Bat Out of Hell
|Bat Out of Hell|
|Studio album by Meat Loaf|
|Released||October 21, 1977|
|Label||Cleveland International / Epic|
|Meat Loaf chronology|
|Singles from Bat Out of Hell|
Bat Out of Hell is the second studio album and the major-label debut by American rock singer Meat Loaf, as well as being his first collaboration with composer Jim Steinman and producer Todd Rundgren, released on October 21, 1977 on Cleveland International/Epic Records. It is one of the best-selling albums of all time, having sold over 43 million copies worldwide. Rolling Stone Magazine ranked it at number 343 on its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time in 2003.
Its musical style is influenced by Steinman's appreciation of Richard Wagner, Phil Spector, Bruce Springsteen and The Who. Bat Out of Hell has been certified 14 times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. As of May 2015, it has spent 485 weeks in the UK Charts. The album went on to become one of the most influential and iconic albums of all time and its songs have remained classic rock staples.
This album's title also became the title for two more Meat Loaf albums. Steinman produced the album Bat Out of Hell II: Back into Hell (1993). Desmond Child produced the album Bat Out of Hell III: The Monster Is Loose (2006).
A musical based on the album, staged by Jay Scheib, opened at the Manchester Opera House on 17 February 2017 before transferring to the London Coliseum and Toronto, Canada's Ed Mirvish Theatre in late 2017.
The album developed from a musical, Neverland, a futuristic rock version of Peter Pan, which Steinman wrote for a workshop in 1974, and performed at the Kennedy Center Music Theatre Lab in 1977. Steinman and Meat Loaf, who were touring with the National Lampoon show, felt that three songs were "exceptional" and Steinman began to develop them as part of a seven-song set they wanted to record as an album. The three songs were "Bat Out of Hell", "Heaven Can Wait" and "The Formation of the Pack", which was later retitled "All Revved Up with No Place to Go".
Bat Out of Hell is often compared to the music of Bruce Springsteen, particularly the album Born to Run. Steinman says that he finds that "puzzling, musically", although they share influences; "Springsteen was more an inspiration than an influence." A BBC article added, "that Max Weinberg and Roy Bittan from Springsteen's E Street Band played on the album only helped reinforce the comparison."
Steinman and Meat Loaf had immense difficulty finding a record company willing to sign them. According to Meat Loaf's autobiography, the band spent most of 1975 writing and recording material, and two and a half years auditioning the record and being rejected. Manager David Sonenberg jokes that they were creating record companies just so they could be rejected. They performed the album live in 1976, with Steinman on piano, Meat Loaf singing, and sometimes Ellen Foley joining them for "Paradise". Steinman says that it was a "medley of the most brutal rejections you could imagine." Meat Loaf "almost cracked" when CBS executive Clive Davis rejected the project. The singer recounts the incident in his autobiography. Not only did Davis, according to Meat Loaf, say that "actors don't make records", the executive challenged Steinman's writing abilities and knowledge of rock music:
Do you know how to write a song? Do you know anything about writing? If you're going to write for records, it goes like this: A, B, C, B, C, C. I don't know what you're doing. You're doing A, D, F, G, B, D, C. You don't know how to write a song... Have you ever listened to pop music? Have you ever heard any rock-and-roll music... You should go downstairs when you leave here... and buy some rock-and-roll records.
Meat Loaf asserts "Jim, at the time, knew every record ever made. [He] is a walking rock encyclopedia." Although Steinman laughed off the insults, the singer screamed "Fuck you, Clive!" from the street up to his building.
However, Todd Rundgren found the album hilarious, thinking that it was a parody of Springsteen. The singer quotes him as saying: "I've got to do this album. It's just so out there." They told the producer that they had previously been signed to RCA. In one 1989 interview with Classic Rock magazine, Steinman labeled him "the only genuine genius I've ever worked with." In a 1989 interview with Redbeard for the In the Studio with Redbeard episode on the making of the album, Meat Loaf revealed that Jimmy Iovine and Andy Johns were potential candidates for producing Bat Out of Hell before being rejected by Meat and Steinman in favor of Rundgren, who Meat initially found cocky but grew to like.
