Barons in Scotland

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Ayton Castle, Scottish Borders, caput of the feudal barony of Ayton. Built in 1851 in the Scottish Baronial style by William Mitchell-Innes, then feudal baron of Ayton, to the design of James Gillespie Graham

In Scotland, a baron or baroness is the head of a feudal barony, also known as a prescriptive barony. This used to be attached to a particular piece of land on which was situated the caput (Latin for "head") or essence of the barony, normally a building, such as a castle or manor house. Accordingly, the owner of the piece of land containing the caput was called a baron or baroness. According to Grant, there were around 350 identifiable local baronies in Scotland by the early fifteenth century and these could mostly be mapped against local parish boundaries. The term baron was in general use from the thirteenth century to describe what would have been known in England as a knight of the shire.[1]

The 1896 edition of Green's Encyclopaedia of the Law of Scotland noted that "the mere territorial baron has no title of dignity appropriated to him".[2] In the Encyclopaedia of the Laws of Scotland (1927), John Horne Stevenson stated that "a barony title did not itself confer any dignity upon the holder".[3] The Court of the Lord Lyon issued a ruling in April 2015 that may recognise a person possessing a barony and other feudal titles (lordship/earl/marquis) on petition. The Lord Lyon King of Arms now prefers the approach of recognizing the particular feudal dignity as expressed in the Crown Charter that the petitioner presents.[4] These titles are recognised as the status of a minor baron or baroness, but not a peer. Scottish feudal baronies may be passed to any person, of either sex, by inheritance or conveyance.[5]

Scotland has a distinct legal system within the United Kingdom. Historically, in the Kingdom of Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms, as the Sovereign's minister in matters armorial, is at once herald and judge. The Scottish equivalent of an English baron is a Lord of Parliament.


A "Scottish Prescriptive Barony by Tenure" was, from 1660 until 2004, the feudal description of the only genuine degree of title of UK nobility capable of being bought and sold (along with the caput, or property), rather than passing strictly by blood inheritance.

Statutes of 1592 and the Baronetcy Warrants of King Charles I show the non-peerage Table of Precedence as: Baronets, Knights, (feudal) Barons, Lairds, Esquire and Gentlemen.

A General Register of Sasines was set up by Statute in 1617, with entry in the Register giving the prescriptive right (right by normal or correct usage), after so many years, to the caput or essence of the barony. The individual who owned the said piece of land containing the caput was hence the baron or baroness. Uncertainty over armorial right was removed by the Lyon Register being set up by Statute in 1672, such that no arms were to be borne in Scotland unless validly entered in Lyon Register.

Up until 1874, each new baron was confirmed in his barony by the Crown by Charter of Confirmation. Up until 28 November 2004, a barony was an estate of land held directly of the Crown, or the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. It was an essential element of a barony title that there existed a Crown Charter erecting the land into a barony, recorded in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland. Often the original Charter was later lost, however an Official Extract has the same legal status as the original Charter.

From the Treaty of Union of 1707 - until 1999 - a unified Parliament of Great Britain (since January, 1801, known as the Parliament of the United Kingdom), at Westminster, was responsible for passing legislation affecting private law both north and south of the Scottish border. In 1999, the devolved Scottish Parliament was established, and private law measures can now be passed at Holyrood, the seat of the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh.

Using a "prescriptive feudal grant" allowed developers to impose perpetual conditions affecting the land. The courts became willing to accept the validity of such obligations, which became known as "real burdens". In practical and commercial terms, these real burdens were like English leasehold tenure.

Abolition of feudal tenure[edit]

The first Scottish Executive was committed to abolishing the feudal system. On 28 November 2004, the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 came into full force and effect, putting an end to Scotland's feudal system. Under Scots law, a Scottish Prescriptive Barony by Tenure is now "incorporeal feudal heritage", not attached to the land and remains the only genuine, prescriptive, degree of title of UK nobility capable of being bought and sold – since under Section 63(1) of the Act, the dignity of baron is preserved after the abolition of the feudal system.[6][7] However, the Abolition Act did end the ability to get feudal land privileges by inheriting or acquiring the caput (land or castle) in Scotland. In common law jurisdictions, land may still be owned and inherited through a barony if the land is titled in "the Baron of X" as baron rather than in the individual's name. In America, it passes with the barony as a fee simple appurtenance to an otherwise incorporeal hereditament, the barony being treated like a landowning corporation.[8] In Scotland, the practice has not been tested in a Court of Session case since the Act.

One of the oldest baronies in Scotland, the Barony of the Bachuil, has not depended on land ownership for centuries; the barony passes along with the possession of a certain ancient stick, "The Bachuil Mór", which was once the bishop's staff of Saint Moluag in the year 562. Unlike all other barons in Scotland, the lawful possessor of the stick is the Baron of the Bachuil, regardless of landholdings.[9]

On 28 November 2004 the Abolition of Feudal Tenure Act came into force in Scotland. Prior to the Act, Scottish feudal baronies (including lordships and earldoms) remained the only noble titles in the UK that were transferable following the sale of land containing a caput (i.e. feudal superiority). With the implementation of the Act, all Scottish titles of nobility became incorporeal heritable property meaning they existed but without any physical attributes (eg land ownership which is corporeal property).[10][11]

Most baronies were created (erected) prior to 1745, but one was erected as late as 1824. Since the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 came into effect, the Lord Lyon, who is the Chief Herald of Scotland, has restored a more traditional form to the coat of arms of a baron. Barons are now identified by the helm befitting their degree. A new policy statement has been made by the Lord Lyon to this effect.

