized (sometimes unofficially known as "major" and "minor" fairs, respectively).[6] Registered exhibitions are the biggest category events. Previously, registered expositions were called "Universal Expositions". Even though this name lingers on in public memory, it is no longer in use as an official term. At registered exhibitions, participants generally build their own pavilions. They are therefore the most extravagant and most expensive expos. Their duration may be between six weeks and six months. Since 1995, the interval between two registered expositions has been at least five years. The latest registered exposition Expo 2015 was held in Milan, Italy, from May 1 to October 31, 2015.

Recognized expositions are smaller in scope and investments and generally shorter in duration; between three weeks and three months. Previously, these expositions were called "International or Specialized Expositions" but these terms are no longer used officially. Their total surface area must not exceed 25 ha and organizers must build pavilions for the participating states, free of rent, charges, taxes and expenses. The largest country pavilions may not exceed 1,000 m2. Only one recognized exhibition can be held between two registered exhibitions.[7]

There are also two types of auxiliary expositions: the horticultural exhibitions, which are joint BIE and AIPH-sanctioned 'garden' fair in which participants present gardens and garden pavilions; and the Milan Triennial Exhibition of Decorative Arts and Modern Architecture.[8]

"Registered Expositions"[edit]

Registered expositions encompass universal themes that affect the full gamut of human experience, and international and corporate participants are required to adhere to the theme in their representations. Registered expositions are held every 5 years because they are more expensive as they require total design of pavilion buildings from the ground up. As a result, nations compete for the most outstanding or memorable structure—recent examples include Japan, France, Morocco & Spain at Expo '92. Recent Registered Expositions include Brussels Expo '58, Montreal Expo 67, Osaka Expo '70, and Seville Expo '92. Sometimes prefabricated structures are also used to minimize costs for developing countries or for countries from a geographical block to share space (i.e. Plaza of the Americas at Seville '92).

The only Registered (Universal) exposition to be held without BIE approval was the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair.[9] The sanctioning organization at Paris denied them "official" status because its president, Robert Moses, did not comply with BIE rules in place at the time, namely the one limiting the duration for universal expositions to six months only. Both World's Fairs in New York (1939–40 and 1964–65) have the distinction of being the only two-year world expositions in history.[citation needed] The Fair proceeded without BIE approval and turned to tourism and trade organizations to host national pavilions in lieu of official government sponsorship. However, a large number of countries did participate in the world's fair including several newly independent African and Asian states.[10]

Frederick Pittera, a producer of international fairs and exhibitions and author of the history of world's fairs in the Encyclopædia Britannica and Compton Encyclopedia, was commissioned by Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr. of New York City in 1959 to prepare the first feasibility studies for the 1964 New York World's Fair. Pittera was joined in his study by Austrian architect Victor Gruen (Inventor of the 'Shopping Mall').The Eisenhower Commission ultimately awarded the world's fair bid to New York City against several major U.S. cities.[11]

Since the turn of the 21st century the BIE has moved to sanction expos only every five years; following the numerous expos of the 1980s and 1990s, some see this as a means to cut down potential expenditure by participating nations. The move was also seen by some as an attempt to avoid conflicting with the Summer Olympics. The rule may apply to all expos, or it may end up that universal expositions will be restricted to every five years or so, with international or specialized expositions in the in-between years for countries wishing to celebrate a special event. The most recent universal expo is Expo 2015 in Milan.

"Recognized Expositions" or International or Specialized Expositions[edit]

Panoramic view of Expo 2012 Yeosu

International expositions are usually united by a common theme—such as 'Transportation' (Vancouver Expo 86), or, 'Leisure in the Age of Technology' (Brisbane, Expo '88). Such themes are narrower than the wider scope of universal expositions.

The International Exposition, Tsukuba, Japan, popularly known as Expo '85 was held in the city of Tsukuba located near Tokyo. This Exposition is more formally known as "The International Science Technology Exposition".

Specialized and international expositions are usually smaller in scale and cheaper to run for the host committee and participants because the architectural fees are lower and they only have to rent the space from the host committee, usually with the prefabricated structure already completed. Countries then have the option of 'adding' their own colours, design etc. to the outside of the prefabricated structure and filling in the inside with their own content. One example of this is China, which has often chosen to add a Chinese archway in the front of its prefabricated pavilions to symbolize the nation (Expo '88, Expo '92, Expo '93).