Recording started in late 1975 in Bearsville Studios, Woodstock, New York. Roy Bittan and Max Weinberg, the pianist and drummer from Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band played on the album, in addition to members of Rundgren's group Utopia: Kasim Sulton, Roger Powell and John "Willie" Wilcox. Edgar Winter played the saxophone on "All Revved Up". Rundgren himself played guitar, including the "motorcycle solo" on "Bat Out of Hell". Both Steinman and Rundgren were influenced by Phil Spector and his "wall of sound". According to Meat Loaf, Rundgren put all the arrangements together because although "Jim could hear all the instruments" in his head, Steinman hummed rather than orchestrating.
When Rundgren discovered that the deal with RCA did not actually exist, Albert Grossman, who had been Bob Dylan's manager, offered to put it on his Bearsville label but needed more money. Rundgren had essentially paid for the album himself. Mo Ostin at Warner Bros. was impressed, but other senior people rejected them after they performed live. Steinman had offended them a few years earlier by auditioning with a song named "Who Needs the Young", which contains the lyric "Is there anyone left who can fuck? Screw 'em!"
Another E Street Band member, Steve Van Zandt, and Sonenberg arranged to contact Cleveland International Records, a subsidiary of Epic Records. After listening to the spoken word intro to "You Took the Words Right Out of My Mouth" ("Hot Summer Night"), founder Steve Popovich accepted the album for Cleveland.
Rundgren mixed the record in one night. However, the mixes were not suitable to the extent that Meat Loaf did not want "Paradise" on the album. Jimmy Iovine, who had mixed Springsteen's Born to Run, remixed some of the tracks. After several attempts by several people, John Jansen mixed the version of "Paradise" that is on the album. According to Meat Loaf, he, Jansen and Steinman mixed the title track.
Phil Rizzuto's baseball play-by-play call for "Paradise by the Dashboard Light" was recorded in 1976 at The Hit Factory in New York City by Rundgren, Meat Loaf and Steinman. As an Italian Catholic, Rizzuto publicly maintained he was unaware that his contribution would be equated with sex in the finished song. However, Meat Loaf asserts that Rizzuto only claimed ignorance to stifle some criticism from a priest and was fully aware of the context of what he was recording.
This sample features the beginning of the chorus.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Todd Rundgren acknowledges that Steinman was highly influenced by the "rural suburban teenage angst" of Bruce Springsteen. According to manager David Sonenberg, "Jim would always come up with these great titles and then he would write a song that would try to justify the greatness of the title."
The album tells the story of a young man who dies in a motorcycle crash while speeding and relives select moments from his life before his soul is taken to Hell. It opens with the title track "Bat Out of Hell", taken from Steinman's Neverland musical. It is the result of Steinman's desire to write the "most extreme crash song of all time." It features a boy who is riding so fast and ecstatically that he is unable to see an obstruction until it is "way too late". As the unnamed young man slowly dies, he thinks back to the first time he met his girlfriend ("You Took the Words Right Out of My Mouth"), opens with spoken word, performed by Steinman and Marcia McClain, that was also taken from the Neverland musical, as were the next two tracks.
As he dies, he reflects on wanting to see his love one more time ("Heaven Can Wait") and remember their love before he goes to heaven. the young man thinks more deeply into the beginning of his relationship with his unnamed lover and the first time he had sex with her ("All Revved Up and Nowhere to Go"):
You and me 'round about midnight
Someone's got to draw first blood [...]
Oooh I got to draw first blood.
Side Two opens with the young man's dying thoughts turning to his recent breakup with the unnamed lover ("Two Out of Three Ain't Bad"); the song was written quite late in the album's production, shortly before the album was released. The song documents the breakup of a relationship where despite the fact that the man wants and needs the woman, he will never love her; he tries to be positive and supportive, however, in emphasizing that wanting her and needing her are very positive things—i.e., "ain't bad"—which gives the song an ironic twist. A further twist is that the reason the man will never love the woman is because he already loves another woman, who broke up with him because she already loved another man. Rundgren identifies how the song was influenced by the Eagles, who were successful at the time. The producer also highlights the "underlying humor in the lyrics", citing the line "There ain't no Coupe de Ville hiding at the bottom of a Cracker Jack box." He says you could only "get away" with that lyric "in a Meat Loaf song".
The young man then begins to remember his first sexual encounter with his unnamed lover as a teenager, when he pressured her into having sex with him in his car ("Paradise by the Dashboard Light"); the song features a duet between Meat Loaf and Ellen Foley in which The Boy (the dying man's younger self) and his unnamed girlfriend in which The Boy tries to convince his girlfriend to submit to him, while the girl feebly attempts to reject his advances. They "make out" heavily in the middle instrumental section, described in metaphor in a baseball commentary by New York Yankees announcer Phil Rizzuto. Right before The Man is about to take her virginity, the girl makes him swear that he will love her, which he passionately agrees to; however, over time The Man grows sick of the relationship and ultimately commits suicide by crashing his car ("if I got to spend another minute with you I don't think that I can really survive.")
