The district consists of hilly countryside between the rivers of the Danube and the Iller. The Danube crosses the district in its westernmost part from south to north. The Iller forms the eastern border of the district. Another river is the Riss, an affluent of the Danube crossing the district from south to north.
The Federsee is a small lake in the southwest of the district. Its area is only 1.4 km², but it is famous for Neolithic findings and rare birds.
The imperial eagle symbolizes the imperial city of Biberach. Originally the coat of arms of the city showed an eagle as well as a beaver as a canting symbol. In 1488 the coat of arms of the city was changed to show only the beaver. The crosier symbolises the monasteries of the region.