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Arequipa-Antofalla is a basement unit underlying the central Andes in northwestern Argentina, western Bolivia, northern Chile and southern Peru. Geologically it corresponds to a craton,[1] terrane[2] or block[2][3] of continental crust. Arequipa-Antofalla collided and amalgamated with the Amazonian craton about 1000 Ma ago during the Sunsás orogeny.[3] As a terrane Arequipa-Antofalla was ribbon-shaped during the Paleozoic, a time when it was bounded by the west by the Iapetus Ocean and by the east by the Puncoviscana Ocean.[2]


  1. ^ Casquet, C.; Pankhurst, R.J.; Rapela, C.W.; Galindo, C.; Fanning, C.M.; Chiaradia, M.; Baldo, E.; González-Casado, J.M.; Dahlquist, J.A. (2008). "The Mesoproterozoic Maz terrane in the Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina, equivalent to the Arequipa-Antofalla block of southern Peru? Implications for West Gondwana margin evolution" (PDF). Gondwana Research. 13 (2): 163–175. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c Escayola P., Mónica; van Staal, Cees R.; Davis, William J. (2011). "The age and tectonic setting of the Puncoviscana Formation in northwestern Argentina: An accretionary complex related to Early Cambrian closure of the Puncoviscana Ocean and accretion of the Arequipa-Antofalla block". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 32: 438–459. 
  3. ^ a b Staci L. Loewy, James N. Connelly and Ian W.D. Dalziel (2003). "An orphaned basement block: The Arequipa-Antofalla Basement of the central Andean margin of South America". GSA Bulletin. 116 (1-2): 171–187. doi:10.1130/B25226.1.