The holder of the dignity of a barony may petition the Lord Lyon for a grant of arms, as he falls under the jurisdiction of the Lyon's Court. A policy statement has been made to this effect by the Lord Lyon.[4] The Lyon Court has no jurisdiction in relation to the assignation, or legal transfer of, feudal titles.


An English barony is a peerage (yet the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 allows for some remaining non-peer baronies not converted by writ to remain as feudal baronies of free socage "incorporeal hereditament" (article 10 of that act)), but whether Scottish barons rightfully rank as peers is disputable.[12] They are known as minor barons currently treated as noble titles of less than peerage rank. The Scottish equivalent of an English baron is "Lord of Parliament".

The feudal baronial title tends to be used when a landed family is not in possession of any United Kingdom peerage title of higher rank, subsequently granted, or has been created a knight of the realm. The name recorded by the Lord Lyon as part of any grant of arms or matriculation becomes the holder's name for all official purposes.

The holder of a Scottish barony (e.g., "Inverglen") may add the title to their existing name (e.g., "John Smith, Baron of Inverglen" or "Jane Smith, Baroness of Inverglen") or add the territorial designation to their surname if still in possession of the caput ("John Smith of Inverglen, Baron of Inverglen" or "Jane Smith of Inverglen, Baroness of Inverglen"); some of the oldest Scottish families prefer to be styled by the territorial designation alone ("Smith of Inverglen").[13][14][15] Formal and in writing, they are styled as The Much Honoured Baron/Baroness of Inverglen. A baron/baroness may be addressed socially as "Inverglen" or "Baron/Baroness" and introduced in the third person as "John Smith of Inverglen, Baron of Inverglen" or "The Baron of Inverglen" or "Jane Smith, Baroness of Inverglen" or "The Baroness of Inverglen". When referred to informally in the third person it is incorrect to refer to them as "Baron/Baroness Inverglen" or "Lord/Lady Inverglen", as these would imply a peerage title (i.e. Lord of Parliament)[16]

In a heterosexual married couple, if the husband is the holder of the Barony, the wife receives a courtesy title. Therefore, they may be styled "The Baron and Baroness of Inverglen", "Inverglen and Madam Smith of Inverglen", "Inverglen and Lady of Inverglen", or "The Baron of Inverglen and Lady of Inverglen."[13] The oldest son of a feudal baron/baroness may be known by the territorial designation with the addition of "yr" (abbreviation for "younger"), e.g. "John Smith of Inverglen, yr". The eldest daughter may be known as "Maid of Inverglen" at the end of her name, e.g. "Sandra Smith, Maid of Inverglen".

The husband of a Baroness is not afforded a courtesy title.

The United Kingdom policy of using titles on passports requires that the applicant provides evidence that the Lord Lyon has recognised a feudal barony, or the title is included in Burke's Peerage. If accepted (and if the applicant wishes to include the title), the correct form is for the applicant to include the territorial designation as part of their surname (Surname of territorial designation e.g. Smith of Inverglen). The Observation[17] would then show the holder's full name, followed by their feudal title e.g. The holder is John Smith, Baron of Inverglen.[18]

Scottish heraldry[edit]

A Scottish baron's helmet

The former Lord Lyon declined to award the following baronial additaments to the arms of those feudal barons registering arms now that the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 is in force. However, the current Lord Lyon has confirmed in a recent policy statement that he will officially recognise feudal barons or those possessing the dignity of baron who meet certain conditions and will grant them arms with a helmet befitting their degree. Scottish Barons rank below Lords of Parliament; while noble, they are not conventionally considered peerage titles.

In showing that Scottish barons are titles of nobility, reference may be made, amongst others, to Lyon Court in the Petition of Maclean of Ardgour for a Birthbrieve by Interlocutor dated 26 February 1943 which "Finds and Declares that the Minor Barons of Scotland are, and have both in this Nobiliary Court, and in the Court of Session, been recognised as 'titled' nobility, and that the estait of the Baronage (The Barones Minores) is of the ancient Feudal Nobility of Scotland".

Sir Thomas Innes of Learney in his 'Scots Heraldry' (2nd Ed., p. 88, note 1) states that 'The Act 1672, cap 47, specially qualifies the degrees thus: Nobles (i.e. peers, the term being here used in a restricted seventeenth-century English sense), Barons (i.e. Lairds of baronial fiefs and their "heirs", who, even if fiefless, are equivalent to heads of Continental baronial houses) and Gentlemen (apparently all other armigers).' Baronets and knights are evidently classed as 'Gentlemen' here and are of a lower degree than Barons. The Scottish Head of Baronial Houses, includes all the various styles and titles which designate the territorial nobility i.e. baron of X.

Barons may also wear two eagle feathers when in traditional dress.[19][20] If the baron is a member of a clan, it is advisable to consult the clan chief on clan customs and traditions. The Lord Lyon only gives guidance and not governance on the wearing of feathers and recommends consulting with a clan chief.


An azure chapeau

Previously, between the 1930s and 2004, when new arms were granted or a matriculation of existing arms took note of a barony, the owner was given a chapeau or cap of maintenance as part of his armorial achievement on petitioning for the same. This chapeau is described as "gules doubled ermine" for barons in possession of the caput of the barony. An azure chapeau is appropriate for the heirs of ancient baronial families who are no longer owners of the estates. This chapeau was a relatively recent armorial invention of the late Lord Lyon Thomas Innes of Learney. Accordingly, a number of ancient arms of feudal barons do not display the chapeau, and now it is no longer granted.