The 2008 International Exhibition was hosted by the Spanish city of Zaragoza with the theme "Water and the Sustainable Development".

Expo 2012 was held in Yeosu, South Korea, with the theme "The Living Ocean and Coast: Diversity of Resources and Sustainable Activities".[12]

List of expositions[edit]

List of official world expositions (Universal, International/Specialised, Horticultural) according to the Bureau International des Expositions[13] and ExpoMuseum:[14] Upcoming world expositions are in italics.

International Horticultural Exhibition[edit]

The BIE, since 1960[citation needed], grants recognition to the International Horticultural Exhibitions approved by the International Association of Horticultural Producers (AIPH) subject to it meeting certain criteria including being approved by the BIE general assembly.[16]

International Horticultural Exhibitions (upcoming in italics):


The iconic Space Needle and Monorail depicted on this 1962 stamp are survivors.

The majority of the structures are temporary and are dismantled after the fair closes. Landmark towers from several fairs are notable exceptions. By far the most famous of these is the Eiffel Tower, built for the Exposition Universelle (1889). Although it is now the most recognized symbol of its host city Paris, a number of influential contemporary critics opposed its construction, and there were demands for it to be dismantled after the fair's conclusion.[18]

Other major structures that were held over from these fairs:

Seattle – World's Fair sign at 47th and Aurora, 1962

Some world's fair sites became (or reverted to) parks incorporating some of the expo elements, such as:

Some pavilions have been moved overseas intact:

The Brussels Expo '58 relocated many pavilions within Belgium: the pavilion of Jacques Chocolats moved to the town of Diest to house the new town swimming pool. Another pavilion was relocated to Willebroek and has been used as dance hall Carré[26] ever since. One smaller pavilion still stands on the boulevard towards the Atomium: the restaurant "Salon 58" in the pavilion of Comptoir Tuilier.

Many exhibitions and rides created by Walt Disney and his WED Enterprises company for the 1964 New York World's Fair (which was held over into 1965) were moved to Disneyland after the closing of the Fair. Many of the rides, including "it's a small world", "Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln", and "Carousel of Progress" (since moved to the Walt Disney World Resort and updated), are still in operation.

Disney had contributed so many exhibits to the New York fair in part because the corporation had originally envisioned a "permanent World's Fair" at the Flushing site. That concept instead came to fruition with the Disney theme park Epcot, an extension of the Walt Disney World Resort, near Orlando, Florida. Epcot has many of the characteristics of a typical universal exposition: national pavilions, as well as exhibits concerning technology and/or the future, along with more typical amusement park rides. Meanwhile, several of the 1964 attractions, relocated to Disneyland, have been duplicated at the Walt Disney World Resort.

Occasionally other bits and pieces of the fairs remain. In the New York City subway system, signs directing people to Flushing Meadows, Queens remain from the 1964–65 event. In the Montreal subway at least one tile artwork of its theme, "Man and His World", remains. Also, a seemingly endless supply of souvenir items from fair visits can be found, and in the United States, at least, can often be bought at garage or estate sales. Many of these events also produced postage stamps and commemorative coins. The 1904 Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in conjunction with the 1904 St. Louis fair, although no particular tie-in seems to have been made. (The 1900 Paris Exposition was also loosely tied to the Olympic Games.)

Current and future potential expositions[edit]


Expo 2017 will be held in Astana, Kazakhstan.

2017 will see a recognized exposition and two cities bid by the cut-off date for bidding: Liège, Belgium[27] and Astana, Kazakhstan.[27]

Several Canadian cities had been interested in 2017 as it is the year of Canada's 150th anniversary, or sesquicentennial. In 2007, a Vancouver, British Columbia based group (Expo 17 Inc) publicly unveiled a 51-page proposal[28] to stage a sustainable "hybrid" expo in Montreal, consisting of an expo approved and recognized by the BIE, a horticultural expo, and a housing expo. Following a recent decision by Canadian Heritage which allows only the city of Edmonton, Alberta to bid for an expo, however, the group is now pursuing alternative events to mark Canada's sesquicentennial.[29] Meanwhile, Edmonton had been actively developing a bid for Edmonton EXPO 2017 since 2008, but failed to receive Federal funding in support of it. In May 2009, Calgary announced to Canadian Heritage it would begin to develop a bid for 2017 as well, but withdrew in November 2009. Ottawa, Canada's capital city, had also considered bidding for 2017.[30] As of November 2009, Edmonton was the only Canadian bidder.[31]

Thessaloniki unsuccessfully bid for the 2008 World EXPO, this time won by Zaragoza in Spain; another planned bid for 2017 was announced in September 2006 and was in full development but they did not make a bid.


