East Liverpool, Ohio
|East Liverpool, Ohio|
|Nickname(s): The Pottery Capital of the World|
|Motto: "City Of Action"|
Location of East Liverpool, Ohio
|• Mayor||James P. Swoger|
|• Total||4.76 sq mi (12.33 km2)|
|• Land||4.56 sq mi (11.81 km2)|
|• Water||0.20 sq mi (0.52 km2)|
|Elevation||768 ft (234 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||11,062|
|• Density||2,455.0/sq mi (947.9/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||330, 234|
|GNIS feature ID||1061038|
East Liverpool is a city in Columbiana County, Ohio, United States. The population was 11,195 at the time of the 2010 census. It is located along the Ohio River and borders the states of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. East Liverpool is a major city in the Salem, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Columbiana County.
Historically it was referred to as the "Pottery Capital of the World" due to the large number of potteries in the city; due to changes in the industry, now there are just three left in the area. The city is also known as the hometown of former University of Notre Dame football coach Lou Holtz. It was the destination for the body of bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd, brought here for embalming. The Beginning Point of the U.S. Public Land Survey is just east of the city center, on the Ohio-Pennsylvania border.
- 1 History
- 2 Areas and neighborhoods
- 3 Education
- 4 Transportation
- 5 Recreation
- 6 Media
- 7 Geography
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Notable people
- 10 References
- 11 External links
East Liverpool traces its European-American settlement to 1798 when Thomas Fawcett purchased 1,100 acres of land along the Ohio River in what was then Jefferson County. In 1802 he platted the town of St. Clair, named for Arthur St. Clair, who at that time was Governor of the Northwest Territory. It was called Fawcettstown for a time by the residents. In 1816, they changed the name to Liverpool. It was incorporated as East Liverpool in 1834 when a Liverpool in western Ohio (now defunct) protested the use of its name by this newer town.
James Bennett, an English potter, established the pottery industry in East Liverpool, and it became the community's leading employer. East Liverpool became known as "The Crockery City." From 1870 through 1890, the US Census showed that the city more than doubled in population each decade, as it attracted new industrial workers with the growth of the pottery industry. By 1910, it had more than 20,000 people. East Liverpool once produced more than half of the United States's annual ceramics output. Throughout East Liverpool's ceramics history, there were more than 300 potteries.
Of these potteries, three continue to operate in this area: The Hall China Company, the Homer Laughlin China Company (located across the Ohio River in Newell, West Virginia), and Pioneer Pottery. In the mid-19th century, East Liverpool also produced most of the yellowware pottery used in the United States. Among the most famous of East Liverpool's ceramics was the porcelain known as Lotus Ware. Produced by Knowles, Taylor & Knowles in the 1890s, this Moorish- and Persian-influenced artware swept the competition at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago. It is generally considered to be the finest porcelain ever produced in the US. The Museum of Ceramics in downtown East Liverpool has the world's largest public display of Lotus Ware.
As of 1914, East Liverpool was served by the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad.
The city reached its peak population of more than 26,000 in 1970, but since the mid-1960s or so, East Liverpool's pottery industry had already begun its decline. As with other industries, production moved offshore to developing countries where labor costs were cheaper. This cost many jobs and, finally, population in the Ohio/West Virginia area, as people moved away in search of work.
In the mid-1990s, the city renovated its downtown district. To improve its urban design, it installed Great Depression-era lightposts, developed a new center called Devon's Diamond, and reconstructed the old High School's clocktower. This building is now the home of the East Liverpool High School Alumni Association.
Areas and neighborhoods
- Downtown - East Liverpool's centralized business district, located on the "flats" in the river valley. Downtown is considered to lie between Ohio State Routes 7/11/39/U.S. Route 30 in the west, College and Walnut streets in the east, West 2nd Street in the South, and Moore and Grant streets in the North. The heart of the business center during the first half of the nineteenth century was located between the Ohio River and 3rd Street. However, during the second half of the century, as East Liverpool attracted more industry and the population grew, the center of business moved north between 4th and 6th Streets. Business remained near the river until the regional economic depression beginning in the 1960s. a freeway was constructed between the river and downtown, leading to demolition of much of the original business center between 2nd and 3rd Streets. Only a few residents, a few small industries, and the Broadway Wharf remain near 2nd Street and the river, both now geographically separated from Downtown by the highway.
- West End - The western end of the city is located between the Ohio State Routes 7/11/39/U.S. Route 30 freeway in the east, Shadyside Road in the west, Riverside Park in the south and Hazel Street in the north. Until the freeway project in the 1960s and '70s, the West End was "connected" to Downtown. However, like the riverfront area of Downtown, it is now geographically isolated on the other side of the freeway. It is home to Westgate Middle School and Patterson Field, the city's football stadium. The West End has two distinct small neighborhoods:
- Sunnyside - Between Lisbon and West 9th streets to the south and Hazel Street in the north.
- Jethro - South of West 8th Street, between Gaston Avenue in the east and Edwards Street in the west. Before the rapid growth of the city in the second half of the nineteenth century, Jethro was a separate village. It was later incorporated into the city. Residents used to live in the low-lying area to its west known as Jethro Hollow, but most have since moved out due to flood risks from the river.