At the Treaty of Perth in 1266, Norway relinquished its claim to the Hebrides and Man, and they became part of Scotland. In 1292, Argyll was created a shire and "The Barons of all Argyll and the Foreigners' Isles", which had preceded the kingdom of Scotland, became eligible to attend the "Scots" Parliament – appearing in the record of the parliament at St. Andrews in 1309. Historically they have a chapeau, "gules doubled ermines", ermines being white tails on black.

There is a unique exception: the Barony of the Bachuil is not of feudal origin like other baronies but is allodial in that it predates (562 A.D.) Scotland itself and the feudal system, dating from the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata. In recognition as allodial Barons par la grâce de Dieu not barons by a feudal crown grant, the Baron of the Bachuil has the only chapeau allowed to have a vair (squirrel fur) lining.[9]

A chapeau, if part of an armorial achievement, is placed into the space directly above the shield and below the helmet. It may otherwise be used on a visiting card, the flap of an envelope, or to ensign the circlet of a crest badge as used on a bonnet.

Feudo-baronial mantle[edit]

The historical Scottish baron's mantle and chapeau from the 1930s to 2004, which are no longer granted

Particularly Scottish in character is the feudo-baronial mantle or robe of estate - described as gules doubled silk argent, fur-edged of miniver and collared in ermine, fastened on the right shoulder by five spherical buttons Or. This may be displayed in a pavilioned form, draped behind the complete achievement of arms - or the armorial shield alone - tied open with cords and tassels, and surmounted by the chapeau. Again, Lord Lyon is no longer granting these heraldic mantles.


The helmet is now the chief mode of recognition of a Scottish baron. The Lord Lyon has adopted a steel helm with grille of three grilles, garnished in gold, as the current baronial additament. Alternatively, a feudal steel tilting helm garnished in gold, that may be shown affronté, may appear, or a helmet of some other degree if the baron holds a higher rank, such as a lordship of parliament.


Supporters, are now usually reserved for the holders of the older baronies (chartered before 1587) and those that have been in continuous family ownership. In England, supporters are reserved for the peerage, and a Scottish baron who approaches the English College of Arms is not allowed supporters. A compartment has occasionally been granted to barons, representing their territories, even in cases where there are no supporters.


A badge – distinct from the crest – as a separate armorial device, is not necessarily a feature of the arms. The badge may be used by the "tail" or following of a landowner baron. The grant is linked to the baron's standard, a heraldic flag, in the livery colours that carries a large representation of the badge. The standard is blazoned in the grant or matriculation. The livery colours are usually the two most prominent colours of the arms themselves.


A Standard – an elongated shape, tapering from 1.2 m down to 60 cm, with the fly edge split and rounded (lanceolate). The length is according to rank, from 7.5 m for the Sovereign down to 3.5 m for a Knight, Baron or Chief. It bears the Arms as on the shield or the saltire in the hoist, with the tail parted per fess with the Crest, Badge and/or Supporter, plus the motto on one or more Ribands. The Standard is set before the Baron/Chief's tent (as it's a "Headquarters" flag and does not indicate that the Armiger is in residence) rather than carried like the banner. A Standard requires a separate grant by the Lord Lyon and is only made under certain conditions.

A Guidon – one-third shorter than a Standard and tapering to a round, unsplit end at the fly. These are assigned by Lord Lyon to individuals who have Supporters to their Arms, and to others who have a following – those in a position of leadership or some official position.

A Pennon – a smaller, elongated flag 120 cm long with a pointed, rounded or swallow-tailed end, designed to be displayed on a lance, assigned by Lord Lyon to an Armiger who applies for one. It is charged with the motto of the armiger as well as the arms as on the shield.

A Banner – a square or rectangular upright representation of the Arms designed for carrying in warfare or tournaments, but now flown as a "house flag" when the Armiger is in residence and is NOT the flag of the Clan or Family. Originally, conspicuous gallantry in battle was marked by cutting off the tail of the Standard or Pennon, turning it into a Banner. Strictly speaking, the sizes and shapes are:

Square banner – Sovereign, 1.5 m square; Dukes; 1.25 m sq; Earls, 1.1 m sq; Viscounts and Barons, 1 m sq; Baronets and feudal barons, 0.9 m sq; other Armigers, 70 cm wide x 85 cm high

Rectangular banner – typically in the ratio 3:2, or 5:4 when flown as the "house flag" of an Armiger.

Carrying flag – this should be sized as follows (width x height): Peers, 1.2 m x 1.5 m; Feudal Barons, 90 cm x 115 cm; Chiefs, 85 cm x 110 cm; Chieftains, 80 cm x 90 cm.

A Ensign may be occasionally granted and blazoned. This is a square flag, smaller than the flying banner, and carrying the full embroidered achievement (arms, crest, motto), again fringed in livery colours.

A Pipe banner – rather similar to a Banner, but of a size to fit on the longest drone of the pipes (usually 45 cm) and richly decorated with gold fringing, tassles and the like. The pipe banner for a Chief who is also a Peer or a Feudal Baron should have a rounded end extending beyond the length, and any other Chief a split rounded end. A feudal baron is authorised two pipers.