Expo 2020 will be held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and will see a registered exposition.

The bidding process for this larger sized exposition formally began in 2011, with five cities being selected to participate in the final round of votes:

Other participating cities and countries that were not selected for the final voting process to host Expo 2020, or did not submitted bids for consideration by the BIE:


Central Polish city of Łódź announced its candidature to host EXPO 2022.[50] It has been promoted in the Polish Pavilion at the EXPO 2015 in Milan. Consequently, Polish Government officially notified the candidature to the International Bureau of Expositions on 15 June 2016.[51]


Minnesota is considering a 2023 bid.[52]



Osaka, Paris, Manchester and Toronto are considering a bid for 2025.[53][54][55][56]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ John R. Davies in Findling and Pelle (2008), "Encyclopedia of World's Fairs and Expositions", pp. 13–14
  2. ^ Walvis, Tjaco, ed. (April 2004). "Three eras of World Expositions: 1851–present.". Cosmopolite: Stardust World Expo & National Branding Newsletter. Amsterdam: Stardust New Ventures (5): 1. 
  3. ^ Ted Dykstra (Director) (2004). Expo'67: Back to the future (DVD). Canada: CBC Home Video. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ Tjaco Walvis (2003), "Building Brand Locations", Corporate Reputation Review, Vol.5, No.4, pp. 358–366
  6. ^
  7. ^ Based on: BIE Convention
  8. ^ Anna Jackson. EXPO International Exposititions 1851–2010. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-85177-540-8. 
  9. ^ Harrison Jacobs (2014-04-22). "15 Gorgeous Retro-Future Photos From The 1964 World's Fair". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-08-01. 
  10. ^ Findling and Pelle, Encyclopedia of World's Fairs and Expositions, 9780786434169 p330
  11. ^ "Building the Fair – Five Men". Retrieved 2014-08-01. 
  12. ^ "Expo 2012: The Living Ocean and Coast: Diversity of Resources and Sustainable Activities". Expo 2012: Yeosu Korea. International Exposition 2012 Yeosu Korea. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  13. ^ "Official Site of the Bureau International des Expositions". 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  14. ^ "The World's Fair Museum". ExpoMuseum. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  15. ^ "The UAE has been elected As the Host Country of the World Expo 2020". Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "International Horticultural Exhibition". 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  17. ^ "Exhibitions, actual programme". AIPH. 2011-01-11. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  18. ^ "The Controversy about the Eiffel Tower". Paris Eiffel Tower News. Retrieved 2016-02-03. 
  19. ^ "Crystal Palace: Joseph Paxton – Transported by moving company". Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  20. ^ PPIE Found Remnants: Architecture: Japanese Gates and Pagoda. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
  21. ^ "Balboa Park History". Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  22. ^ Expo, International Expositions 1851–2010,Anna Jackson, 2008
  23. ^ "Home – South Bank – Visitor Info – What's On – Shopping – Dining – Attractions and more". Visit South Bank. 2009-06-04. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  24. ^ "Artequin". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  25. ^ "The UAE in World Expos | World Expos | Expo 2020, Dubai, UAE". Retrieved December 5, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Home – Carré". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  27. ^ a b "Candidatures International Expo 2017". Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  28. ^ "Expo 17 Proposal" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  29. ^ Gordon Kent (21 June 2012). "City may bid to host international conferences of religions". Postmedia Network Inc. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  30. ^ "World Fair in Ottawa 2017". 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  31. ^ Kent, Gordon (2009-12-01). "A year-long party for $2.3B". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  32. ^ Oliveira, Elida (1 January 2010). "Deu na Imprensa—Disputa acirrada" (in Portuguese). Portal da Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo. 
  33. ^ Hamilton, Louis (June 18, 2013). "Yekaterinburg presents city's bid for 2020 World Expo". Yekaterinburg News. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  34. ^ "Overview | Expo 2020 Dubai, UAE". Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  35. ^ "EXPO 2020 için büyük yarış – Yeni Asır". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  36. ^ "Thailand wants to host World Expo 2020". 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  37. ^ "Thailand, World Expo 2020: Ayutthaya to be nominated as World Expo site". 2011-04-05. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  38. ^ "Thailand 2020 World Expo : Three candidates". 2010-09-05. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  39. ^ "Thailand World expo 2020 Ayutthaya via YOUTUBE". 2011-04-13. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  40. ^ TCEB and Ayutthaya declare confidence in officially bidding for Thailand to host the World Expo 2020
  41. ^ Sritama, Suchat (2011-04-05). "Thailand, World Expo 2020 : Ayutthaya chosen as Thailand's bid city". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  42. ^ "Ayutthaya disqualified for World Expo 2020". 2013-06-12. 
  43. ^ "World's Fair EXPO 2020". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  44. ^ "New York City 2020 | "Showcasing The World"". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  45. ^ "Expo 2020 Silicon Valley". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  46. ^ Michaels, Daniel (February 19, 2009). "The U.S. Can't Host a World Expo, and Fans Say That's No Fair". The Wall Street Journal. 
  47. ^ "ExpoMuseum / potential bids for 2020". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  48. ^ "Captain Cook 250th Anniversary Celebration Citizens' Committee". Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  49. ^ "Who stole our mojo? asks Sydney". The Age. July 1, 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  50. ^ "EXPO for Łódź. 60 thousands of visitors every day". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  51. ^ "Official Site of the Bureau International des Expositions". Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  52. ^ "EXPO 2023 | Minnesota's World Fair". Retrieved September 18, 2015. 
  53. ^ "Osaka readying bid for 2025 World Expo". The Japan Times Online. 2016-09-29. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 2016-12-02. 
  54. ^ Williams, Jennifer (2016-08-31). "Revealed: Extraordinary bid to bring Expo to Greater Manchester". Retrieved 2016-08-31. 
  55. ^ "Expo 2025 bid explored as euphoria over Pan Am Games lingers". Retrieved 2016-08-31. 
  56. ^ "The French government approved Paris bid for Expo 2025". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Alexander C. T. Geppert: Fleeting Cities. Imperial Expositions in Fin-de-Siècle Europe, Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
  • Findling, John E. and Kimberly D. Pelle, ed. Encyclopedia of World's Fairs and Expositions Jefferson, NC and London:McFarland, 2008.