- East End - The East End is within the city limits, but it is almost entirely isolated from the rest of East Liverpool, connected only by River Road and the freeway. East End is considered to be all of the flats between St. George and State streets in the west and the border with Pennsylvania in the east. Similar to Jethro in the West End, East End originated as a few separate satellite communities that were absorbed in the nineteenth century by the growing city .
- Pleasant Heights - A neighborhood situated on top of a plateau above the West End to the south and the freeway to the east, Pleasant Heights surrounds Lisbon Street (Ohio State Route 267). Its southernmost point is the dead end of Oakwood Street, and it extends north to Myler Road. Pleasant Heights was one of the several neighborhoods developed during East Liverpool's expansion "up the hill" in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
- La Croft - Although the census-designated place of La Croft, Ohio lies directly outside of the city limits, part of the area considered by locals as La Croft is within the city limits. This portion is considered a city neighborhood. The La Croft neighborhood extends along Lisbon Street from South Shadylane Drive out to the city limits. La Croft contains one small neighborhood within it:
- Fisher Park - A self-contained neighborhood, all between South and North Shadylane drives on the east side of Lisbon Street. Named for the Fisher Farm located in the area, the farm house can still be found along Lisbon Street as a private residence.
- Beechwood - The neighborhood situated below Maine Boulevard between Anderson Boulevard and Park Way.
- Thompson - This neighborhood borders the east end of Downtown. It extends east from College and Walnut streets and goes "up the hill" above the freeway. Its northern end is Morton and Bank streets, and extends to the edge of the hill at Thompson Avenue and Vine Street.
Though not located within the city limits, there are a few communities that share East Liverpool's 43920 ZIP code and have an East Liverpool mailing address. They are the census-designated places of Calcutta, Glenmoor and La Croft and the unincorporated community of Fredericktown.
In the bordering states of West Virginia and Pennsylvania, the communities of Chester and Newell, West Virginia and Glasgow, Pennsylvania developed and grew in relation to the growth of the pottery industry and expansion of East Liverpool in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Primary and secondary
Children in East Liverpool (and immediate surrounding areas in Liverpool Township) are served by the East Liverpool City School District. The current schools in the district are:
- La Croft Elementary School - 2460 Boring Lane (located immediately outside the city limits in La Croft, Ohio), grades K-4.
- North Elementary School - 100 Maine Boulevard, grades K-4.
- Westgate Middle School - 810 West 8th Street, grades 5-6. Also the location of the administrative offices.
- East Liverpool Junior/Senior High School - 100 Maine Boulevard, grades 7-12.
The parochial St. Aloysius School (K-8) and American Spirt Academy (formerly known as the East Liverpool Christian School, K-12) also serve area students, as well as an online school, Buckeye Online School for Success.
Kent State University of Ohio opened a regional campus here in 1965, Kent State University at East Liverpool. It is located at 400 East 4th Street, in the old East Liverpool High School building. The center also uses the Mary Patterson Building located down the street. The Ohio Valley College of Technology in nearby Calcutta focuses on job training.
Since the 1890s, East Liverpool and the West Virginia communities of Chester and Newell have been connected by three different bridges spanning the Ohio River.
- Chester Bridge (1896–1969) - Connected College Street in East Liverpool with 1st Street in Chester. It was the original bridge to carry U.S. Route 30. The bridge closed on May 14, 1969, and was demolished in 1970.
- Newell Bridge (1905–present) - Connects West 5th Street near East Liverpool City Hospital with West Virginia State Route 2. It is the only privately owned toll bridge on the Ohio River, owned and operated by the Homer Laughlin China Company out of Newell.
- Jennings Randolph Bridge (1977–present) - Replaced the demolished Chester Bridge in the 1970s as the span connecting East Liverpool and Chester, and carrying Route 30 over the river. Named for West Virginia congressman/senator Jennings Randolph (in office 1933-1947 and 1958-1985, respectively).
- The East Liverpool Country Club has a 9-hole golf course that was designed by Willie Park, Jr. and opened on July 14, 1921.
There are two public parks located within East Liverpool city limits.
- Thompson Park - After Will Lamartine Thompson donated 100 acres of land to the city of East Liverpool in 1899, Thompson Park opened in 1900 as a green space to get away from the industry of the city. It has been open ever since, and amenities include picnic pavilions, a swimming pool, a football field, a baseball field, a disc golf course, a playground and walking trails. The main entrance to Thompson Park is located on Park Way at the end of Park Boulevard. There is also a back entrance on Anderson Boulevard.
- Broadway Wharf - A small public park/boat launch near the Ohio River. Located near the ends of Broadway, East 2nd Street and River Road.
Additionally, Beaver Creek State Park is located outside the city limits but partially within the 43920 ZIP code area.
Because of its size, East Liverpool has never had a major professional sports team. However, during the city's heyday, many semipro and company teams, and city and area leagues were thriving. Baseball, basketball and American football were all popular among residents, and games attracted many patrons. The semipro East Liverpool Potters basketball team of the Central Basketball League played in the city from 1906 to 1909. No semipro or company teams exist in the city today.