As the young man begins to accept his inevitable death ("For Crying Out Loud"), an angel appears to him and forces him to accept the fact that his girlfriend's seemingly "interfering behavior" was really her trying to save him; however, due to his selfish ways he was unable to appreciate the support she tried to give him and instead viewed his relationship with her as merely sexual ("And can't you see my faded Levi's bursting apart.") As he finally dies, he is taken before God, who condemns him for his selfish behavior and sends him to Hell.
Comparing the album to Steinman's late-1960s musical The Dream Engine, Classic Rock magazine says that Steinman's imagery is "revved up and testosterone-fueled. Songs like "Paradise by the Dashboard Light", "Two Out of Three Ain't Bad" and "For Crying Out Loud" echoed the textbook teenage view of sex and life: irrepressible physical urges and unrealistic romantic longing."
Steinman's songs for Bat Out of Hell are personal but not autobiographical:
I never thought of them as personal songs in terms of my own life but they were personality songs. They were all about my obsessions and images. None of them takes place in a normal world. They all take place in an extreme world. Very operatic ... they were all heightened. They don't take place in normal reality.
For example, citing the narrative of "Paradise", Rundgren jokes that he can't imagine Steinman being at a lakeside with the most beautiful girl in school, but he can imagine Steinman imagining it.
Steinman is credited with the album cover concept, which was illustrated by Richard Corben. The cover depicts a motorcycle, ridden by a long-haired man, bursting out of the ground in a graveyard. In the background, a large bat perches atop a mausoleum that towers above the rest of the tombstones. In 2001, Q magazine listed the cover as number 71 in its list of "The Hundred Best Record Covers of All Time."
Steinman had wanted equal billing with Meat Loaf on the album's title. He wanted it to be called "Jim Steinman presents..." or "Jim and Meat," or vice versa. For marketing reasons, the record company wished to make 'Meat Loaf' the recognizable name. As a compromise, the words "Songs by Jim Steinman" appear relatively prominently on the cover. The singer believes that this was probably the beginning of their "ambivalent relationship."
Near by the land of the Sciapodes there is a marsh, from the borders whereof the unwashed Socrates evokes the souls of men. Pisander came one day to see his soul, which he had left there when still alive. He offered a little victim, a camel, slit his throat and, following the example of Odysseus, stepped one pace backwards. Then that bat of a Chaerephon came up from hell to drink the camel's blood.
Steinman registered "Bat Out of Hell" as a trademark in 1995, and sought to prevent Meat Loaf from using the title. In 2006, however, the singer sought to cancel Steinman's trademark and use the title for Bat Out of Hell III: The Monster Is Loose.
Bat Out of Hell was released by Cleveland International on October 21, 1977. Cleveland International's parent label was Epic Records, where almost everyone hated it. Steve Popovich, the head of Cleveland International Records, was relentless in his efforts to get Epic and all of CBS Records and radio on board. In 1993, Steinman reflected that the album is "timeless in that it didn't fit into any trend. It's never been a part of what's going on. You could release that record at any time and it would be out of place."
Response to the album was slow. Steinman asserts that it was "underpromoted", having a reputation of being "damaged goods because it had been walked around to so many places." Due to the enthusiastic response to the music videos from the record, Australia and England were the first to develop interest. The BBC television programme The Old Grey Whistle Test aired a clip of the live band performing the nine-minute title track. According to Classic Rock, response was so overwhelming, that they screened it again the following week. They later invited the band to perform "Paradise" live. "As a result, in the UK Bat became an unfashionable, uncool, non-radio record that became a 'must-have' for everyone who heard it, whether they 'got' Steinman's unique perspective or not."