External links[edit]

Strategies for Domination[edit]

“Word’s Fair” Beginning with the title, the “World’s Fair”, “World” is designated as a noun with an apostrophe “’s” indicating that the fair is for the World or that the fair belongs to the World. The title is strategically cohesive with the hosting nation’s universalizing narratives that aim to propagate their own ideologies, gratifying national patriotism and declaring their sovereign superiority. The World’s Fair’s began in 1851 in London, England and evolved into a continuum perpetuating the preliminary colonial values into our contemporary international biennials, expositions, and museums. The World’s Fair performed its exhibition model as an exhibiting space for “all” the nations of the world to come together and be represented by their art and culture. The motivation of the World’s Fair was strategically disguised by it’s “multicultural” adverts, but “an initiative that may be multi-cultural' ... is not necessarily always actively 'anti-racist', the controversy continues.”[1](“Museums and the Formation of National and Cultural Identities,” Coombes, 57) The World’s Fairs began as a colonial operation to affirm a fabricated comparison of the hosting nation’s superiority to the hosting nations representation of the “primitive Other”. World’s fairs simulated a spectacle experience to lure in mass groups of people to indoctrinate colonial ideologies. The ideology of the World’s Fair was a procedure carried out by the dominating colonizing countries to universalize perspectives and standardize their hierarchical structures. These strategies have been maintained within the present construction of World’s Fairs today and have extended into the construction of the museum model in exhibiting ethnographic collections.


