Australian funnel-web spider

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Australian funnel-web spider
Victorian funnelweb side.jpg
A Victorian funnel-web spider (Hadronyche modesta)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Mygalomorphae
Family: Hexathelidae
Subfamily: Atracinae
Hogg, 1901
Genera

Atracinae, commonly known as Australian funnel-web spiders, is a subfamily of spiders in the funnel-web spider family Hexathelidae.[1] All members of the subfamily are native to Australia.[1] Atracinae consists of three genera: Atrax, Hadronyche, and Illawarra, comprising 35 species. A number of the species produce venom which is dangerous to humans and bites by spiders of six of the species have caused severe injuries to victims. The bite of the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) is potentially deadly, but there have been no fatalities since the introduction of modern first aid techniques and antivenin.[2]

Description[edit]

These spiders are medium-to-large in size, with body lengths ranging from 1 cm to 5 cm (0.4" to 2"). They have a hairless carapace covering the front part of the body. Like the related diplurid spiders, some hexathelids have relatively long spinnerets; this is especially true of A. robustus. Males have a large mating spur projecting from the middle of their second pair of legs.[1] Like other Mygalomorphae (also incorrectly called "Orthognatha") —an infraorder of spiders that includes the tropical tarantulas[3] —these spiders have fangs which point straight down the body and do not point towards each other (cf Araneomorphae). They have ample venom glands that lie entirely within their chelicerae. Their fangs are large and powerful, capable of penetrating fingernails and soft shoes.[4]

Funnel-webs make their burrows in moist, cool, sheltered habitats—under rocks, in and under rotting logs, some in rough-barked trees (occasionally metres above ground). They are commonly found in suburban rockeries and shrubberies, rarely in lawns or other open terrain. A funnel-web's burrow characteristically has irregular silk trip-lines radiating from the entrance.[1] Unlike some related trapdoor spiders, funnel-webs do not build lids to their burrows.

The primary range of the Australian funnel-web spiders is the eastern coast of Australia, with specimens found in New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria, and Queensland.[1][5] The only Australian states or territories without funnel-webs are Western Australia[6] and the Northern Territory.

Taxonomy[edit]

The first atracine spider, Hadronyche cerberea, was described by Carl Ludwig Koch in 1873. Octavius Pickard-Cambridge described another atracine species, Atrax robustus, in 1877, four years later. For a considerable time, there was confusion as to the limits of the genera Hadronyche and Atrax, not helped by the destruction of type specimens of Hadronyche cerberea during World War II. In 1980, Robert J. Raven merged the two genera under Atrax. In 1988, Michael R. Gray separated them again, and in 2010 added a further genus, Illawarra.[1]

The family placement of the group remains uncertain. In 1892, Eugène Simon placed Atrax and Hadronyche in the family Dipluridae. In 1901, Henry R. Hogg considered them to be sufficiently distinctive to form a separate group, which he called "Atraceae"[7] – the basis of the modern subfamily name Atracinae. When in the 1980s, Raven elevated part of Simon's Dipluridae to the family Hexathelidae, he included the atracine group. Molecular phylogenetic studies have consistently thrown doubt on the monophyly of the Hexathelidae; Hadronyche and Atrax group together, but not with other genera placed in the family. As yet the evidence has not been considered sufficient to alter the family placement of the Atracinae or elevate them to family status.[1]

Genera[edit]

The subfamily includes the following genera.[1]

Medical significance[edit]

Australian funnel-webs are one of the most dangerous groups of spiders in the world and are regarded by some to be the most deadly, both in terms of clinical cases and venom toxicity.[8][9] Six species have caused severe injuries to human victims, including the C funnel web, northern tree funnel web (Hadronyche formidabilis), southern tree funnel web (H. cerberea),[10] Blue Mountains funnel web (H. versuta), Darling Downs funnel web (H. infensa) and the Port Macquarie funnel web (H. macquariensis).

Examination of bite records has implicated wandering males in most if not all fatal funnel-web bites to humans. Adult males, recognised by the modified terminal segment of the palp, tend to wander during the warmer months of the year looking for receptive females for mating.[11] They are attracted to water and hence are often found in swimming pools, into which they often fall while wandering. The spiders can survive immersion in water for several hours and can deliver a bite when removed from the water.[12]:p.313–22 They also show up in garages and yards in suburban Sydney. They will defend themselves vigorously if they feel threatened. Contrary to commonly held belief, funnel-web spiders are not able to jump, although they can run quickly.[12]:p.313–22

While some very venomous spiders do not always inject venom when they bite, these spiders most often do.[citation needed] The volume of venom delivered to large animals is often small, possibly due to the angle of the fangs, which are not horizontally opposed, and the fact that contact is often brief before the spider is brushed off. It has been claimed that approximately 10% to 25% of bites will produce significant toxicity[8] but the likelihood cannot be predicted and all bites should be treated as potentially life-threatening. Funnel-web spiders are not normally aggressive, but they will defend themselves vigorously if frightened or threatened. During an attack, the funnel-web spider generally maintains a tight grip on its victim and bites repeatedly, making it an especially traumatic experience and increasing the risk of severe envenomation.[13]

There have been 27 recorded deaths in Australia in the last 100 years from spider bites.[citation needed] Most victims were young, ill or infirm.[citation needed] Bites from Sydney funnel-web spiders have caused thirteen deaths (seven in children).[8] In all cases where the sex of the biting spider could be determined, it was found to be the male of the species.[14] One member of the genus Hadronyche, the northern tree funnel-web has also been claimed to cause fatal envenomation,[5] but to date, this lacks the support of a specific medical report. Assays of venom from several Hadronyche species have shown it to be similar to Atrax venom.

