List of Verizon wireline companies
Formed from the merger of Regional Bell Operating Company Bell Atlantic and independent company GTE in 2000, Verizon Communications owns several businesses in both technology and entertainment. Listed here are Verizon's current wireline operations. Not included here are Verizon Wireless, Verizon Fios, Verizon Enterprise Solutions, and AOL.
- 1 Bell System companies
- 1.1 C&P Telephone
- 1.2 Verizon Delaware
- 1.3 Verizon New England
- 1.4 Verizon New Jersey
- 1.5 Verizon New York
- 1.6 Verizon Pennsylvania
- 2 GTE legacy companies
- 3 References
Bell System companies
The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company, usually known as C&P Telephone, was a d/b/a name for four Bell Operating Companies providing service to Washington, D.C., Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia.
Three of the companies remain owned by Verizon:
- The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company (DC)
- The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Maryland
- The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Virginia
One company is owned by Frontier Communications:
The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company (DC)
The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company was founded in June 1883. C&P Telephone Co. provided telephone service to Washington, D.C.
In July 1969, President Richard Nixon's telephone call to astronauts on the moon originated from C&P Telephone Co. equipment.
The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Maryland
The C&P Telephone Company of Maryland was founded in 1884 as The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Baltimore City. It changed its name to The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Maryland on January 3, 1956, and the corporate name at this point changed to C&P Telephone of Maryland.
C&P relaxed its rule against the hiring of African-Americans for white collar jobs in January 1943 due to labor shortages during World War II, but telephone operator positions remained racially segregated until the hiring of Hermie Graham for a position at a C&P office in Govans in 1974.
The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Virginia
The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Virginia was founded in 1903.
In 2010, operations in Alleghany County that served customers in Crows and Hematite were split from Verizon Virginia and transferred to Frontier Communications of Virginia, a subsidiary of Frontier Communications.
In 1994, Bell Atlantic renamed all of its operating companies. C&P Telephone was renamed:
- Bell Atlantic – Maryland, Inc.
- Bell Atlantic – Virginia, Inc.
- Bell Atlantic – Washington, D.C., Inc.
- Bell Atlantic – West Virginia, Inc.
- Verizon Maryland, Inc.
- Verizon Virginia, Inc.
- Verizon Washington, DC, Inc.
- Verizon West Virginia, Inc.
In 2010, Verizon left the West Virginia wireline market entirely, selling Verizon West Virginia to Frontier Communications as part of a major sale of assets. The company was renamed Frontier West Virginia, Inc.
In 2011, Verizon Virginia became a limited liability company, changing its name to Verizon Virginia LLC. In December 2012, Verizon Maryland, Inc., incorporated in Maryland, was merged into Verizon Maryland Merge Co., a Delaware corporation; the name of the Delaware-based company was then changed to Verizon Maryland LLC
Verizon Delaware LLC, formerly The Diamond State Telephone Company, is the Bell Operating Company of Delaware, and small parts of southeastern Pennsylvania. Founded in 1897, it became a part of the Bell System in 1905. When the AT&T breakup occurred in 1984, DST became managed by the Regional Bell Operating Company Bell Atlantic. In 1994, Bell Atlantic chose to "unify" its brand by legally renaming all of its telephone companies — including Diamond State Telephone to "Bell Atlantic – Delaware, Inc".
After the 2000 merger with GTE, Bell Atlantic – Delaware, Inc. became known as Verizon Delaware, Inc., and later Verizon Delaware LLC.
Verizon New England
Verizon New England, Inc., formerly New England Telephone and Telegraph Company, more commonly known as New England Telephone, is a Bell Operating Company that serves most of Massachusetts and all of Rhode Island.
New England Telephone served most of the New England area of the United States, including Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont as a part of the original AT&T for seven decades. After the Bell System divestiture in 1984, it merged with New York Telephone to form NYNEX in 1984. After 1994, the name was no longer officially publicly used (although it was still used internally for portions of operations).
NYNEX was acquired by Bell Atlantic in 1997 and began doing business under that name; however, NET retained its original corporate name. In 2000, Bell Atlantic bought GTE and changed its own name to Verizon. New England Telephone was then renamed Verizon New England, Inc.