Meanwhile, in North America according to Billboard Magazine, Steve Popovich and his partners began promoting the album aggressively, first getting radio play in Omaha, Neb., Cleveland and New York. By year's end, the album had sold a respectable 140,000 copies by Popovich's account, but the promotion people at Epic were still unmoved. Popovich, in a letter to his former boss Alexenburg, complained, "Some of your guys have given up." But not in Canada. Graham Powers, CBS Canada’s Director of Marketing introduced himself to CHUM-FM’s new Program Director Warren Cosford. Cosford’s background was as the Production Manager of Radio Documentaries on The Beatles, Elvis Presley and the 64 hour Evolution of Rock which were in syndication throughout North America. Powers had heard that Warren was a fan of ‘Wall of Sound’ Production and suggested that he listen to Bat Out of Hell over the Christmas and New Years holiday. Cosford loved it. The first day after New Years he called a Music Meeting. Everyone agreed they should not only ‘add’ Bat Out of Hell….but put it in ‘Heavy Rotation’ for a week to gauge audience response. The Telephones lit up. As their Parent Company in New York had earlier turned the record down and were merely distributing it, CBS Canada were surprised, but jumped on board. Later, as Graham Powers said, “Tackling the Meatloaf campaign was different from handling most other CBS international acts in that there was no prior stateside success to refer to. The album was doing virtually nothing in the U.S. and subsequently had to be approached as a totally new project in Canada with a Marketing Campaign developed from scratch”. Publicity Manager Liz Braun added….. After Meatloaf had played at the El Mocambo where he caused a riot, all the press in town wanted to talk to him and did. Suddenly he had a hardcore following in Toronto and he was asked to perform at the CBS Convention in New Orleans. Meat Loaf ‘Live’ at The El Mocambo was immediately pressed to disc and distributed to stations throughout North America.
Still, the album was not an immediate hit in the U.S.; it was more of a growing one. Bat Out of Hell still sells about 200,000 copies per year and has sold an estimated 43 million copies worldwide, including 14 million in the United States and over 1.7 million albums in Australia, where it is the second best-selling album in the country behind John Farnham's Whispering Jack (1.73 million copies), and even re-entered the ARIA Charts in June 2007, at #34. It stayed on the United Kingdom charts for 485 weeks, a feat surpassed only by the 522 weeks of Fleetwood Mac's Rumours. In 1989, Kerrang! magazine listed the album at No. 38 among the "100 Greatest Heavy Metal Albums of All Time". In 2003, the album was ranked number 343 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2005, Bat Out of Hell was ranked number 301 in Rock Hard magazine's book of The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time. In 2006 it was voted number nine in a poll conducted by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation to discover Australia's most popular album. In November 2007, Meat Loaf was awarded the Classic Album award in Classic Rock's Classic Rock Roll Of Honour. The album was also included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.
Reviews were initially mixed, but have since become much more positive. At first Rolling Stone called the songs "swell, but... entirely mannered and derivative" and noted that the arrangements "aren't bad", although the musicians were commended. The review ended with the assertion that the "principals have some growing to do." Modern reviews are more positive, however. Allmusic declares "this is Grand Guignol pop—epic, gothic, operatic, and silly, and it's appealing because of all of this." They acknowledge that Steinman is "a composer without peer, simply because nobody else wanted to make mini-epics like this." Rundgren's production is applauded, as is the wit in the music and lyrics. "It may elevate adolescent passion to operatic dimensions, and that's certainly silly, but it's hard not to marvel at the skill behind this grandly silly, irresistible album."
Also, Meat Loaf revealed on In the Studio with Redbeard that he was not well received early on in the tour when he was opening for Cheap Trick. In the same interview, Meat Loaf revealed that when he played at a CBS Records convention in 1978, record executives and superstar Billy Joel (who was in the audience) gave Meat Loaf a standing ovation for his performance after a haunting rendition of the closing track "For Crying Out Loud", and credits this as the turning point in the album's success in the United States.
Dispute between Cleveland International and Sony Records
In 1995, Cleveland International sued Sony for unpaid royalties from sales of the album. Under the terms of the 1998 settlement agreement ending the suit, Sony agreed to include the Cleveland International logo on all future releases of the album. In 2002, Steve Popovich, founder of Cleveland International and the owner of the rights to its name, sued Sony, alleging that Sony had failed to include the Cleveland International logo on some copies of the album and on some compilations Sony released that included songs from the album. On May 31, 2005, the federal district court in Cleveland, Ohio, entered judgment against Sony pursuant to a jury verdict in favor of Popovich and awarded Popovich more than US$5,000,000 in damages for Sony's breach of the 1998 settlement agreement. On November 21, 2007, the federal appellate court in Cincinnati, Ohio, affirmed the judgment of the trial court.