East Liverpool High School athletics have been consistently popular among students and residents in the past 100-plus years. All of the teams are known as the Potters. The school fields American football, baseball, basketball, bowling, cross country running, golf, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, track and field, volleyball and wrestling teams. Most of these teams have had team and/or individual successes in their existences. Athletic facilities include:
- Patterson Field - football stadium, opened 1924 (current concrete bleachers constructed in 1934). Located near East Liverpool Middle School at 810 West 8th Street.
- Potter Fieldhouse - home of Potters basketball, volleyball and wrestling. Located next to East Liverpool High School at 100 Maine Boulevard.
- ELHS Baseball Field - located between the high school and Trinity Presbyterian Church on Maine Boulevard.
- East Liverpool was once home to several newspapers, but only The Review survives, serving chiefly southern Columbiana County, Ohio and northern Hancock County, West Virginia.
- The AM radio station WOHI has broadcast from the city since December 1, 1949. The city also had a station on the FM dial 104.3, WOGI, formerly known as WELA, but its city of license was moved to Moon Township, PA and now serves the Pittsburgh radio market
- Though East Liverpool has never had a local television station of its own, the area receives stations from Pittsburgh, Youngstown and Steubenville. These stations include KDKA-TV, WTAE-TV, WYTV, WFMJ-TV, WTOV-TV, WKBN-TV, WPXI, WPGH-TV, WQED-TV and WNEO.
As of the census of 2010, there were 11,195 people, 4,601 households, and 2,892 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,455.0 inhabitants per square mile (947.9/km2). There were 5,316 housing units at an average density of 1,165.8 per square mile (450.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.7% White, 4.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population.
There were 4,601 households of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.0% were married couples living together, 20.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.1% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.97.
The median age in the city was 37.6 years. 25.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24% were from 25 to 44; 26.5% were from 45 to 64; and 14.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.6% male and 52.4% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 13,089 people, 5,261 households, and 3,424 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,010.3 people per square mile (1,161.8/km²). There were 5,743 housing units at an average density of 1,320.8 per square mile (509.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.85% White, 4.81% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, and 1.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.72% of the population.
There were 5,261 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.9% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $23,138, and the median income for a family was $27,500. Males had a median income of $27,346 versus $18,990 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,656. About 21.5% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.2% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over.
- Dan Adkins - comic book artist for Marvel and other companies grew up in East Liverpool
- Bernie Allen - professional baseball player: second baseman for the Minnesota Twins, the Washington Senators, the New York Yankees, and the Montreal Expos
- Less Browne - professional football player: defensive back for the Pittsburgh Maulers (USFL), Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Ottawa Rough Riders and BC Lions (CFL)
- John Caparulo - stand-up comedian
- Jane Louise Curry - writer for children
- Ben Feldman (1912–1993) - one of the most prolific salespeople in world history
- John Godwin, baseball player
- Lou Holtz - author, television commentator, motivational speaker, and former NCAA football head coach
- George P. Ikirt - physician and U.S. Representative from Ohio
- Bob McFadden- voice actor
- Benedict Charles Franzetta - Catholic bishop
- O. O. McIntyre - feature writer for East Liverpool Morning Tribune before going on to reach 7,000,000 readers daily with his syndicated column
- Hy Myers - major league baseball player, led the National League in RBIs and slugging percentage in 1919 while playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers
- Elaine Riley - actress
- Ruth Crawford Seeger - famous composer and first woman to receive the Guggenheim Fellowship
- Josiah Thompson, author of Six Seconds in Dallas
- Will Lamartine Thompson - noted composer, best known for his hymns
- Norm Van Lier - star basketball point guard, played at Saint Francis University and in the NBA for the Cincinnati Royals, Chicago Bulls, and Milwaukee Bucks in the 1970s
- Jabez Vodrey - prominent early potter
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Museum of Ceramics
- City of Easter Liverpool Website
- McCord, William B. (1905). History of Columbiana County, Ohio and Representative Citizens. Biographical Publishing Company. p. 286.
- Beach, Chandler B. and Frank Morton McMurry, editors (1914). The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F.E. Compton and Company. p. 577. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- [dead link]
- Judith A Allison, Webmaster@eastliverpoolhistoricalsociety.org. "ELHistSoc - Memorable East Liverpool Dates". Eastliverpoolhistoricalsociety.org. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- [dead link]
- Judith A Allison, Webmaster@eastliverpoolhistoricalsociety.org. "ELHistSoc - Memorable East Liverpool Dates". Eastliverpoolhistoricalsociety.org. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Level III Ecoregions of Ohio". National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Hoover, Bob (December 28, 1991). "Turning the page on JFK". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). p. 16. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
Adler, Jerry. “It’s not easy being green.” Newsweek 28 Feb. 1992. EBSCOhost. Web. 17 Apr. 2010.
Jones, Arthur. “Toxic-waste incinerator in the backyard: White House and church steer clear in Ohio.” National Catholic Reporter 18 Feb. 1994: 5+. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Apr. 2010.
- Official City of East Liverpool website
- East Liverpool Area Chamber of Commerce
- East Liverpool City Schools