Stratigraphic range: Late Devonian
Berea Sandstone exposed at headwaters of the Sandusky River, Crawford County, Ohio.
|Unit of||Waverly Group|
|Overlies||Bedford Shale and Ohio Shale|
|Region||Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky|
|Named for||Berea, Ohio|
Berea Sandstone, also known as Berea Grit, is a sandstone formation in the U.S. states of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky. It is named after Berea, Ohio. The sandstone has been used as a building stone and is a source of oil and gas.
In the Appalachian Basin, Berea Sandstone is present in eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, western West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky. In the Michigan Basin, the sandstone is present in the eastern part of the state, thickest near Michigan's Thumb. The two deposits are separated by the Cincinnati Arch and are disconnected from each other. The sandstone overlies the Bedford Shale and the Ohio Shale and underlies the Sunbury Shale. Berea Sandstone is light gray to buff-colored in the form of siltstone and fine- to medium-grained sandstone. In places it is hard to distinguish from the underlying Bedford Shale. Berea Sandstone is classified as a member of the Waverly Group. Berea Sandstone is up to 72 meters (236 ft) thick in Lorain County, Ohio, and up to 79 meters (259 ft) thick in Huron County, Michigan.
Age and formation
Berea Sandstone was formed in the Late Devonian period. Prior to the 1970s, it was assigned a Mississippian age. The Devonian-Carboniferous boundary was realigned based on research from Europe, but various geologists were not aware of the changes and so incorrectly assigned Berea Sandstone to the Kinderhookian (early Mississippian).
The majority of the sand which formed the Berea Sandstone came from the north, flowing in a river from the highlands of eastern Canada. It was deposited in a river delta environment. Pepper, et al., hypothesized that the river flowed first into the Ohio basin before switching course to the Michigan basin, thus the Michigan Berea Sandstone would be slightly younger. There is a downwarp in the Cincinnati arch, called the Ontario sag, that if it was present at the formation of Berea Sandstone, could mean that it formed a continuous belt of sediment between the Appalachian and Michigan basins. Nevertheless, subsequent erosion disconnected the two deposits.
Berea Sandstone is generally unfossiliferous. However some fossils have been found, including fish of the genera Ctenacanthus and Gonatodus, plants of the genus Annularia, and some brachiopods.
Buildings constructed of Berea Sandstone include the Johnson County Courthouse in Iowa and the Brown County Courthouse in South Dakota. The Centre Block building of the Parliament of Canada, both before and after reconstruction, uses Berea Sandstone as window and door trim.
The simple, beautiful, and significant (Historic Architecture Place) St. Matthews Roman Catholic Cathedral, in Buffalo, New York, USA, is also constructed of (Berea Formation) Ohio Sandstone, and was completed in Year 1928. The church is of Romanesque Architecture, in the visual aesthetic of the Baroque Era, and is modeled in the spirit of the famous Cathedral Of Aachen in Western Europe (West Germany). The Cathedral in Germany, is where the Throne Of Charlemagne (Charles I) still rests, today. St. Matthews is 80 feet wide, 170 feet long, and is built in the form of a Cross. The ceiling is 75 feet high, with the superstructure supported by its side walls instead of pillars. The nave seats 900. Another noteworthy design feature of St. Matthews are the church's amplified chimes, which were installed at time of the Building's construction. In Year 2019, a major rehabilitation and revitalization Effort targeting St. Matthews Church was proposed, to rescue the Building from demolition by its municipality. Historic Place and Historic Sacred Place designations are to be pursued. St. Matthews Roman Catholic Cathedral in Buffalo, New York, USA, originally cost $225,000.00(US) to build.
Quarrying of Berea Sandstone began in 1830. Until around 1840 or 1845, only grindstones were produced before diversifying into building and flagstones. More than a dozen different companies quarried the sandstone, before all consolidating into the Cleveland Stone Company by 1893, which was the largest sandstone producer in the United States at the time.
Oil and gas
Berea Sandstone is a source of oil and natural gas. Commercial gas development began in 1859–60 with a well at East Liverpool, Ohio. Oil was discovered in the Berea Sandstone in 1860 in Mecca Township, Trumbull County, Ohio. In Michigan, Berea Sandstone oil was first discovered in 1925 at Saginaw; this field accounted for the entirety of Michigan's oil production until 1927. By 2011, oil production from Berea Sandstone led northeastern Kentucky to be the most productive region of that state.
- Pepper, De Witt & Demarest 1954, p. 71.
- Pepper, De Witt & Demarest 1954, p. 1.
- Pepper, De Witt & Demarest 1954, p. 97.
- Catacosinos & Daniels 1991, p. 211.
- Collins 1979, p. E12.
- Collins 1979, pp. E4–E5.
- Collins 1979, pp. E12–E13.
- J. S. Newberry (1874). Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Nevins & Myers.
- Catacosinos & Daniels 1991, p. 212.
- Catacosinos & Daniels 1991, p. 165.
- Fitch, Harold (2000). "Stratigraphic Nomenclature for Michigan" (PDF). Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Geological Survey Division.
- De Witt 1970, p. G1.
- Pepper, De Witt & Demarest 1954, p. 95.
- Pepper, De Witt & Demarest 1954, p. 98.
- Ells 1979, p. J7.
- Pepper, De Witt & Demarest 1954, p. 34.
- De Witt 1970, pp. G5–G6.
- Collins 1979, p. E17.
- Alan L. Rossmann (March 27, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Johnson County Courthouse" (pdf). National Park Service.
- Edith M. French (June 3, 1976). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Brown County Courthouse" (pdf). National Park Service.
- Lawrence, D. E. (March 2001). "Building Stones of Canada's Federal Parliament Buildings". Geoscience Canada. 28 (1). Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Wilson, Stella Shoemaker (1902). Ohio. The Macmillan Company. pp. 47–48.
- Rowley, Ira P. (1893). "Sandstone Interests of Northern Ohio - IV". Stone; an Illustrated Magazine. D. H. Ranck Publishing Company. pp. 200–203.
- Collins 1979, p. E23.
- Ells 1979, pp. J14–J15.
- "Final report of the Berea Sandstone Petroleum System Consortium released by KGS". Kentucky Geological Survey. 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
- Pepper, James F.; De Witt, Wallace, Jr.; Demarest, David F. (1954). "Geology of the Bedford Shale and Berea Sandstone in the Appalachian Basin" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- De Witt, Wallace, Jr. (1970). "Age of the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Simbury Shale in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Collins, Horace R. (1979). "The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) Systems in the United States – Ohio" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Ells, Garland D. (1979). "The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) Systems in the United States – Michigan" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Catacosinos, Paul A.; Daniels, Paul A. (1991). Early sedimentary evolution of the Michigan Basin. Geological Society of America. ISBN 9780813722566.
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