All tracks written by Jim Steinman.
|1.||"Bat Out of Hell"||9:48|
|2.||"You Took the Words Right Out of My Mouth (Hot Summer Night)" (intro spoken by Steinman and Marcia McClain)||5:04|
|3.||"Heaven Can Wait"||4:38|
|4.||"All Revved Up with No Place to Go"||4:19|
|5.||"Two Out of Three Ain't Bad"||5:23|
|6.||"Paradise by the Dashboard Light" (duet with Ellen Foley) (I. Paradise / II. Let Me Sleep On It / III. Praying for the End of Time)||8:28|
|7.||"For Crying Out Loud"||8:45|
The album also exists in numerous other formats and re-releases, including a Super Audio CD version, a 25th anniversary edition (2001 – Epic/Legacy #62171) with two bonus tracks ("Great Boléros of Fire (live intro)" [3:54] and "Bat Out of Hell (live)" [11:10], and a Bat Out of Hell: Re-Vamped release (1991) featuring the bonus song "Dead Ringer for Love".
A new hybrid SACD version was released in late 2016 by Analog Spark, an audiophile imprint of the Razor & Tie label, mastered from the original tapes by Ryan Smith at Sterling Sound. (Early copies erroneously name Kevin Gray as the mastering engineer; Analog Spark issued a statement that this intended arrangement did not happen because of a "miscommunication.")
- Track numbers indicate that a musician only plays the instrument so noted on that specific track.
- Kenneth Ascher – string arrangements (3, 5)
- Steve Margoshes – orchestra arrangement (7)
- Meat Loaf – lead vocals, backing vocals (6), percussion (2)
- Todd Rundgren – guitar (1, 2, 4–6), percussion (1, 2), keyboards (1), backing vocals (1–3, 5, 6)
- Kasim Sulton – bass guitar (1, 2, 4–7), backing vocals (1)
- Roy Bittan – piano, keyboards (1-2, 6)
- Steve Margoshes – piano (7)
- Cheryl Hardwick – piano (7)
- Jim Steinman – keyboards (1, 2, 6), percussion (1, 2), "lascivious effects" (6), dialogue intro (2)
- Roger Powell – synthesizer (1, 2, 5, 6)
- Edgar Winter – saxophone (2, 4, 6)
- Max Weinberg – drums (1, 2, 6)
- John "Willie" Wilcox – drums (4, 5, 7)
- Marcia McClain – dialogue intro (2)
- Phil "Scooter" Rizzuto – play-by-play (6)
- Ellen Foley – featured vocal (6), backing vocals (1, 2, 4, 6)
- Rory Dodd – backing vocals (all except 4)
- Gene Orloff – concert master (7)
- Members of New York Philharmonic and Philadelphia Orchestra – orchestra (7)
|Australian Albums (Kent Music Report)||1|
|Dutch Albums (MegaCharts)||1|
|German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)||11|
|New Zealand Albums (RMNZ)||1|
|Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan)||13|
|UK Albums (OCC)||9|
|US Billboard 200||14|
|Australia (ARIA)||25× Platinum||1,750,000^|
|Canada (Music Canada)||2× Diamond||2,000,000^|
|Denmark (IFPI Denmark)||2× Platinum||40,000^|
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||17× Platinum||255,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||10× Platinum||3,282,300|
|United States (RIAA)||14× Platinum||14,000,000^|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- Whitaker, Sterling (October 21, 2012). "35 Years Ago: Meat Loaf's 'Bat Out of Hell' Released". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- "RIAA Database, Bat Out of Hell". Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Meat Loaf: In and Out of Hell". BBC. July 15, 2015.
- "BAT OUT OF HELL flies into London". London Box Office. 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
- "Neverland". jimsteinman.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "The Power Of Rock 'n Roll". Gallery magazine. May 1978. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
- Hotten, Jon. "Bat Out Of Hell – The Story Behind The Album (page 2)". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- "Sold on Song Top 100: Bat Out Of Hell". BBC Radio 2. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
- Loaf, Meat; David Dalton (2000). To Hell and Back: An Autobiography. London: Virgin Publishing. pp. 118–9. ISBN 0-7535-0443-X.
- David Sonenberg (1999). Classic Albums: Meat Loaf Bat Out of Hell (DVD). Image Entertainment. Dir: Bob Smeaton
- Jim Steinman (1999). Classic Albums: Meat Loaf Bat Out of Hell (DVD). Image Entertainment.