The “first” World’s Fair that was hosted by the United Kingdom in Hyde Park, London in 1851 titled "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations". 1851 marks the emergence of the Industrial Revolution and the inclination of the British Empire. The World’s Fair was a spectacle performance by the British Empire, where they built a facility specifically dedicated to exhibiting the show. The building was titled the Crystal Palace. Ingrid A. Steffensen-Bruce stated “The original idea of the fair was a chance of England to show off to the world its cultural and technological superiority while inviting other countries to compete with their exhibition”[5](“Britain, the Empire, and the World at the Great Exhibition of 1851,” Steffensen-Bruce, 49) “Britain, the Empire, and the World at the Great Exhibition of 1851,” investigates the physical space of that the exhibition took up. The Crystal Palace’s architecture astonished the audience with its innovative industrial presentation contributing to the declaration of their superiority over all “Others”. The building aesthetically activated the British Empire’s intentions of the “World’s Fair” projecting national promotion. The original architect, Joseph Paxton composed a structure that liberated Prince Albert’s patriotic motivations with a physical experience. “[A] special building was erected for the purpose of housing these exhibitions of art and industry. Based on Joseph Paxton’s earlier designs for greenhouses, his Crystal Palace was constructed of glass, iron, and wood in a modular design that allowed it to be quickly manufactured and assembled. Both its enormity and its repetitive, crystalline appearance amazed and enchanted visitors…”[5]( Steffensen-Bruce, 50) Exercising Hyde Park’s historical alignment with Buckingham Palace and Trafalgar Square as a site for the exhibition. The Crystal Palace was set in the heart of England’s capital city igniting the UK’s testimony for dominance, coetaneous with the British Empire’s ambitions for “World’s Fair” to convey nationalistic supremacy.

The "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations," attempted to solidify their status as global superior as the exhibitions was functioning in parallel with the UK’s colonial operations. The “Great Exhibition” curated “Other” countries arts, culture, and technological innovations, where the UK employed their curatorial efforts as process of domination. Practicing the colonial imposition of “Othering” where the colonizer pushes the colonized into a state of vulnerability. The process of “Othering” is substantiated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s definition of the Sub-Altern describing the subject that is subordinated by a hegemonic colonial group. Ultimately, the World’s Fair allowed a platform for the construction of the “Other” through the lens of the west. This introduction of methodologies for representing the “Other” cemented in the construction of the following World’s Fairs “Between 1900 and 1910 Britain hosted a number of National and International, Trade and Colonial exhibitions. Designated as both 'scientific demonstration' and 'popular entertainment', these 'spectacles' were the physical embodiment of different and sometimes conflicting imperial ideologies.”[2] (Museum Studies: An Anthology of Contexts, Carbonell, 261) The West’s construction of the “Other” did not begin at the World’s Fair Exhibition of 1851, but was a continuation of hundreds of years of art history’s representations of the orientalist mirage of the “Other”. “World’s fairs are the very soul of propaganda in its most constructive form. Their persuasiveness is evident in their lasting effects upon history and our daily lives.” (“The Great World’s Fairs and Expositions,” Wolfson, Jr., 1) Wolfson’s statement outlines the intentions of the World’s Fair. The "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations" was first iteration of a massive World’s Fair, in which set the standard system for the following World’s Fairs and has perpetuated phenomenological methodologies of “Othering” that is present in museums today.