Toxins[edit]

There are many different toxins in the venom of Atrax and Hadronyche spiders. Collectively, these spider toxins are given the name atracotoxins (ACTX), as all these spiders belong to the subfamily Atracinae. The first toxins isolated were the δ-ACTX toxins present in the venom of both A. robustus (δ-ACTX-Ar1, formerly known as robustoxin or atracotoxin) and H. versuta (δ-ACTX-Hv1a, formerly known as versutotoxin). Both these toxins produce the same effects in monkeys as those seen in humans, suggesting that they are responsible for the physiological effects seen with crude venom.[14]

Female Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) in warning posture

These toxins are thought to operate by opening sodium channels. They are presynaptic neurotoxins that, via sodium channels, induce spontaneous, repetitive firing of action potentials in autonomic and motor neurons and inhibit neurally-mediated transmitted release resulting in a surge of endogenous acetylcholine, noradrenaline and adrenaline.[15]

Although extremely toxic to primates, the venom appears to be fairly harmless to many other animals. It has been suggested that these animals may be resistant to the venom's effects due to the presence of IgG, and possibly cross-linked IgG and IgM inactivating factors in their blood plasma that bind to the toxins responsible and neutralise them.[16]

The female venom was thought to be only about a sixth as potent to humans as that of the male.[17][citation needed] The bite of a female or juvenile may still be serious; however, considerable variability occurs in venom toxicity between species, together with assumed degrees of inefficiency in the method of venom delivery.

Symptoms[edit]

Envenomation symptoms observed following bites by these spiders are very similar. The bite is initially very painful, due to the size of the fangs penetrating the skin.[10] Puncture marks and local bleeding are also usually visible. If substantial envenomation occurs, symptoms will generally occur within minutes and progress rapidly.

Early symptoms of systemic envenomation include goose bumps, sweating, tingling around the mouth and tongue, twitching (initially facial and intercostal), salivation, watery eyes, elevated heart rate and elevated blood pressure. As systemic envenomation progresses symptoms include nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath (caused by airway obstruction), agitation, confusion, writhing, grimacing, muscle spasms, pulmonary oedema (of neurogenic or hypertensive origin), metabolic acidosis and extreme hypertension. The final stages of severe envenomation include dilation of the pupils (often fixed), uncontrolled generalised muscle twitching, unconsciousness, elevated intracranial pressure and death. When death occurs it is generally as a result of progressive hypotension or possibly elevated intracranial pressure consequent on cerebral oedema.[8][13][18]

The onset of severe envenomation can be rapid. In one prospective study, the median time to onset of envenomation was 28 minutes, with only two cases having onset after 2 hours (both had pressure immobilisation bandages applied).[8] Death may occur within a period ranging from 15 minutes[14] (this occurred when a small child was bitten) to three days.

Treatment[edit]

Due to the severity of symptoms, and the speed with which they progress, in areas where these spiders are known to live, all bites from large black spiders should be treated as though they were caused by a funnel-web spider. First aid treatment for a suspected funnel-web spider bite consists of immediately applying a pressure immobilization bandage; a technique which consists of wrapping the bitten limb with a crepe bandage, as well as applying a splint to limit movement of the limb. This technique was originally developed for snakebites but has also been shown to be effective at slowing venom movement and preventing systemic envenomation in case of funnel-web spider bite. There is also evidence to suggest that periods of prolonged localisation may slowly inactivate the venom.[13][19] Emergency medical treatment should be sought as soon as possible. It is important that the pressure immobilisation bandage not be removed prematurely. It should remain in place until intravenous access has been established, adequate medical monitoring is in place and a supply of antivenom is available. A patient who is not displaying any symptoms of systemic envenomation may deteriorate rapidly when the bandage is removed.

Further supportive care may be necessary, but the mainstay of treatment is antivenom. Venom from the male Atrax robustus is used in producing the antivenom, but it appears to be effective against the venom of all species of funnel web spiders.[20] Funnel-web antivenom has also been shown, in vitro, to reverse the effects of Eastern Mouse spider (Missulena bradleyi) venom.[21]