List of feudal baronies (created before 1707)[edit]

Below is a list of some Scottish feudal baronies created before 1707; this list does not include Scottish feudal baronies created between that year and 1838 (BGH), when the most recent creation of a Scottish feudal barony occurred. It is generally accepted that there were around 350 baronies in Scotland before 1707.[1]

When updating this list, please create for each new entry a separate, wikified article titled "Scottish feudal barony of X", which records a brief biography of the previous incumbent and is wikilinked to this list. Please do not simply delete the name of the previous incumbent. Individual articles should be produced for the history of each barony, except that where few or no verifiable and detailed sources exist, histories should start with the current or previous holder and may take the form of sections within existing articles on the caput's village, town, or castle.
Barony County Created Baron Succeeded
Abbotshall Fife Harold Peerenboom
Abergeldie Aberdeenshire 1428 John Gordon 1963
Abernethy Perthshire Mahfouz Marei Mubarak bin Mahfouz 2008
Aboyne Aberdeenshire 1660 Granville, 13th Marquess of Huntly
Aden Aberdeenshire 1333 Alexander Russell of Aden 2015
Aiket Ayrshire
Alford Kerry Alfred Hamer
Alforshire Charles A. Cogdill
Anstruther & Balcaskie Sir Ralph Anstruther
Arbroath Angus Alan Bartlett of Arbroath 1994
Ardblair & Gask Perthshire Laurence Oliphant 1979
Ardgour Argyllshire Giancarlo Bonifazi 1998
Ardgowan Renfrewshire Professor Stephen Kerr
Ardrossan Ayrshire 1357 Hugh, 19th Earl of Eglinton, 7th Earl of Winton 2018
Ardgrain[21] Aberdeenshire Pepijn Oscar Hendriks 2013
Ardoch Dumbarton Professor Thomas Mackay 1987
Arndilly Morayshire David Menzies of Arndilly
Arnisdale Ross and Cromarty William Paterson of Arnisdale
Arnot Fife 1507 Willem C. G. Blanken 2016
Arran Ayrshire Susan Livingston 2021
Auchendarroch Argyllshire Keir Campbell of Auchendarroch
Auchindoir Aberdeenshire Alisdair Barlas of Auchindoir
Auchinleck Ayrshire Valentine Bennett of Auchinleck
Auchmacoy Aberdeenshire David Buchan of Auchmacoy
Auchtermunzie Fife 1437 Fernando Gutierrez-Eddy of Auchtermunzie 2002
Auchterutherstruther Fife Abigail Busch Reisinger[22] 2004
Auchinreoch Perthshire Andrew Bell 2022
Ayton Berwickshire Richard Syred[23] 2011
Badenscoth Aberdeen 1823 Kevin Peng Xu 2019
Balcaskie Fife Major Timothy Strange
Baldoon Wigtownshire Christopher Busch Reisinger
Balfluig Aberdeenshire Mark Tennant of Balfluig
Ballencrieff East Lothian Moray James Nairn 2011
Ballencrieff West Lothian Junaid Abbas Bhatti
Ballindalloch Banffshire Clare Russell, Lady of Ballindalloch
Ballumbie Angus Robert Williamson of Ballumbie 1997
Balmachreuchie Perthshire 14th century Dr Timothy Spaulding 2011
Balmain Angus 1475 22nd Earl of Rothes 2005
Balmore (also known as Dalmore) Dunbartonshire 1478 Leo Adriano Silighini 2015
Balquhain Aberdeenshire Nelson Lee Len Ying 1995
Balquidder Stirlingshire Susan Livingston
Balvaird Perthshire 1624 Brady Brim-DeForest[24] 2017
Balvenie Banffshire Jeremy Nicholson of Balvenie 2009
Banchory Kincardineshire Kenneth Lumsden of Banchory
Bannockburn Stirlingshire Early 14th century Hope Vere Anderson of Bannockburn 2016
Barnbarroch James Vans of Barnbarroch
Barnis Forbes Aberdeenshire Daphne Romy, Lady of Barnis Forbes
Barnton Edinburgh Professor Markus Frank 2016
Barra Invernessshire Roderick MacNeil of Barra 2010
Bathgate West Lothian Paul Clarke 2023
Bearcrofts Stirling 1697 Charles A. Cree 2011
Belton East Lothian Before 1468 Ian Graham Rennie 2002
Bedrule Berwickshire Wallace Turnbull of Bedrule 2015
Biggar Lanarkshire Charles Ross of Biggar
Benholm Kincardine Roderick Strachan of Benholm
Blackburn Professor Ranjit Chandra
Blackford Perthshire Richard Welkowitz 1999
Blackhall Renfrewshire 1395 Robert Gillespie OBE 2002
Blair Alfred Glenn of Blair 1997
Blairbuis Timothy Busch Reisinger
Bognie, Mountblairy & Frendraught Banffshire Alexander Morison of Bognie
Bombie Kirkcudbrightshire Professor Barrie Pettman
Botile (Buittle) Kirkcudbrightshire 1315 James de Balliol-Cavendish of Buittle 2020
Braemar Royal Deeside 10th century John Sullivan of Braemar 2004
Brechin Forfarshire
Brigton Angus 1761 Marion Douglas, Lady of Brigton 1938
Buchan Forest Kirkcudbrightshire Timothy Busch Reisinger
Buncle and Preston Berwickshire Olivier Fuchs
Buquhollie & Freswick Caithness Ivor John Spencer-Thomas of Buquhollie & Freswick