Its slogan and jingle was "We're the one for you, New England. New England Telephone."
Despite the similarity of names, the company has no connection to an earlier New England Telephone and Telegraph Company, a short-lived company that dissolved in 1879, although at least through 1965 the legal business name of New England Telephone was The New England Telephone and Telegraph Company. It also had no connection to Southern New England Telephone (SNET) which covered Connecticut and small parts of New York. (Verizon has operations in a small part of Connecticut, but that is considered part of New York Telephone.)
As of April 1, 2008, its operations in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont were sold to FairPoint Communications as Northern New England Telephone Operations and Telephone Operating Company of Vermont. Verizon retained Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
Verizon New Jersey
Verizon New Jersey, Inc., formerly New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, is the Bell Operating Company serving the U.S. state of New Jersey. In 1984, the Bell System Divestiture split New Jersey Bell off into a Regional Bell Operating Company, along with the 21 other BOCs AT&T had a majority stake in. On January 1, 1984, New Jersey Bell became part of Bell Atlantic.
New Jersey Bell was founded in 1904 as an AT&T company serving southern New Jersey, named Delaware and Atlantic Telegraph & Telephone Company. New York Telephone served northern New Jersey. In October 1927, D&A T&T changed its name to New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, and purchased the New Jersey properties of New York Telephone which had belonged to New York and New Jersey Telephone and Telegraph.
Throughout the 1980s to the first half of the 90s, New Jersey Bell kept its traditional identity. In 1994, Bell Atlantic started rebranding all its companies to Bell Atlantic-(state), so New Jersey Bell became Bell Atlantic - New Jersey, Inc. In 2000, after the Bell Atlantic - GTE merger, the corporation changed its name to Verizon, and so New Jersey Bell once again changed its name, this time to Verizon New Jersey, Inc. Verizon New Jersey's headquarters is the New Jersey Bell Headquarters Building, 540 Broad Street, Newark, New Jersey.
Innovations and firsts
After Bell Labs moved from New York to New Jersey, they often installed new technological developments there, before deploying farther afield.
- 1951 New Jersey Bell was the first Bell Operating Company to deploy Direct Distance Dialing for long distance telephone calls in Englewood, NJ. Previously, all long distance calls had to be handled through an operator.
- 1965 The first installation of the first Bell System electronic switching system, the Western Electric 1ESS, was installed at New Jersey Bell's Succasuna central office. Prior to the 1ESS switch, switching was achieved under electromechanical control.
- 1987 New Jersey Bell was the first to introduce Caller ID service. The first Caller ID box was sold at a Sears store in Jersey City, NJ, was manufactured by Colonial Data Technologies, and branded AT&T.
- 2006 Verizon New Jersey was the first company to file application for a video franchise under New Jersey's new centralized video franchise law. Previously, cable television providers had to file with every municipality in which they wished to provide service individually, thus making Verizon New Jersey the state's first statewide competitive "cable company".
Verizon New York
The Telephone Company of New York was formed under franchise in 1876 to rent telephone instruments to users, who were expected to provide wires to connect them, for example from factory to office. Such connections already existed for private telegraphs, and the new invention promised to save the cost of hiring a private telegraph operator. Manufacturers of steel wire for the Brooklyn Bridge then under construction were especially prominent among the customers under this scheme, using their own product.
Western Union subsidiaries, including Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph, Gold and Stock Telegraph, and American Speaking Telephone, based their New York and San Francisco operations on the telephone exchange principle and thus were larger and more advanced than the local Bell operations. Under the November 1879 settlement of the Elisha Gray patent infringement lawsuit, Western Union handed over its telephone operations to National Bell Telephone, which then renamed itself American Bell Telephone. The merged local company was called the Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company. In 1896 the operations of Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company and the Westchester Telephone Company (which served northern suburban areas, including parts of then-Westchester County which subsequently were incorporated into New York City as the Borough of The Bronx) were consolidated under the name of the New York Telephone Company.
The New York and New Jersey Telephone Company, a Bell licensee serving Long Island and Staten Island, was broken up and its New York properties merged with the New York company as the City and Suburban Telephone Company in 1897. American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) eventually acquired a controlling interest and restored the New York Telephone name.