- Clive Davis, as recalled by Meat Loaf, in Meat Loaf/Dalton, pg. 117.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton, pg. 117.
- Dansby, Andrew (August 27, 2010). "In defense of: Bat Out of Hell". 29-95.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
I thought it was a parody of Bruce Springsteen. Oddly enough the world took it seriously. There’s this big, fat, operatic guy doing totally over the top, over-wrought, drawn-out songs. All this bombast. It was like Bruce Springsteen squared. I was just chuckling the whole time, and I’m still chuckling. I can’t believe the world took it seriously.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton pg 121–2.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton pg 123–4.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton pg 125–8.
- Hotten, Jon. "Bat Out Of Hell – The Story Behind The Album (page 3)". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- Pearlman, Jeff (August 29, 2007). "Phil and Meat Loaf will always have "Paradise"". ESPN. Retrieved 2009-08-28.
- Todd Rundgren (1999). Classic Albums: Meat Loaf Bat Out of Hell (DVD). Image Entertainment.
- "NEVERLAND by Jim Steinman". jimsteinman.com. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
- O'Connor, Mickey (2001-03-19). "London's Q magazine picked these; what are yours?". ew.com. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- Meat Loaf/Dalton, pp. 124–5
- "The four meanings of an Arabic word". Language Log. 2006-06-19. Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- Butler, Susan (2006-06-05). "Meat Loaf Sues Over 'Bat Out Of Hell'". Billboard. Archived from the original on 2008-04-26. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
- "MEAT LOAF BATTLES FOR BAT OUT OF HELL TRADEMARK". contactmusic.com. 2006-06-06. Retrieved 2006-11-14.
- AllMusic Review
- Marsh, Dave (1977-12-15). "Meat Loaf". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 2007-10-02. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
- Robert Christgau Review
- Jim Steinman (1993). Back Into Hell: Meat Loaf & Jim Steinman interview (DVD). Virgin Records.
- "Label Blew Meat Loaf's biggest". Jim Steinman. 2007-02-28. Archived from the original on 22 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-06.
- "Meatloaf sues former collaborator Steinman over Bat Out of Hell". Reuters/VNU. 2006-06-08. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "RIAA Top 100 Albums". riaa.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "Sydney Herald: Music Australia loved". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-07-12. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- Dale, David (2013-01-10). "THE TRIBAL MIND ARCHIVE 2013: The music Australia loved". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- White, Dave. "12 Days of Christmas Past Classic Rock Holiday History". About.com:Classic Rock. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- Betts, Graham (2005). Complete UK Hit Albums 1956–2005. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-720532-5.
- Hotten, Jon (21 January 1989). "Meat Loaf 'Bat Out of Hell'". Kerrang!. 222. London, UK: Spotlight Publications Ltd.
- "The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. 2003-11-18. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- [...], Rock Hard (Hrsg.). [Red.: Michael Rensen. Mitarb.: Götz Kühnemund] (2005). Best of Rock & Metal die 500 stärksten Scheiben aller Zeiten. Königswinter: Heel. p. 91. ISBN 3-89880-517-4.
- "My Favourite Album Top 100". Abc.com.au. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- Barton, Geoff (2007-11-06). "Oh, what a night!". Classic Rock. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- Robert Dimery; Michael Lydon (7 February 2006). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 0-7893-1371-5.
- Marsh, Dave (1977-12-15). "Album Reviews: Meat Loaf, Bat Out Of Hell". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Bat Out of Hell". Allmusic. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "Sony sued in Meat Loaf logo row". BBC News. 2007-11-23. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-23.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, New South Wales: Australian Chart Book. p. 196. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Charts.org.nz – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Meat Loaf | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Meat Loaf Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2014 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- "Canadian album certifications – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". Music Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Meat Loaf; 'Bat Out of Hell')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts 1966-2006. Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-877443-00-8.
- "British album certifications – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". British Phonographic Industry. Enter Bat Out of Hell in the search field and then press Enter.
- Jones, Alan (16 September 2016). "Official Charts Analysis: Bastille top albums chart with Wild World". Music Week. Intent Media. Retrieved 16 September 2016. (Subscription required (. ))
- "American album certifications – Meat Loaf – Bat Out of Hell". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved June 30, 2012. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
Saturday Night Fever (soundtrack)
by Various artists
|Australian Kent Music Report number-one album
June 26 – August 13, 1978
Grease (soundtrack) by Various artists