Prior to the introduction of antivenom, envenomation resulted in significant morbidity and mortality.[22] The purified rabbit IgG antivenom was developed in 1981 through a team effort led by Dr Struan Sutherland, head of immunology at the Australian Commonwealth Serum Laboratories in Melbourne.[23] Fortunately, the antivenom is fast-acting and highly and globally effective.[24] Antivenom therapy has shortened the course of envenomation: prior to antivenom availability, the average length of hospital treatment for severe bites was about 14 days. Today, antivenom-treated patients are commonly discharged from hospital within 1 to 3 days.[14] There have been no known deaths since it became available.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gray, Michael R. (24 November 2010). "A revision of the Australian funnel-web spiders (Hexathelidae: Atracinae)". Records of the Australian Museum. 62 (3): 285–392. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.62.2010.1556. ISSN 0067-1975. 
  2. ^ "Funnel-web Spiders". Australian Museum. Sydney. Retrieved 24 January 2012. 
  3. ^ Mygalomorph tarantulas are a different family from the original 'tarantula', an araneomorph lycosid from Europe. —Rod and Ken Preston-Mafham. Spiders of the World. Blandford Press, 1989, England, p. 47
  4. ^ Funnel-web Fangs National Geographic. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  5. ^ a b Fact sheet: Funnel-web spider CSIRO Note: Though formerly well resourced in entomology, CSIRO acknowledges on this site that it currently does no research into funnel-web spiders.
  6. ^ Raymond Mascord Australian Spiders in Colour Reed Press NSW, 1991, p. 14
  7. ^ Hogg, H.R. (1901). "On Australian and New Zealand spiders of the suborder Mygalomorphae". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1901: 218–279. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Isbister G, Gray M, Balit C, Raven R, Stokes B, Porges K, Tankel A, Turner E, White J, Fisher M (2005). "Funnel-web spider bite: a systematic review of recorded clinical cases". Med J Aust. 182 (8): 407–11. PMID 15850438. 
  9. ^ Vetter, Richard S.; Isbister, Geoffrey K. (2008). "Medical Aspects of Spider Bites". Annual Review of Entomology. 53: 409–29. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.53.103106.093503. PMID 17877450. 
  10. ^ a b Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Fan, Hui Wen (2011). "Spider Bite". The Lancet. 378 (9808): 2039–47. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62230-1. PMID 21762981. 
  11. ^ Isbister G, Gray M (2004). "Bites by Australian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), including funnel-web spiders (Atracinae) and mouse spiders (Actinopodidae: Missulena spp)". Toxicon. 43 (2): 133–40. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2003.11.009. PMID 15019472. 
  12. ^ a b Gray M. The Distribution of Funnel-Web Spiders in Australia in Toxic Plants and Animals: A Guide for Australia. Queensland Museum Press, 1987. Page 313-22
  13. ^ a b c Australian Spider and Insect Bites[permanent dead link]; University of Sydney
  14. ^ a b c d Nicholson G, Graudins A (2002). "Spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific: atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins". Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 29 (9): 785–94. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1681.2002.03741.x. PMID 12165044. 
  15. ^ Harris J, Sutherland S, Zar M (1981). "Actions of the crude venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider. Atrax robustus on autonomic neuromuscular transmission". Br J Pharmacol. 72 (2): 335–40. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1981.tb09132.x. PMC 2071519Freely accessible. PMID 6260279. 
  16. ^ Sheumack D, Comis A, Claassens R, Mylecharane E, Spence I, Howden M (1991). "An endogenous antitoxin to the lethal venom of the funnel web spider, Atrax robustus, in rabbit sera". Comp Biochem Physiol C. 99 (1–2): 157–61. doi:10.1016/0742-8413(91)90093-9. PMID 1675965. 
  17. ^ Wiener S (1959). "The Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus): II. Venom yield and other characteristics of spider in captivity". Med J Aust. 46 (2): 678–82. PMID 13844638. 
  18. ^ Torda T, Loong E, Greaves I (1980). "Severe lung oedema and fatal consumption coagulopathy after funnel-web bite". Med J Aust. 2 (8): 442–4. PMID 7010098. 
  19. ^ Sutherland S, Duncan A (1980). "New first-aid measures for envenomation: with special reference to bites by the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus)". Med J Aust. 1 (8): 378–9. PMID 6771503. 
  20. ^ Graudins A, Wilson D, Alewood P, Broady K, Nicholson G (2002). "Cross-reactivity of Sydney funnel-web spider antivenom: neutralization of the in vitro toxicity of other Australian funnel-web (Atrax and Hadronyche) spider venoms". Toxicon. 40 (3): 259–66. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(01)00210-0. PMID 11711122. 
  21. ^ Rash L, Birinyi-Strachan L, Nicholson G, Hodgson W (2000). "Neurotoxic activity of venom from the Australian eastern mouse spider (Missulena bradleyi) involves modulation of sodium channel gating". Br J Pharmacol. 130 (8): 1817–24. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703494. PMC 1572261Freely accessible. PMID 10952670. 
  22. ^ Isbister G, Graudins A, White J, Warrell D (2003). "Antivenom treatment in arachnidism". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 41 (3): 291–300. doi:10.1081/CLT-120021114. PMID 12807312. 
  23. ^ Fisher M, Raftos J, McGuinness R, Dicks I, Wong J, Burgess K, Sutherland S (1981). "Funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) antivenom. 2. Early clinical experience". Med J Aust. 2 (10): 525–6. PMID 7321948. 
  24. ^ Hartman L, Sutherland S (1984). "Funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) antivenom in the treatment of human envenomation". Med J Aust. 141 (12–13): 796–9. PMID 6503783. 

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