Aphanamixis polystachya

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Pithraj tree
Aphanamixis polystachya.JPG
Fruits of Aphanamixis polystachya
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Meliaceae
Genus: Aphanamixis
Species: A. polystachya
Binomial name
Aphanamixis polystachya
(Wall.) R.N. Parker
Synonyms
  • Aglaia aphanamixis Pellegr. [Illegitimate]
  • Aglaia beddomei (Kosterm.) S.S.Jain & R.C.Gaur
  • Aglaia cochinchinensis (Pierre) Pellegr.
  • Aglaia janowskyi Harms
  • Aglaia polystachya Wall.
  • Amoora amboinensis Miq.
  • Amoora beddomei Kosterm.
  • Amoora grandifolia Walp.
  • Aphanamixis agusanensis Elmer [Invalid]
  • Aphanamixis amboinensis (Miq.) Harms
  • Aphanamixis apoensis Elmer [Invalid]
  • Aphanamixis blumei Span. [Invalid]
  • Aphanamixis cochinchinensis Pierre
  • Aphanamixis coriacea Merr.
  • Aphanamixis cumingiana (C.DC.) Harms
  • Aphanamixis davaoensis Elmer [Invalid]
  • Aphanamixis elmeri (Merr.) Merr.
  • Aphanamixis grandiflora Blume
  • Aphanamixis grandifolia Blume
  • Aphanamixis lauterbachii Harms
  • Aphanamixis macrocalyx Harms
  • Aphanamixis myrmecophila (Warb.) Harms
  • Aphanamixis obliquifolia Elmer [Invalid]
  • Aphanamixis perrottetiana A.Juss.
  • Aphanamixis pinatubensis Elmer
  • Aphanamixis polillensis (C.B.Rob.) Merr.
  • Aphanamixis rohituka (Roxb.) Pierre
  • Aphanamixis schlechteri Harms
  • Aphanamixis sinensis F.C.How & T.C.Chen
  • Aphanamixis timorensis A.Juss.
  • Aphanamixis tripetala (Blanco) Merr.
  • Aphanamixis velutina Elmer [Invalid]
  • Canarium vrieseo-teysmannii H.J.Lam
  • Chuniodendron spicatum Hu
  • Chuniodendron yunnanense Hu
  • Dysoxylum spiciflorum Zipp. ex Miq. [Invalid]
  • Trichilia tripetala Blanco [1]

The Pithraj tree, (Aphanamixis polystachya), is a species of tree in the family Meliaceae. It is native to India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.[2] It is a widely used as a medicinal plant in Ayurveda.[3]

Description[edit]

Bengali name of this tree is royna (রয়না). Another name of this tree is pithraj (পিথরাজ). Oil is not edible and can be used as biodiesel and lighting. The very fine wood is used for construction and ship-making.[citation needed] The tree is 20m tall. Leaves are compound, imparipinnate, alternate; oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate; base asymmetric; with entire margin. Flowers are polygamours and show panicles inflorescence. Fruit is a single seeded pale-reddish subglobose capsule.[4]

Common Names[5][edit]

  • English - Rohituka tree
  • Hindi - Harin-hara (हरिनहर्रा), Harinkhana
  • Manipuri - হৈৰাঙখোঈ Heirangkhoi
  • Marathi - Raktharohida (रक्तरोहिडा')
  • Tamil - malampuluvan, sem, semmaram
  • Malayalam - Chemmaram, sem
  • Manipuri - Heirangkhoi (হৈৰাঙখোঈ)
  • Telugu - Chevamanu, Rohitaka
  • Kannada - mukhyamuttage, mullumuttaga, mulluhitthalu, roheethaka
  • Bengali - Tiktaraj
  • Kuki - Sahala
  • Khasi - Dieng rata
  • Rongmei - Agan
  • Assamese - hakhori bakhori
  • Sanskrit - anavallabha, ksharayogya, lakshmi, lakshmivana, lohita
  • Sinhala - Higul [6]

Chemistry[edit]

Fruit shell contains triterpenes, aphanamixin. Bark contains tetranortriterpene, and aphanamixinin. Leaves contain diterpene, alcohol, aphanamixol and ß-sitosterol. Seeds yield a limonoid, rohitukin, polystachin and others, an alkaloid, a glycoside and a saponin. A chromone and three flavonoid glycosides have been reported from the roots.[7]

References[edit]