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The company went underground in a big way in the 1920s, creating expensive new outside plant that fixed its geometry for the century to come. New cable ducts brought more reliable service to customers. They converged at approximately twenty wire centers, which were connected by larger trunk cable ducts running along the East and West Sides of Manhattan. The locations were a mile or two apart (2–3 km), close to concentrations of office workers without paying prime prices for land. At each wire center a new central office arose to house telephone switchboards, panel switches and other inside plant, and technicians, clerks, operators and other workers. The largest of these was also the corporate headquarters, at 140 West Street on the Lower West Side, about a kilometer (half mile) from AT&T HQ at 195 Broadway.
The Manhattan and Bronx parts of the underground empire are owned by the Empire City Subway Company subsidiary. Similar construction, on a smaller scale, went on in Brooklyn, Buffalo and other urban areas. Suburban and rural service also expanded, mostly with aerial cable or open wire plant and Strowger switches.
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (July 2009)|
Forecasters in the late 1960s underestimated demand, resulting in a shortage of capacity in Manhattan, NYTel's principal profit area. Customers had to wait weeks for a new line or a repair, and sometimes minutes for dial tone on an existing line. The new 1ESS Stored Program Control exchanges had software bugs that kept them from carrying full load. Deferred maintenance choked main distribution frames (MDFs) with dead jumpers. There were not enough cables to office buildings, nor enough underground conduits to install them. Morale was poor in all levels and departments; strikes were frequent.
The response of the company was to hire and train thousands of new employees and to buy much new equipment for them to work on. Underground construction took years, but emergency installation of Anaconda Carrier pair gain systems normally used in rural areas expanded service while construction was in progress. Bell Labs added processing power to their new systems and fixed the software bugs. A new wire center at 1095 Avenue of the Americas and 42nd Street relieved four others in Midtown Manhattan of part of their load, as well as providing the company with a new headquarters for the next quarter century. The crisis subsided during the 1970s and workers accustomed to heavy overtime had to learn to go home on time and get along on their base pay.
February 27, 1975 brought a fire in the telephone building at 204 Second Avenue, at East 13th Street. The MDF was destroyed, disconnecting tens of thousands of customers, and obsolescent switching equipment was destroyed or damaged by acrid smoke. Located at the south end of the East Side trunk cable duct under Second Avenue, this building connects many circuits to Brooklyn which were disrupted. A Bell System mobilization dealt with the crisis, including replacing the destroyed MDF. An obsolete and recently retired exchange at the West 18th Street office, not yet melted down for scrap metal, was temporarily resurrected to serve thousands of E13 customers though existing cross-town cables. The damaged Number One Crossbar Switching System (1XB switch) was cleaned, and a Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS switch) that had been destined for the 104 Broad Street exchange was diverted. This was the largest loss of telephone service from fire in United States history until the September 11 attacks.
Wholly owned subsidiary
New York Telephone was an AT&T subsidiary until the AT&T breakup effective January 1, 1984. At that time, New York Telephone, along with the New England Telephone & Telegraph Company, became part of a Regional Bell operating company named NYNEX. The company was referred to as "New York Telephone, a NYNEX Company" before being called simply "NYNEX" starting on January 1, 1994. On August 15, 1997, NYNEX was acquired by Bell Atlantic, who kept the Bell Atlantic name. On June 30, 2000, Bell Atlantic acquired GTE to form the current Verizon Communications, with the corporate headquarters remaining same 1095 Avenue of the Americas location until 2006 when HQ returned to 140 West Street.
New York Telephone provides local telephone service throughout the state of New York, with the exception of the areas served by the Rochester Telephone Company and other smaller independent local exchange companies. The company also serves the Greenwich and Byram exchanges in Connecticut. (The rest of Connecticut is served by SNET.)
New York Telephone, then operating under the Bell Atlantic brand, was the first Bell telephone company to win approval to provide long distance service within its operating territory in December 1999, following the Telecommunications Act of 1996.
The September 11, 2001, attacks destroyed the small telephone exchange inside the World Trade Center, that served the Center, and damaged the company's largest exchange building, the Verizon Building at 140 West Street, across Vesey Street. The destruction included cables under Vesey Street as well as inside plant damaged when I-beams and steel from the towers ran through the building. Service was disrupted to approximately 300,000 business and consumer voice circuits, 3,600,000 data circuits (including the New York Stock Exchange), and 10 cell towers.