The World’s Fair of 1851 composed the UK’s idiosyncratic method of portraying the “Other” taking up the jurisdiction to represent the World’s art and culture through their prejudice lens. Following the World’s Fair of 1851 hosting nations replicated the UK’s template to endorse nationalism through comparing themselves within constructed representations of the “Other” nations of the world. Accelerating the practice of “Othering” in progression of globalization. Yiannis Gabriel describes “Othering” as “the process of casting a group, an individual or an object into the role of the ‘other’ and establishing one’s own identity through opposition to and, frequently, vilification of this Other.”[6] (“The Other and Othering – A short Introduction,” Gabriel, np.) The exhibition model used multiculturalism as an illusion to disguise the colonial agenda that the imperial powers were asserting. The World’s Fair performed the structure of an exhibition that provided each nation a space to exhibit their distinctive talents generating fabricated comparisons between nations. Creating one united international exhibition, this comparative model was highly constructed to oppress the colonized “Other”. Where the hosting nation would set up constructed comparisons to facilitate their projection of superiority over all “Other” nations. Simultaneously creating a hierarchal system, that dehumanized the colonized groups by representing them as the lowermost of humanity. The “Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations,” of 1851 marks is arguably marked a beginning of the Industrial Revolution the UK employed the ephemera into their desensitizing strategy to implement ideologies onto their urban citizen spectators by staging and casting the colonized “Other” to physically perform in adherence to the UK’s self promoting agenda. “Interpreting this staged contrast between "savagery" and "civilization" as the spectacular reinforcement of white supremacist notions and practices has become something of a critical commonplace.” [3] (“‘White Cities," ‘Diamond Zulus," and the ‘African Contribution to Human Advancement’: African Modernities and the World's Fairs.” Kruger, 20) In setting up these comparisons the colonizer’s intention was to situate the colonized “Other” as “primitive”. Casting the colonized “Other” as stagnant subjects. Directing the urban audience to perceive colonized groups as their contemporary ancestors staging the “Other” as historical relics. The hosting nation state would also regulate, which nations were relevant for representation for the exhibition consistent with the colonial development. Creating another hierarchy of importance amongst who qualified and who did not. The World’s Fair exhibitions were funded by the hosting nation in favour of promoting nationalism allowing the hosting state extensive involvement in curating which nations would be represented. The World’s Fair of 1851 was proposed as a “public” exhibition, but during the 1800s public was highly censored, as public referred to upper class white males.








Representing the “Other”: The emergence of the Human Zoo[edit]

The UK’s actions in hosting the first World’s Fair “Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations" demonstrated a dehumanizing methodology for colonizing groups to indoctrinate fabricated perspectives of the colonized “Other”. The World’s Fairs popularized the physical fetishization of the colonized “Other”. Particularly, “termed in the catalog to the 1889 Paris World’s Fair, set off one of the most important and most successful popular culture movements in modern times: the human zoo. ("“Please Don’t Feed the Natives”: Human Zoos, Colonial Desire, and Bodies on Display."[4] (Putnam, 60) Putnam describes the linear relationship of World’s Fairs and the emergence of the human zoos. As the spectacle allure of the World’s Fairs ignited the popularity of the viewing the “Other” as a specimen, for the means of western subject’s interests in the “exotic”. Putnam describes the western aesthetic of dehumanizing the “Other” into a object of display. Where the “… epistemological act of peering backwards into an immutable past denies agency and subjectivity to the specimens on display. They are transformed into objects, fixed signifiers waiting to be defined by their [w]estern conquerors."[4] (Putnam, 57, 58) Putnam describes how the process of deactivating the colonized subject’s agency provided an authorization for the western subjects to form and project stereotypes through the deceptive conversion and generalization “Other”. The voyeuristic practices in the World’s Fair’s projected a method for involving the erasure of authenticity and contextualization of specificity where the human zoos eradicated meaning by decontextualizing the colonized other into a simple object to be read by the western audience.








Western Institutions Ethnographic Exhibitions Universalizing Historicization[edit]

Historicization is the process of organizing and interpreting truths for the means of documenting the occurrences of history. Power holders in society prominently affect the way history is recorded. Western society’s historicization is composed of heavily bias perspective that caters to patriarchal authority. The homogenization of history functions to universalize our human experiences. Museums display a particular historical narrative that educates the way that the audience perceives the past influencing the way one interprets the present. Museum audiences dissolve the historical narratives directly effecting their social behaviour. The structural model of the World’s Fair was employed in the construction of the western museum model and contemporary ethnographic exhibitions. Western institutions focus on delivering history through the western perspective even when speaking about “Other” cultures. It was in this context that museums and in particular the ethnographic sections, attempted to negotiate a position of relative autonomy, guided by a code of professional and supposedly disinterested ethics, while at the same time proposing themselves as useful tools in the service of the colonial administration[1]. (Coombes, 57). Western institutions take up an authority over the “Other” in declaring an objective universality in Museums. Resulting in the construction of the way that audiences perceive the “Other”. Museums have strategically historicized documents through colonial and patriarchal standards. Forming injustices of representation and therefore projecting stereotypes and racism. The singular narrative that western institutions project permits the practice of “Othering” in our contemporary society establishing western ideologies as a dominating superior.









