Platelet-rich plasma injection into the hand
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), also known as autologous conditioned plasma, is a concentrate of platelet-rich plasma protein derived from whole blood, centrifuged to remove red blood cells. Evidence for benefit is poor as of 2016. The cost per injection is generally $US 500 to 2,000 as of 2019.
A 2009 review found few randomized controlled trials that adequately evaluated the safety and efficacy of PRP treatments and concluded that PRP was "a promising, but not proven, treatment option for joint, tendon, ligament, and muscle injuries". As compared to other conservative treatments for non-surgical orthopedic illnesses (e.g. steroid injection for plantar fasciitis), evidence does no support the use of PRP as a conservative treatment. A 2018 review found that evidence was lacking for Achilles tendinopathy.
A 2010 Cochrane review of use in sinus lifts during dental implant placement found no evidence of benefit. A 2013 review stated more evidence was needed to determine effectiveness for hair regrowth.
A 2014 Cochrane review of PRP in musculoskeletal injuries found very weak evidence for a decrease in pain in the short term, and no difference in function in the short, medium or long term. There was weak evidence that suggested that harm occurred at comparable, low rates in treated and untreated people. Similarly, another 2017 review for treating pain on skin graft donor sites found the evidence for benefit was poor.
It has not been shown to be useful for bone healing. A 2016 review of PRP use to augment bone graft found only one study reporting a difference in bone augmentation, while four studies found no difference.
PRP has also been injected into the vagina, in a procedure called "O-shot" or "orgasm shot" with claims that this will improve orgasms. There is no evidence, however, to support these claims.
There are no studies to date that have reliably documented adverse effects associated with PRP treatment, possibly due to poor and inconsistent methodology. In 2019, Health Canada stated that most autologous cell therapies have little evidence showing they work and can pose risks, such as cross-contamination between people if equipment is not sterilized properly or potentially dangerous immune reactions. There are efforts to stop Canadian clinics from offering these types of services.
There are four general categories of preparation of PRP based on its leukocyte and fibrin content: leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP), leukocyte reduced PRP (P-PRP; leukocyte reduced or pure PRP), leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin and pure platelet-rich fibrin.
The efficacy of certain growth factors in healing various injuries and the concentrations of these growth factors found within PRP are the theoretical basis for the use of PRP in tissue repair. The platelets collected in PRP are activated by the addition of thrombin and calcium chloride, which induces the release of the mentioned factors from alpha granules. The growth factors and other cytokines present in PRP include:
- platelet-derived growth factor
- transforming growth factor beta
- fibroblast growth factor
- insulin-like growth factor 1
- insulin-like growth factor 2
- vascular endothelial growth factor
- epidermal growth factor
- Interleukin 8
- keratinocyte growth factor
- connective tissue growth factor
PRP is prepared by taking blood from the person, and then putting it through two stages of centrifugation designed to separate PRP from platelet-poor plasma and red blood cells. This is usually done by the clinic offering the treatment, using commercially available kits and equipment. The resulting substance varies from person to person and from facility to facility, making it difficult to understand how safe and effective any specific use is.
Society and culture
The cost of a PRP treatment in the U.S. has been quoted as $1000 out-of-pocket expenses, as it is usually not covered by health insurance. PRP has received attention in the popular media as a result of its use by athletes. Use in an office setting is not approved by the FDA.
In the 2010s, contentious cosmetic procedures marketed under the name of "vampire facials" grew in popularity, fueled by celebrity endorsement. These "vampire facials" generally center on PRP treatment, and usually (but not always) involve microneedling.
Some concern exists as to whether PRP treatments violate anti-doping rules. As of 2010 it was not clear if local injections of PRP could have a systemic impact on circulating cytokine levels, affecting doping tests and whether PRP treatments have systemic anabolic effects or affect performance. In January 2011, the World Anti-Doping Agency removed intramuscular injections of PRP from its prohibitions after determining that there is a "lack of any current evidence concerning the use of these methods for purposes of performance enhancement".
- Autologous blood injection
- Hypoxia preconditioned plasma
- Autologous conditioned serum
- Platelet-rich fibrin matrix
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