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Tenor horn

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Tenor horn
Yamaha tenor horn in E♭
Brass instrument
Other namesen: alto horn (American), tenor horn (British), de: Althorn, fr: saxhorn alto or pichotte, nl: althoorn, it: genis, fi: alttotorvi, sv: althorn, es: onoben (Spain) or saxor or charcheta (Mexico)
Classification
Hornbostel–Sachs classification423.232
(Valved aerophone sounded by lip vibration)
Playing range

    {
      \new Staff \with { \remove "Time_signature_engraver" }
      \clef treble \key c \major ^ \markup "written" \cadenzaOn
      fis1 \glissando c'''1
      \clef bass ^ \markup "sounds" a,1 \glissando \clef treble ees''1
    }
The tessitura for tenor horn in E♭ is A2 to E♭5. Notated in treble clef, sounds a major sixth lower than written.[1]
Related instruments

The tenor horn (British English; alto horn in American English, Althorn in Germany; occasionally referred to as E horn) is a brass instrument in the saxhorn family and is usually pitched in E. It has a bore that is mostly conical, like the flugelhorn and euphonium,[2] and normally uses a deep, cornet-like mouthpiece.

It is most commonly used in British brass bands, and Mexican banda music whereas the French horn tends to take the corresponding parts in concert bands and orchestras. However, the tenor horn has occasionally been used as an alternative to the French horn in concert bands.

Description

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The tenor horn is a valved brass instrument (in E) which has a predominantly conical bore like that of the euphonium and flugelhorn. It uses a deep funnel- or cup-shaped mouthpiece. The tenor horn's conical bore and deep mouthpiece produce a mellow, rounded tone that is often used as a middle voice, supporting the melodies of the trumpets, cornets, or flugelhorns, and fills the gap above the lower tenor and bass instruments (the trombone, baritone horn, euphonium, and tuba). Its valves are typically, though not exclusively, piston valves.

The tenor horn has been made and is made in various shapes: the most common in the United States and the UK, and in most other parts of the world, is a sort of mini-tuba shape, with the bell pointing upward, which may help the voice blend before reaching the audience. In contrast, the solo horn (found mainly in Europe) looks like (and indeed effectively is) an enlarged flugelhorn, with the bell pointing forward, projecting more toward the audience[citation needed]. Another older and lesser-known variant has the bell facing backward (for military marching bands that preceded the soldiers, thus helping them hear better and keep better time in marching). Still another variant has a detachable bell, easily rotated to point in the direction of the player's choice.

The standard bell-up horn comes in two basic shapes - one with the beginning of the bell looping over the top of the valves and the other looping below the valves.

These types are the most frequently encountered in the United States and UK. Only the standard upright instrument is seen in UK brass bands.

In Europe, Červený have been manufacturing tenor horns since 1852.[3] They currently offer models of the instrument looped like a classic horn and an oval model shaped like a Wagner tuba, all models having rotary valves, as opposed to the more common piston valves.

Kate Westbrook playing the tenor horn

Within a British brass band, the tenor horn section usually plays a unique part in the middle of the band, with the Solo Horn having frequent solo passages. However, it is less often featured as a solo instrument, but is increasingly gaining popularity as one. The instrument's timbre, with little attack or resonance, as well as the parts it usually plays, makes the section difficult to hear individually, even in professional studio recordings. Despite this, the horn section contributes greatly to the rich mellow sound of a brass band. Tenor horns, especially those built in the middle of the 20th century, typically have very poor projection and power, so much so that they quickly became known as the "cinderella" of the brass band, hiding between the much more powerful cornets and trombones. This reputation played no small part in discouraging composers[citation needed] outside of the British brass band from writing for the tenor horn, and it certainly had an adverse effect on the instrument's popularity outside the UK. In more recent years, however, there have been many attempts by various makers to create a tenor horn with much better power and projection while still retaining the instrument's characteristic "narrow-mellow" timbre. A few of these modern instruments have become especially popular within the UK; the Besson Sovereign and the Yamaha Maestro have dominated[citation needed] the tenor horn market over the last decade[when?] or so.

Range

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The nominal range of the tenor horn (expressed in concert pitch) is from the A an octave and a minor third below middle C to the E an octave and a minor third above middle C (A2 to E5 in scientific pitch notation). Experienced players can reach at least a major third higher than this. Additionally, as the tenor horn is a whole-bore brass instrument, most players can play some pedal tones, the fundamentals (first partials) of (at least) the shorter tubing lengths.

