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Bijaganita (IAST: Bījagaṇita) was treatise on algebra by the Indian mathematician Bhāskara II. It is the second volume of his main work Siddhānta Shiromani ("Crown of treatises")[1] alongside Lilāvati, Grahaganita and Golādhyāya.[2][3]


Bijaganita, which literally translates to "mathematics (ganita) using seeds (bija)", is one of the two main branches of mediaeval Indian mathematics, the other being patiganita, or "mathematics using algorithms. It derives its name from the fact that it employs algebraic equations (samikarana) that are compared to plant seeds (bija) due to their capacity to generate solutions to mathematical problems."[4]


The book is divided into six parts, mainly indeterminate equations, quadratic equations, simple equations, surds. The contents are:

  • Introduction
  • On Simple Equations
  • On Quadratic Equations
  • On Equations involving indeterminate Questions of the 1st Degree
  • On Equations involving indeterminate Questions of the 2nd Degree
  • On Equations involving Rectangles

In Bijaganita Bhāskara II refined Jayadeva's way of generalization of Brahmagupta's approach to solving indeterminate quadratic equations, including Pell's equation which is known as chakravala method or cyclic method. Bijaganita is the first text to recognize that a positive number has two square roots


The translations or editions of the Bijaganita into English include:

Two notable Scholars from Varanasi Sudhakar Dwivedi and Bapudeva Sastri studied Bijaganita in the nineteenth century.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Plofker 2009, p. 71.
  2. ^ Poulose 1991, p. 79.
  3. ^ Bijaganita
  4. ^ Selin, Helaine (1997-07-31). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 40–50. ISBN 978-0-7923-4066-9.


  • Plofker, Kim (2009), Mathematics in India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 9780691120676
  • Poulose, K. G. (1991), K. G. Poulose (ed.), Scientific heritage of India, mathematics, vol. 22 of Ravivarma Samskr̥ta granthāvali, Govt. Sanskrit College (Tripunithura, India)

External links[edit]