Bawit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bawit
ⲡⲁⲩⲏⲧ
Village
Flag of Bawit
Flag
Bawit is located in Egypt
Bawit
Bawit
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 27°33.0′N 30°43.15′E / 27.5500°N 30.71917°E / 27.5500; 30.71917
Country  Egypt
Government
 • Type Asyut Governorate
Area
 • Total 0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2)
Population (2006)
 • Total 9,516
Time zone EET (UTC+2)


Fragment of a mural from Bawit
A representation of Christ

Bawit (French: Baouît, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲏⲧ[1]) is an archaeological site located 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Asyut, near the village of Dashlout, in Egypt. It covers an area of 40 hectares (99 acres), and houses a cemetery and the ruins of the Hermopolite Monastery of Apa Apollo founded by Saint Apollo in the late 4th century. The structures on this site are relatively well preserved, and demonstrate different aspects of a monastic complex of Middle Egypt.

History[edit]

The Apa Apolla monastery (Coptic: ⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲛⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲡⲟⲗⲗⲱ) is a Coptic monastery founded c. 385/390 and had about 500 monks.[2] The sixth and seventh centuries were a period of prosperity for this monastery, which then hosted a community of women, under the patronage of St. Rachel.[3] A fresco found at the monastery depicting St. Rachel dates to the sixth century.[4] After the Islamic invasion, the monastery declined, and was abandoned around the tenth century.

Excavation[edit]

In early 1901, a survey of the site and surrounding areas was made by Jean Clédat, who was based at the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology in Cairo. Continuing into 1902, Clédat was assisted by Émile Gaston Chassinat and Charles Palanque.[5] Clédat found hermitages he called "chapels" that contained Coptic art. His colleagues discovered two churches, today simply called North and South Church, with stone and wood carvings that were removed to the Coptic Museum in Cairo and the Musée du Louvre in Paris. Numerous sculptures and paintings were unearthed during the excavations.[6] The papyrologist Jean Maspero (1885–1915) resumed excavations in 1913, discovering a common room with several entrances. In 1976, then 1984 and 1985, the Supreme Council of Antiquities resumed excavations and added to the collections of the Coptic Museum. Since then, excavations have continued under various organizations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Trismegistos". www.trismegistos.org. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  2. ^ Badawy, Alexander (1978). Coptic art and archaeology: the art of the Christian Egyptians from the late antique to the Middle Ages. MIT Press. p. 500. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Mikhail, Magad S. A.; Moussa, Mark (30 April 2009). Christianity and monasticism in Wadi al-Natrun: essays from the 2002 international symposium of the Saint Mark Foundation and the Saint Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society. American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-977-416-260-2. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  4. ^ Melville, Gert; Müller, Anne (January 2012). Female 'vita Religiosa' Between Late Antiquity and the High Middle Ages: Structures, Developments and Spatial Contexts. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 41. ISBN 978-3-643-90124-8. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  5. ^ New York Public Library; Richard James Horatio Gottheil (1925). Ancient Egypt: sources of information in the New York public library. The New York public library. p. 5. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  6. ^ Gabra, Gawdat; Vivian, Tim (2002). Coptic Monasteries: Egypt's Monastic Art and Architecture. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 116–18. ISBN 978-977-424-691-3. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Jean Clédat, 1901, "Notes archéologiques et philologiques", Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire (BIFAO), no 1, p. 87-91
  • Jean Clédat, 1902, "Recherches sur le kôm de Baouît", Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (CRAIBL), no 30, p. 525-546
  • Jean Clédat, 1904, "Le monastère et la nécropole de Baouît", Mémoires de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire (MIFAO), no XII, 1 et 2
  • Jean Clédat, 1904, "Nouvelles recherches à Baouît (Haute-Égypte). Campagnes 1903-1904", CRAIBL, no 32, p. 517-527
  • Charles Palanque, 1906, "Rapport sur les recherches effectuées à Baouît en 1903", BIFAO, no 5, p. 1-21
  • Émile Chassinat, 1911, "Fouilles à Baouît", MIFAO, no XIII
  • Jean Maspero, 1913, "Rapport de M. Jean Maspero sur les fouilles entreprises à Bâouit", CRAIBL, p. 287-301
  • Jean Clédat, 1916, "Le monastère et la nécropole de Baouît", MIFAO, no XXXIX
  • Gustave Schlumberger, 1919, "Les fouilles de Jean Maspero à Baouît en 1913", CRAIBL, p. 243-248
  • Jean Maspero, 1931 and 1943, "Fouilles exécutées à Baouît, (notes mises en ordre et éditées par Étienne Drioton)", MIFAO, no LIX, 1 and 2
  • Marie-Hélène Rutschowscaya, 1995, "Le monastère de Baouît. État des publications", Divitiae Aegypti: Koptologische und verwandte Studien zu Ehren von Martin Krause, Wiesbaden, p. 279-288
  • Dominique Bénazeth and Marie-Hélène Rutschowscaya, 1999, "Jean Clédat, Le monastère et la nécropole de Baouît" MIFAO, no 111
  • Dominique Bénazeth and Thomasz Herbich, 2008, "Le kôm de Baouît: étapes d’une cartographie", BIFAO, no 108