  1. ^ Annie E Coombes “Museums and the Formation of National and Cultural Identities” Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2 (1988), pp. 57-68
  2. ^ Carbonell, Bettina Messias. Museum Studies: An Anthology of Contexts. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.
  3. ^ Kruger, Loren. “‘White Cities," ‘Diamond Zulus," and the ‘African Contribution to Human Advancement’: African Modernities and the World's Fairs.” TDR (1988-), vol. 51, no. 3, 2007, pp. 19–45.
  4. ^ Putnam, Walter. "“Please Don’t Feed the Natives”: Human Zoos, Colonial Desire, and Bodies on Display." The Environment in French and Francophone Literature and Film (n.d.): 55-68. Web.
  5. ^ Steffensen-Bruce, Ingrid A. Marble Palaces, Temples of Art: Art Museums, Architecture, and American Culture, 1890-1930. N.p.: n.p., 1994. Print.
  6. ^ “The Other and Othering – A Short Introduction.” Yiannis Gabriel. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2016.
  7. ^ Annie E Coombes “Museums and the Formation of National and Cultural Identities” Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2 (1988), pp. 57-68
  8. ^ Carbonell, Bettina Messias. Museum Studies: An Anthology of Contexts. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.
  9. ^ Kruger, Loren. “‘White Cities," ‘Diamond Zulus," and the ‘African Contribution to Human Advancement’: African Modernities and the World's Fairs.” TDR (1988-), vol. 51, no. 3, 2007, pp. 19–45.
  10. ^ Putnam, Walter. "“Please Don’t Feed the Natives”: Human Zoos, Colonial Desire, and Bodies on Display." The Environment in French and Francophone Literature and Film (n.d.): 55-68. Web.
  11. ^ Steffensen-Bruce, Ingrid A. Marble Palaces, Temples of Art: Art Museums, Architecture, and American Culture, 1890-1930. N.p.: n.p., 1994. Print.
  12. ^ “The Other and Othering – A Short Introduction.” Yiannis Gabriel. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2016.
  13. ^ Annie E Coombes “Museums and the Formation of National and Cultural Identities” Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2 (1988), pp. 57-68
  14. ^ Carbonell, Bettina Messias. Museum Studies: An Anthology of Contexts. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.
  15. ^ Kruger, Loren. “‘White Cities," ‘Diamond Zulus," and the ‘African Contribution to Human Advancement’: African Modernities and the World's Fairs.” TDR (1988-), vol. 51, no. 3, 2007, pp. 19–45.
  16. ^ Putnam, Walter. "“Please Don’t Feed the Natives”: Human Zoos, Colonial Desire, and Bodies on Display." The Environment in French and Francophone Literature and Film (n.d.): 55-68. Web.
  17. ^ Steffensen-Bruce, Ingrid A. Marble Palaces, Temples of Art: Art Museums, Architecture, and American Culture, 1890-1930. N.p.: n.p., 1994. Print.
  18. ^ “The Other and Othering – A Short Introduction.” Yiannis Gabriel. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2016.
  19. ^ Annie E Coombes “Museums and the Formation of National and Cultural Identities” Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2 (1988), pp. 57-68
  20. ^ Carbonell, Bettina Messias. Museum Studies: An Anthology of Contexts. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.
  21. ^ Kruger, Loren. “‘White Cities," ‘Diamond Zulus," and the ‘African Contribution to Human Advancement’: African Modernities and the World's Fairs.” TDR (1988-), vol. 51, no. 3, 2007, pp. 19–45.
  22. ^ Putnam, Walter. "“Please Don’t Feed the Natives”: Human Zoos, Colonial Desire, and Bodies on Display." The Environment in French and Francophone Literature and Film (n.d.): 55-68. Web.
  23. ^ Steffensen-Bruce, Ingrid A. Marble Palaces, Temples of Art: Art Museums, Architecture, and American Culture, 1890-1930. N.p.: n.p., 1994. Print.
  24. ^ “The Other and Othering – A Short Introduction.” Yiannis Gabriel. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2016.
  25. ^ Wofson Jr.Mitchell. The Great World’s Fairs and Expositions. Collection of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. Feb1986