Police Department headquarters lost telephone service, but the nearby NYTel building at 375 Pearl Street had its own small exchange which only lost part of its connections to the rest of the network. Madison Street was closed and cables run out the lower windows of the two buildings and along the pavement to bring immediate service to a few hundred police telephone lines.
Workers from throughout the country, including 3,000 Verizon employees plus non-Verizon employees, helped restore service, allowing the network to carry 230,000,000 calls during the first week following the attacks. During the restoration efforts, trunk cables were run out windows and down the side of the building, flowing through streets closed to traffic, until they found an undamaged manhole for them to enter. DMS-100 and other exchange equipment was damaged and replaced the following year. The building was completely renovated restoring it to its former glory as corporate headquarters. In a ceremony on December 8, 2005, Verizon moved its corporate headquarters from 1095 Avenue of the Americas to 140 West St.
Verizon Pennsylvania LLC, formerly traded as Bell of Pennsylvania, is the Bell Operating Company serving most of Pennsylvania. The company was founded in 1879 as Bell Telephone Company of Philadelphia, owned by National Bell Telephone Company, which later became American Bell. In 1899, the company became a subsidiary of American Telephone and Telegraph Company following its buyout of American Bell.
The company was founded in 1879 to serve Philadelphia. In 1907, the company changed its name to The Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania, a name under which it began to expand.
In 1918, the company embarked on a series of acquisitions enlarging its coverage area from Philadelphia to statewide. In 1918, it acquired Central District Telephone. In 1924, it acquired Pittsburgh and Allegheny Telephone. In 1925, Bell of PA made a $1.84 million acquisition of telephone exchanges in Wayne, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Berks, Bucks, Montgomery, and Schuylkill counties from Lehigh Telephone. It also acquired Tri-State Telephone and Pennsylvania State Telephone that year. In 1926, it acquired Strousburg and Bushkill Telephone and Meadville Telephone. In 1927, it acquired Home Telephone Company, Blairsville Telephone Company, Summerville Telephone Company, Brookville Telephone Company, and Huntington & Clearfield Telephone Company.
In April 1930, Bell of PA acquired Lehigh Telephone. During 1930, it also exchanged assets with Cumberland Valley Telephone Company in Dauphin, Mifflin, and Cumberland Counties. In 1932 Bell acquired properties of Clinton Telephone, which operated in portions of Lycoming and Clinton Counties.
In 1944, it acquired Keystone Telephone Company of Philadelphia for $13.4 million.
In 1984, the Bell System Divestiture split Bell of Pennsylvania off into a Regional Bell Operating Company, along with the 21 other BOCs AT&T had a majority stake in. On January 1, 1984, Bell of Pennsylvania became part of Bell Atlantic.
Throughout the 1980s to the first half of the 1990s, Bell of Pennsylvania, also called Pennsylvania Bell, kept its traditional identity. In 1994, Bell Atlantic started rebranding all its companies to Bell Atlantic-(state), so Bell of Pennsylvania became Bell Atlantic - Pennsylvania, Inc. In 2000, after the Bell Atlantic-GTE merger, the corporation changed its name to Verizon, and so Bell of Pennsylvania once again changed its name, this time to Verizon Pennsylvania, Inc.
In 2012, Verizon created a Delaware limited liability company named Verizon Pennsylvania LLC. Verizon Pennsylvania, Inc., a Pennsylvania corporation, was then legally merged into the Delaware-based LLC.
GTE legacy companies
Verizon North LLC is a Verizon operating company providing local telephone service to former GTE customers in Pennsylvania.
In 2010, when the original Verizon North, whose service region included Pennsylvania, was sold to Frontier Communications, the original company became Frontier North, with the Pennsylvania operations split into a new company, Verizon North Retain Company.
The current company, Verizon North LLC, was created in December 2010 and absorbed the operations of Verizon North Retain Co.
Verizon South was originally established in 1947 as The Bluefield Telephone Corporation, providing telephone service to communities in Virginia including its namesake Bluefield. The company's first president was R.A. Phillips and was formally incorporated by Judson Large, Dean A. Esling, Richard L. Merrick, William W. Darrow, and Roland K. Smith, Jr.