Busbye Wigtownshire Early 16th century
Byres East Lothian 1366 Paul Kayley of Byres, Baron of Byres 2003
Calder West Lothian 14th century James, 15th Lord Torphichen 1975
Cambusnethan Lanarkshire 1315 Terence Alvis of Lee 1988
Carmichael Lanarkshire Richard Carmichael
Carnoustie Angus James Langan of Carnoustie
Carnysmul Carnysmule Carnymul Carnesmole Carnysmolle (Kirkinner) Wigtownshire 1372
Carstairs Lanarkshire Christopher Busch Reisinger
Cartsburn Renfrewshire 1669 Dr. Pier Felice degli Uberti 2010
Castlehill Inverness 1411 Simon Frasier, Lord Lovat 2018
Castle Stewart 1638 Charles Edward Stewart of Calcruchie 2020
Cavers, Scotland Roxburgh 16th century Prof. Andre Douglas Nathaniel-Rock 2004
Chirnside Berwickshire
Clackmannan Clackmannanshire 1334
Clary Hope Reisinger Cobera
Cleghorn Lanarkshire Andrew Macmillan of Cleghorn
Clerkington Haddington 1369–1406[25] George Everly
Closeburn Dumfriesshire Luis Kirkpatrick
Clugstoun Clugistoun Wigtownshire Before 1471
Cluny Aberdeenshire Cosmo Linzee Gordon of Cluny 2010
Cluny Fife Stuart Crane of Cluny 1997
Cockburn Berwickshire 14th century Olivier Fuchs 2008
Cockenzie Robert Garrison of Cockenzie
Coigach[26] Wester Ross 1511 Christopher Devonshire-Ellis 2011
Coldingham[27] Berwickshire Dr Peter Leando 2012
Coldingknows (see Cowdenknowes) Roxburgh 1634 Mark Harden of Coldingknows
Coll-Earn & Elphinstone Stirlingshire Bailey McCune 1988
Colstoun East Lothian Ludovic Broun-Lindsay
Corrachree Aberdeenshire Alexander Barlas of Corrachree
Corsewall Timothy Busch Reisinger
Cowdenknowes [1] Roxburgh 1634 Mark Harden of Cowdenknowes 2002
Cowie Aberdeenshire
Cowie Stirlingshire 12th century Professor Alan Dennis 2020
Coxton Morayshire 1618
Craichlaw Crachlew Crauchlew Crachlow Craichlew Craichlo Wigtownshire Before 1459
Craighall Fife Roger Alexander Lindsay
Craigie Angus (Forfar) 1666 Rabbi Robert Thomas 2011
Craigievar Aberdeenshire Sir John Alexander Forbes
Craigmillar Edinburgh 1511 Captain Brian Lawrence Williamson
Cranshaws Borders Mr Paul Anderson 2016
Craufurdland Ayrshire C12th Simon Houison Craufurd,29th Laird
Crawford Fife
Crichton Midlothian Henry Burn-Callander
Crimond Aberdeenshire Raymond Carnegie of Crimond
Cromar Aberdeenshire
Cromarty Cromartyshire John Nightingale of Cromarty
Crommey Banffshire Michael Innes 1978
Cruggleton Crigitoun Wigtownshire Before 1325
Culbin Morayshire William Busch Reisinger
Culcreuch Stirlingshire Before 1472 Hercules William Michael Bullough 2023
Cumbernauld Lanarkshire 1314 Dr. Roland Ladislaus Zettel 2014
Cushnie Aberdeenshire Alan Robertson of Cushnie 2004
Dairsie Fife Christopher Ruffle of Dairsie
Dalziel Lanarkshire
Danira and Comrie
Delvine Perthshire 15th century Dr Lars J C Lindberg 2008
Denboig Fife 1657 Kenneth MacLean of Denboig
Denny Stirlingshire 16th century Alessandro Pompili 2011
Dinnet Aberdeenshire J. M. Marcus Humphrey
Dirleton East Lothian 1220 Camilo Agasim-Pereira of Fulwood & Dirleton 2000
Dolphinstoun East Lothian Before 1700 Dr Julian Wills 2000
Drum Kincardineshire 1323 Alexander Irvine of Drum[28][29] 2019
Drylaw Edinburgh The Rt Hon Sir Douglas Middleton, KBE 2022
Duart & Morvern Argyll 1631 Sir Lachlan MacLean 1990
Dudhope Angus 1542
Dun Angus 1382 National Trust for Scotland 1980
Dunconnel Argyll 1400 Sir Charles MacLean
Duncrub Perthshire Douglas Smith of Duncrub
Dunure Ayrshire Brendan Clouston of Dunure 1997
Earlshall Fife
Echlin Edinburgh Rainer Kensy 2002
Edingight Banffshire John Innes of Edingight
Elie & St Monans Fife Mans Nicklas Lidgren 2019
Entwistle Lshire 1212 Andrew Sharples 2021
Esslemont Aberdeenshire Charles Wolrige-Gordon 1976
Eyemouth Berwickshire John Churchill of Eyemouth 1682
Fairholm & Kirkton Lanarkshire James Stevenson-Hamilton
Fetternear Aberdeenshire Martin Thacker of Fetternear 2001
Fingalton Renfrewshire 1663 James Hawley of Fingalton 2017
Finlaystone Maxwell Renfrewshire Nicholas Frederic Papanicolaou
Finzean Kincardineshire Donald Farquharson of Finzean
Fithie Forfarshire
Fordell Fife 1511
Freuch Wigtownshire 1559
Fulwood Renfrewshire 1314 Camilo Agasim-Pereira of Fulwood & Dirleton 1999
Gala Selkirkshire John Scott of Gala
Garioch Aberdeenshire 12th century George David Menking 2012
Garlies Kirkcudbrightshire 1263 Timothy Busch Reisinger
Garrallan Ayrshire John Boswell of Garrallan
Garthland Wigtownshire Before 1637
Gartly Aberdeenshire David James of Gartley
Gartmore Stirling William Graham of Gartmore 1996