Notation

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Tenor horn parts are written in the treble clef. The tenor horn is an E transposing instrument written a major sixth above concert pitch: the tenor horn notation for middle C represents the E below middle C in concert pitch (E3 in scientific pitch notation).

History

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The instrument known today as the tenor/alto horn was developed in the 1840s by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax who, among other instrument design activities, designed two similar families of valved brass instruments, the saxhorn and the saxotromba. The surviving E alto instruments by Sax all have inner diameters[4] described in the saxotromba patent[citation needed]. In this patent the soprano voice (descant) is tuned in E and thence descending through B (contralto) to E (alto). The next family member below the alto saxotromba was described as a baritone in B. Ascending from baritone, logically the next E family member above it is a tenor. The inconsistency spread across multiple descriptions and patents over decades apparently is the source of confusion as regards the names tenor vs. alto horn.

The modern instrument has a larger diameter and now resembles Sax's specification of the saxhorn more than it does that of the saxotromba.

A great deal of interesting historical technical information on the saxhorn is found in the "Saxhorn" entry of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Vol. 4 (1909).

In the 1970s, King Musical Instruments produced a variation on the tenor/alto horn, called the "altonium". This instrument was keyed in F, and it utilized the same mouthpiece as the French horn.[5] From their 1971 catalog, King Instruments produced two models of the altonium: numbers 1147 and 1148. The 1147 was a straight model, and the 1148 was a bell forward model.[6]

In the US, the alto horn is colloquially known as the "peck horn", supposedly because these instruments were employed in band music to "peck away at" the off-beats. [3][7] This name is mentioned in The Music Man, and a french horn-patterned peck horn can be seen in the scene where Professor Hill is explaining the Think System as applied to Beethoven's Minuet in G and a small boy asks him how to play it.

Repertoire

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The tenor horn is very rarely included in the symphony orchestra, where its place is taken by the French horn. Instead, it is a fixture of British brass bands, where it often plays a role similar to that of the orchestral horn in the symphony orchestra. The tenor horn has also been used in concert bands as a replacement for the French horn. In the past, many publishers included parts in both Eb (for the tenor horn) and F (for the French horn). These parts were the same, just transposed into the pitch of the given instrument. Some publishers still follow this practice.

Although Gustav Mahler orchestrated his Seventh Symphony to include one "tenorhorn in B", that instrument is more akin to the baritone horn, which is a fourth lower.

Partial list of solo repertoire:

  • Sonata for Alto Horn and Piano (1943)—Paul Hindemith.
  • Sonata for E Horn and Piano, Op. 75—John Golland
  • September Fantasy (1977)—Eric Ball
  • Masquerade for Tenor Horn and Brass Band (1985)—Philip Sparke
  • A Hornting We Will Go for Tenor Horn and Piano, Op. 151 (1997)—Derek Bourgeois
  • Concerto for E Tenor Horn and Brass Band, Op. 194 (2003)—Derek Bourgeois
  • Aria for Tenor Horn and Brass Band (2003)—Philip Sparke
  • Capricorno for Tenor Horn and Brass Band (2009)—Philip Sparke
  • Sonata for Tenor Horn and Piano, Op. 304 (2011)—Derek Bourgeois
  • Rajaz – concerto for tenor horn and chamber ensemble (2013)—Idin Samimi Mofakham
  • Sunday in the Park for Tenor Horn and Brass Band (2016)—Philip Sparke
  • Concertino for Tenor Horn (1989)—Gareth Wood

References

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  1. ^ Herbert, Trevor, ed. (2019). "Appendix 2: The Ranges of Labrosones". The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Brass Instruments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 489. doi:10.1017/9781316841273. ISBN 978-1-316-63185-0. OCLC 1038492212. OL 34730943M. Wikidata Q114571908.
  2. ^ Company, West Music (2010-12-07). "A Guide to Baritone, Euphonium and Tuba". West Music. Retrieved 2022-03-02.
  3. ^ a b A Tenor Horn/Alto Horn FAQ by John Ericson
  4. ^ "Alto/Tenor Horn History | International Alto/Tenor Horn Project". 1 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  5. ^ Ericson, John (2 July 2010). "A Blast from the Past: The Altonium". Hornmatters.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  6. ^ "Rugs-n-relics.com". 77.rugs-n-relics.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  7. ^ It's Them Peck Horns, article by Linda Buchwald (archive from 20 February 2012).
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