The company changed its name to Bluefield Telephone Company on January 16, 1948.
Acquisition by GTE
Bluefield Telephone was acquired by GTE and in 1954 changed its name to General Telephone Company of the Southeast on June 25, 1954. The company began expansion under GTE ownership, absorbing a large group of telephone companies acquired in 1957. These companies included Durham Telephone Company of North Carolina, Georgia Continental Telephone Company, South Carolina Continental Telephone Company, Southeastern Carolina Telephone Company, Southern Continental Telephone Company, and Sumter Telephone Company. In 1970, the company absorbed more GTE companies, including General Telephone Company of Georgia, General Telephone Company of North Carolina, Mutual Telephone Company, Inc., and Pee Dee Telephone Company, Inc.
In 1986, the company changed its name to General Telephone Company of the South, later shortening in 1988 to GTE South Incorporated. At this point, GTE South served Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.
In 1993, GTE South operations in Tennessee and West Virginia were sold to Citizens Utilities to become Citizens Telecommunications Company of Tennessee and Citizens Telecommunications Company of West Virginia, respectively. GTE South lines in Georgia were traded with Alltel's Illinois operations.
In 1994, former Contel companies Contel of Kentucky, Contel of North Carolina, Contel of South Carolina, and Contel of Virginia were legally merged into GTE South.
Acquisition by Verizon
In 2000, Bell Atlantic bought GTE, forming Verizon. GTE South was then renamed Verizon South, Inc.
In 2002, Verizon sold its operations in Alabama to CenturyTel, becoming CenturyTel of Alabama. Verizon also sold its operations in Kentucky to Alltel, becoming Kentucky ALLTEL (who later sold its wireline operations to Valor Telecom, renamed Windstream, and the operating company becoming Windstream Kentucky East).
In 2010, operations in southern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, North Carolina (with the exception of Knotts Island), and South Carolina were included in a sale of Verizon assets, placed under the ownership of Frontier Communications ILEC Holdings, to Frontier Communications. The operations in those states became Frontier Communications of the Carolinas.
- Maryland Secretary of State
- Rasmussen, Frederick N. (November 1, 2009). "Back Story: Remembering the 'Rosie the Riveter' of Black Baltimore". The Baltimore Sun. p. 9. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Articles of Merger". Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- AT&T: History: Milestones in AT&T History
- Control first, safety second, Caller ID has matured at 10
- Verizon to File First Application Under New Jersey's New Pro-Consumer Video Franchise Law
- "The Telephone Monopoly. its Bad Service to Subscribers--What Mr. Blackford Says". The New York Times (New York, N. Y.). April 8, 1881. p. 8. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Under New Telephone Company. Business of Metropolitan and Westchester Companies Absorbed.". The New York Times (New York, N. Y.). July 1, 1896. p. 9. Retrieved 22 March 2009.. Note that this link begins with another article, but the cited article is included in the full item.
- New York and New Jersey Telephone Company Building New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission
- New Telephone Company New York Times
- "Miracle on Second Avenue: Reconnecting 170,000 Phone Customers in NYC After a Major Fire" (archive video, 0:22:40 including modern introduction). AT&T.
- AT&T SNET Fairfield County White Pages, Customer Service Guide page 14, "Local Toll-free Calling Areas", August 2006 edition
- "AT&T Announces Plans to Sell Connecticut Wireline Operations to Frontier Communications For $2.0 Billion". Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "Verizon Seeks to Offer New Jersey Customers Long-Distance Service".
- "Verizon Decamps". Crains New York Business.
- Lehman Brothers Collection, Harvard Business Archives - The Bell Telephone Co. of Pennsylvania
- Pennsylvania Secretary of State
- PA Bulletin, Doc. No. 09-2258
- Pennsylvania Public Service Bulletin
- Corporate Filings for: Verizon South, Inc., Application for Certificate of Authority, North Carolina Secretary of State
- Corporate Filings for: Verizon South, Inc., Articles of Merger, October 8, 1957, North Carolina Secretary of State
- Corporate Filings for: Verizon South, Inc., Articles of Merger, November 6, 1970, North Carolina Secretary of State