Giffen Ayrshire 1371 Ryan Montgomery 1987
Glasserton Wigtownshire 1542
Glencammon Timothy Busch Reisinger
Glencoe Argyll Forde
Glenfaier Aberdeenshire Neil Ian Youngs 2022
Glengarnock Ayrshire Robert MacGregor of Glengarnock
Glenluce Wigtownshire Before 1628
Gogar Midlothian Godfrey Devlin of Gogar
Gourdie Perthshire George Cox of Gourdie
Gourock Renfrewshire Claire Darroch-Thompson, Lady of Gourock 2011
Gordon Easter or Gordoun Berwickshire 1150 Morange Michel
Grandhome Aberdeenshire David Paton of Grandholme
Grantully Perthshire Henry Fothringham
Greenlaw Berwickshire 1451 Andrew Walter Hepburne-Scott, 11th Lord Polwarth 2005
Greenan Ayrshire Hope Reisinger Cobera
Greenock Renfrewshire Harry Sandberg of Greenock[30]
Greenock and Blackhall Renfrewshire Sir Ludovic Houston Shaw Stewart, 12th Baronet[citation needed] [NB not Baron of G and B]
Grougar Ayrshire 1321 David McLean of Grougar
Hailes East Lothian 1343 S.A. Malin of Hailes[31] 2008
Haliburton and Lambden Berwickshire 2023
Hallrule Roxburghshire Olivier Fuchs
Hallyards Edinburgh
Halydean Roxburghshire 1128 Taylor Moffitt of Halydean 2006
Hartsyde Lanarckshire 1345 Jea-Guy Philip Boisserolles de Saint-Julien
Herbertshire Stirlingshire 1523 John W T Moffat 2018
Holmains Dumfriesshire 1542
Horsbrugh Peeblesshire Michael Chenery of Horsbrugh 1995
Houston Renfrewshire Before 1296 Johnny Sei Hoe Hon 2016
Inchdrewer Banffshire Olga Roh 2014
Inche Wigtownshire Before 1528
Innermessan or Invermessan Wigtownshire Before 1566
Innerwick East Lothian Before 1600 Brooke Owen Thomas of Innerwick
Inneryne Argyllshire Ronald Busch Reisinger 1998
Innes Morayshire James Mitchell of Innes 2004
Jedburgh Forest Roxburghshire 1602 Richard Miller of Jedburgh Forest 2010
Kellie Fife 1619 James Thorne Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar and 16th Earl of Kellie, Baron Erskine of Alloa Tower 1993
Kelly Aberdeenshire Bruce Kneller, Baron of Kelly 2004
Kemnay Aberdeenshire Susan Burnett, Lady of Kemnay 1978
Kilbride Lanarkshire
Kilcoy Ross-shire 16th century Mark David Menking 2012
Kilmarnock Ayrshire 1316 David Ayre
Kilmichael Argyll 1541 Brooke Owen-Thomas of Kilmichael
Kilmun Argyll Brooke Owen-Thomas of Kilmun
Kilpunt West Lothian Morag Pauline Cadzow
Kilravock Morayshire 1293 David Rose, 26th Baron, Chief of Clan Rose
Kinblathmond Forfarshire
Kincaid Heather Kincaid, Lady of Kincaid
Kincraig Fife James Gourlay of Kincraig
(King Edward)
Kinghilt Kinhilt Kenhilt Kilhilt Wigtownshire Before 1632
Kinnaber Forfarshire
Kinnairdy Banffshire Colin Innes of Kinnairdy 1990
Kinnear Michael Pilette of Kinnear
Kinnell Forfarshire
Kippenross Stirlingshire Susan Stirling-Aird, Lady of Kippenross
Kirkbuddo Forfarshire 1463 Jean-Yves de Sainte-Croix de La Sabliere 2011
Kirkdale Wigtownshire Ramsey Hannay of Kirkdale
Kirkgunzeon Kirkcudbrightshire
Kirkintilloch East Dunbartonshire 1184
Kirkliston West Lothian 1618 Andor László Oleg Vilmos v. Jaross 2002
Kirriemuir Angus 1390 Gerhard Anderson 2014
Kirknewton Midlothian Diana Hargreaves, Lady of Kirknewton 1992
Krawfort Lanarkshire 1576
Lag Dumfriesshire 1685 Margaret Hamilton, Lady of Lag 2004
Lambden (also known as Hassington) Berwickshire Col (Rt'd) Lance Miller 2016
Lamberton, Berwick Berwickshire Before 1236[32]
Largo Fife Timothy Wood of Largo 2011
Lathallan Fife Jean Spens of Lathallan 1995
Lee Lanarkshire 1272 Addison McElroy Fischer 2004
Lenzie East Dunbartonshire 1170
Lescure Ross McPherson-Smith
Leslie Aberdeenshire John Andrea 2019
Lesmahagow Lanarkshire
Leswalt (now Lochnaw) Wigtownshire Before 1426 Dr Gordon Prestoungrange 2004
Lethendy Perthshire Charles Gairdner of Lethendy
Lethington East Lothian Before 1166
Leys Aberdeenshire James Burnett of Leys
Liberton (or Over Liberton) Midlothian Olivier Fuchs 2009
Little Pert Forfarshire
Lochfergus Albert Gazeley of Lochfergus
The Superiority of the Lands of Lochlands Aberdeenshire
Loch Mullion Perthshire Before 1700 William Anderson of Loch Mullion 2000
Lochnaw (see Leswalt) Wigtownshire 1699 Dr Gordon Prestoungrange 2004
Lochrounell Wigtownshire Before 1630
Logany Kincardineshire Before 1576 Hunter Prater 2000
Logie/Lexyn Forfarshire
Logiealmond Perthshire Sheila May Flavell CBE 2019
Loncastell Wigtownshire Before 1551
Loudoun Ayrshire Ronald Glen Schneller 2017
Lour Forfarshire 1654 Bartholomew Smith 2010
Lundie Angus 1489 Craig Ward 2017
Marchmont Berwickshire Roland Eugen Staehli 1996
MacDonald Skye Godfrey Bosville-Macdonald
MacDougall Argyll 1660 George Dougall of MacDougall 2006
MacDuff Fife 1039 Eric Cotton Dexter of MacDuff 2021
Martyn-Kennedy alias Frethrid Wigtownshire Before 1541
Mearns Renfrewshire 12th century David Thorpe of Mearns 2002
Melfort Argyll 1360s Hugh Campbell-Gibson
Melgund Forfarshire
Menie Aberdeenshire 1317 Michael Woodley of Menie 1995
Mertoun Wigtownshire 1504
Midmar Aberdeenshire Richard Wharton of Midmar
Miltonhaven (formerly Lauriston) Kincardineshire 1695 Dorothy Newlands of Lauriston 2017
Mochrum Wigtownshire Before 1472
Montgomeriestoun Wigtownshire Before 1636 1987
Mordington Berwickshire 1124–53 Graham Senior-Milne 1998
Mouswald Dumfriesshire 1452
Moy Argyll Lorne MacLaine of Moy
Mugdock Stirlingshire 1458 Luciano Francesco Silighini Garagnani Lambertini 2022
Muirton Morayshire 1532 Dr Richard Culbert 2019
Mullion Perthshire 1446 Faith Seale QC 2019
Mureth Wigtownshire Before 1514
Myrton Wigtownshire Before 1470 Professor Mark Watson-Gandy
Newton Stirlingshire 1685 Philip Pickering of Newton 2011
Old Montrose Forfarshire
Ormiston East Lothian 1637 Brian Parsons of Ormiston 2003
Over Cowal Argyll Godfrey Devlin of Gogar
Panbride Forfarshire
Panmure Forfarshire
Park Aberdeenshire 1563
Peaston (or Paistoun) East Lothian Robert Jackson of Paistoun 2003
Penicuik Midlothian Sir John Dutton Clerk
Pentland Midlothian 1316 Lt Cmdr Christopher Saint Victor de Pinho 2018
Phantelane Argyll 1436 Capt. David N. B. McCorquodale 2010
Pitcaple Aberdeenshire Christopher Burges-Lumsden
Pitcruivie Fife Douglas Wagland of Pitcruivie 1996
Pitmilly Fife Peter Gybbon-Monypenny 1987
Pittenweem Fife 1592[33] Claes Zangenberg[34] 2011
Plean Stirlingshire George Way 1985
Plenderleith Roxburghshire 1306 Clifford Dewey Michael Paul Harmon II 2007
Portlethen Kincardineshire Maurice Taylor of Portlethen
Portrie Wigtownshire Before 1636
Preston and Prestonpans East Lothian 1460 Robert McLean of Preston & Prestonpans
Prestoungrange East Lothian 1189 Mathew Wills of Prestoungrange 2004
Primside and House Site Roxburghshire
Quhithorne or Whithorn Wigtownshire Before 1569
Rachane Argyllshire Michael Aquino
Ramshead Ayrshire 1371 Ryan Montgomery 1987
Rannoch Perthshire 1502
Rattray Perthshire Philip Cumyn of Rattray
Ravenstone Wigtownshire Frank Renwick of Ravenstone 1983
Remistoun Wigtownshire Before 1540
Renfrew Renfrewshire 1398 HRH The Duke of Rothesay 1952
Rescobie Forfarshire
Restalrig Edinburgh
Robertland Ayrshire 1539 Brian Parsons of Robertland 2005
Roberton Lanarkshire
Rossie Fife John Elephant of Rossie
Ruchlaw East Lothian
Rusco Kirkcudbrightshire Robert Carson of Rusco
Saint Monance / Monans Fife 1596 Dr Robert Parviz Pirooz of Saint Monance QC 2014
Sauchie Stirlingshire 1320 Niklas Wallenberg 2015[35]
Saulsait Saulset Wigtownshire Before 1629
Seybeggis or Seabegs Stirlingshire 15th century Dr. George M. Burden 2014
Seggieden Perthshire Consul a.h. Dr. Trond U. Hegle
Smeaton Hepburn East Lothian George Gray of Smeaton Hepburn
Stane Ayrshire 1371 Ryan Montgomery 1987
Stobo Peeblesshire 1577 William Jolly
Stonehaven Aberdeenshire Fraser Angus Oliver Mearns of Stonehaven
Stonehouse Lanarkshire
Stoneywood Aberdeenshire Charles Mack of Stoneywood 2000
Strathdee Aberdeenshire 1563
Strathlachlan Argyll Euan MacLachlan of Strathlachlan
Strichen Aberdeenshire 1515 Massimo Fraser of Strichen 2000
Struan Perthshire Alexander Robertson 1983
Swinton Berwickshire 1098 James Swinton
Symington South Ayrshire 1329 Edward Lockhart Bennett of Symington 2010
Teallach Dennistoun Teall of Teallach
Thainstone Aberdeenshire 1488 David Valentine 2017
Thankerton Lanarkshire
Torboll Sutherland 1360 Alistair Charles St Clair Sutherland, 25th Earl of Sutherland 2019
Tranent East Lothian Hugh, 19th Earl of Eglinton, 7th Earl of Winton
Traquair Peeblesshire 1491 Catherine Maxwell-Stuart, 21st Lady of Traquair
Trearne Ayrshire 1371 Ryan Montgomery 1987
Trent Charles A. Cogdill 2002
Troup Banffshire
Tulloch Ross and Cromarty 1542 David Willien
Turin Forfarshire
Twynehame Kirkcudbrightshire Delyse Sharpe of Twynehame 1992
Urquhart Inverness-shire 1230
Urquhart Morayshire 1587 Robert A. Cromartie 2004
Wells Roxburghshire Bryce Lee West 2009
Westside Gordon Kerr
Wigtoun Lanarkshire 1606 Dr. Roland Ladislaus Zettel 2014
Winchburgh West Lothian 15th century Michael Chou-Leng Looi Lyons 2022[36][37]
Wiston Lanarkshire
Wormiston Fife Michael Spens 1970
Yair Selkirk 1806 Li Li 2019
Yeochrie Aberdeenshire Richard Stuart of Yeochrie

[38][failed verification][39]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b Alexander Grant, "Franchises North of the Border: Baronies and Regalities in Medieval Scotland", Chapter 9, Michael Prestwich. ed., Liberties and Identities in Medieval Britain and Ireland (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, 2008)
  2. ^ John Chisholm, Green's Encyclopaedia of the Law of Scotland, Volume 2 (1896), p.33.
  3. ^ John Horne Stevenson, Encyclopaedia of the Laws of Scotland, Volume 2 (1927).
  4. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Reid, Professor Kenneth (2003). The Abolition of Feudal Tenure in Scotland. Edinburgh: Tottel.
  6. ^ "Section 63". Abolition of Feudal Tenure, etc (Scotland) Act 2000.
  7. ^ "Appendix A12: See Explanatory Notes on Clause 57 Subsection (2)". Report on Abolition of Feudal System. Archived from the original on 19 November 2004.
  8. ^ Re Notarial Instrument of the Earl of Galloway; Disposition; Warrant for Letters Patent, No.s 103, 104, 105, Palmyra Island Land Recordation, United States District Court for the District of Hawaii (D.C. Hawaii-Palmyra I. 2017).
  9. ^ a b Livingston of the Bachuil, yr., Niall (2006). The MacLeas or Livingstones and their Allodial Barony of the Bachuil (PDF). Baronage Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  10. ^ "Age-old Scots property rights end". BBC News. 28 November 2004.
  11. ^ "Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000". Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  12. ^ Graham Senior-Milne, 41st Baron of Mordington (27 June 2005). "Scottish feudal baronies (feudal barons, feudal baron) including the oath of a knight". Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ a b "Titles and Usages". Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  14. ^ "Scottish Feudal Baronies, Scottish and Irish Titles, Titles, Forms Of Address | Debrett's". Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Scottish feudal baronies (feudal barons, feudal baron) including the oath of a knight". Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  16. ^ "Male Barons". Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  17. ^ An Observation is a printed notation in a passport to convey important information about the passport holder to officials. "Guidance - Observations in Passports".
  18. ^ "Titles included in passports" (PDF). UK government website. p. 3.
  19. ^ "How to wear the kilt | Scottish Tartans Authority". Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  20. ^ "Hereditary offices". Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  21. ^ "Discover Ardgrain". 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
  22. ^ "Decision of Lord Lyon King of Arms "Skye, 8 October 2009"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  23. ^ "Outer House allows proof before answer in Berwickshire castle sale dispute". July 2020.
  24. ^ Brady Brim-DeForest of Balvaird Castle
  25. ^ RSG.I.App.2.#1768
  26. ^ "The Barony of Coigach". The Barony of Coigach. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  27. ^ "The Lordship and Barony of Coldingham". 14 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  28. ^ "David Irvine of Drum". The Times. 21 March 2019. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  29. ^ "Obituary: David Irvine of Drum, chief who helped end a centuries-old clan feud". 23 April 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  30. ^ Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition.
  31. ^ Scottish Barony Register and Burke's Peerage
  32. ^ People of Medieval Scotland, Document 3/350/24
  33. ^ "Records of the Parliaments of Scotland".
  34. ^ Scottish Barony Register and Letter Patent by the Lord Lyon, see
  35. ^ "Ett nytt skottskt-svenskt vapen" (PDF). Societas Heraldica Scandinavia. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  36. ^ "Scottish Barony Register". 19 October 2022.
  37. ^ "Baronage – Registry of Scots Nobility". Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  38. ^ Burke's Peerage and Gentry. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  39. ^ "Scottish feudal baronies (feudal barons, feudal baron) including the oath of a knight". Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  40. ^ Hamilton, Brian (May 2006). "A petition for Arms with Baronial Additaments" (PDF). The Amorial Register Newsletter. 1 (Special ed.). Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  41. ^ "Report on Abolition of the Feudal System :Contents". Archived from the original on 12 January 2005.

Further reading[edit]